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Siena, Tip. e Lit. Sordomuti di L. Lazzeri 


H. Burton photo. 




FOR some years there has been an ever in- 
creasing demand for an adequate English 
Guide to Siena; and, indeed, I have heretofore only 
been deterred from attempting to supply what 
I am well satisfied is a real want, by the dif- 
ficulty of finding an author upon whose know- 
ledge and accuracy I felt able to rely. It is 
not every art critic who is capable of writing 
History, and many historians are lamentably 
ignorant of the first principles of Art. This 
difficulty has been finally solved by the employ- 
ment of two different persons, each thoroughly 
competent in his or her particular line. 

The writing of the Guide Book proper has 
been entrusted to Miss L. M. Olcott, who for 
several years has devoted special attention to 
the study of Sienese Art, and who has en- 
joyed the advantage of the counsel and assist- 
ance of two such well-known and authoritative 
critics as Mr Bernhard Berenson and Mr F. Ma- 
son Perkins. 

The Historical Introduction, on the other hand, 
is from the pen of Mr William Heywood, the 
only Englishman whose name appears among 
the list of Corresponding" Associates of the Com- 
missione Senese di Stoj'ia Patria, and whose pro- 
longed residence in Siena has already borne 
fruit in more than one work dealing with the 
history of the mediaeval Commune. 

It only remains to add that, with the ex- 
ception of the Appendix, there has been no col- 
laboration between the writers of the separate 
parts. Each is exclusively responsible for his 
or her respective section. 

Enrico Torrixi, Editor. 
Siena, i^oj. 


Part I 

BY William Hey wood 

Topographical Page 3 

Works Consulted 7 

Historical Sketch 19 

Literary History 129 

The " Palio delle Contrade " 144 

Part II 

BY Lucy Olcott 

Prefatory Note 151 

Introductory 153 

Architecture 153 

Sculpture 166 

Painting 175 

The Minor Arts 194 

Itinerary 198 

Terzo di Citta 198 

— Vill — 

Terzo di vS. Martino .... Page 279 

Terzo di Camollia 296 

Environs 339 

Appendix 345 

English Works on vSiena 347 

Useful information 362 

Index 367 

Additions and Corrections 383 






No: ci traemmo alia citta di Siena, 
La quale e posta in parte forte e sana, 
Di leggiadria, di bei costumi plena, 
Di vaghe donne e d' homini cortesi, 
Con aer dolce lucida e serena. 

Fazio degli Uberti, // dittamondo 

Its built high and low, with many high 

towers in it ; and this makes it seen 

thirty miles off on Romes side. The people 
here are very civil, and euen sociable too ; 
which together with the good ayre, the 
good exercises for gentlemen, the good lan- 
guage, and the great priuiledges, make 
many strangers draw bridle here, and som- 
mer it at Siena, the Orleans of Italy. 

' R. Lassels. The Voyage of Italy. 

SIENA is 60 miles by rail south of Florence 
and 160 north-west of Rome, and is situated 
at an altitude of 1330 feet above the sea level.. 
Its climate is probably pleasanter than that 
of any other Tuscan city. With Florence in 
particular it compares most favourably, being 
far cooler in summer, and, if not actually warmer 
in winter, at least apparently so, by reason of 
its drier atmosphere and greater freedom from 
cold winds. 

— 4 — 

The city stands upon three hills, along the 
ridges of which its three principal thoroughfares 
extend. This gives it, as seen from the summit 
of the Torre del ^langia, something of the ap- 
pearance of a huge star-fish with three rays. Pos- 
sibly it is to this conformation that the town 
owes its division into Tei'zi or Terzieri, viz. the 
Terzo di Citta, the Terzo di San Martino and 
the Terzo di Camollia — a division which goes 
back to the earliest days of the Commune and 
which is still maintained. 

These Terzi are again divided into 17 con- 
trade or wards, each with a distinct appellation, 
chapel and flag of its own. Of these conb-ade 
the Terzo di Citta and the Terzo di Camollia 
each contain six, that of San Martino five. 

A special condition is created by the zone 
which surrounds the periphery of the city and 
which bears the name of the Masse. 

The area within the walls of Siena is about 
2 I square miles. 

Anciently the city was furnished with nu- 
merous gates, at one time as many as thirty-six. 
Today these are reduced to eight, including the 
Barriera San Lorenzo. 

The water-supply is drawn from natural 
springs in the surrounding hills, and is, at any 
rate at its source, of excellent quality. What 
impurities it may have accumulated before it 
reaches the public fountains is another matter. 

It is brought to the city through subterranean 
acqueducts which are known as bottini, and which 
by successive excavations have attained a length 
of more than fifteen miles. It is recorded that 
the Emperor Charles V., when he inspected them 
in 1535, declared that Siena was more beautiful 
under than above ground. On this matter the 
imperial judgment may be open to question ; 
but the bottini certainly well repay a visit. They 
are quite practicable even for ladies. 

The population of Siena at the last census 
was 27,306, thus showing an increase of 2102 
during the preceding decade. The population 
of the Masse is 10,317. 

The Province of Siena, comprising about 
1467 square miles and 37 communes, has a total 
population of 233,874. 

The Diocese of Siena is an Archbishopric, 
dating from 1459, and includes 18 city and 95 
rural parishes divided into 12 vicariates. 

The city possesses a University which ex- 
isted at least as early as the 13th century, and 
which is limited to the faculties of law and 
medicine. Among other public institutions the 
following are the more important: — the Town 
Library (Biblioteca Comicnale) first opened to stu- 
dents in the 17th century; the Archivio, a record 
office, instituted in 1858, containing a valuable 
and splendidly arranged collection of documents; 
the Fine Arts Institution (Accadeviia delle Belle 

— 6 — 

Arti) founded in 1816 ; and the natural history 
museum of the Accademia del Fisiocritici , inaugu- 
rated in the same year. There are also many 
flourishing charities, including an excellent hos- 
pital and a school for the deaf and dumb. 

There are English Church Services for a few 
weeks in the Spring (beginning, as a rule, the 
Sunday before Easter). They are generally held 
at the Chiesa Cristiana Evangelica, in the Viale 
Curtatone, a few steps from the Pensione Chiu- 

The City of Siena itself cannot be satisfactor- 
ily seen in less than a week ; and, even so, only 
by dint of very hard work. If it is desired 
to visit the various places of interest in the 
neighbourhood, at least double that time should 
be allowed. 


I shall desire that the learned reader 
will not conceive any opinion against any 
part of this,,, volume, until he shall have 
read over the whole, and diligently searched 
out and well considered of the several 
authorites... which we have cited and set 
down for warrant and confermation of our 

Lord Coke 

The following list, so far from purporting* 
to constitute a complete Bibliography, contains 
only the more important works actually consulted 
in the preparation of the historical section of 
this Guide. I have, in fact, been careful to 
include only such books as are likely to be of 
use to the passing visitor who wishes to obtain 
such a general idea of the history of Siena as 
may enable him to adequately appreciate her 
treasures of Architecture and of Art. 


// Constituto dei Consoli del Placito del Coinune di 
Siena pubblicato da LODOVICO Zdekauer, 
Siena, Enrico Torrini, 1890. 

// Constituto del Coniune di Siena dell' amio 1262, 
pubblicato sotto gli auspici della facolta 

giuridica di Siena da LODOVICO Zdekauer, 
Milano, Ulrico Hoepli, 1897. 

[Note. This work contains onl}- the first three Distinctions and a 
portion of the fourth. The remainder of the Constitiito up to 
Dist. V. Rjibric 248 is published b)- Professor Zdekauer in the 
" Bullettino Senese di Storia Patria " vols. I-III (1894-6) under 
the title of II framniento degli nltimi due libri del piii antico 
Constituto senese ; while in volume V. of the same periodical 
(pages 211-228) U. G. Moxdolfo has published U ultima parte 
del Constitiito Senese del 1262 ricostruita dalla Riforma succes- 

Statuti O'iminali del foro ecclesiastico di Siena (sec. 

XIII-XIV) pubblicati da L. Zdekauer nel 

^'Bullettino Senese di Storia Patria", Vol. VII 

Ordinamenti Militari Senesi &q\ 1307, pubblicati da 

E. Casanova nell' " Archivio Storico Ita- 

liano "'. Dispensa 3.^ del 1899. 
Statuti Senesi, Bologna, G. Romagnoli, 1863-187 7. 

Volume I. (per cura di Filippo-Luigi Polidori) Statuto del Co- 
mune di Montagutolo — Stattcto delV Arte dei Carnajuoli di Siena 

— Statuto deir Arte della Lana. 

Volume II. (per cura di LuciAxo Baxchi) Statuto della Societa 
del Padule d' Orgia — Statuto delV Arte della Lana di Radicondoli 

— Statuto deir Ai-te dei Chiavari di Siena — Statuto delV Arte 
de' Cuoiai e Calzolai di Siena. 

Volume III. (per cura di LuciAxo Baxchi) Statuto delta Spedale 
di Siena. 

La sesta Distintione del Costoduto del Comiine di Siena 
dans " Le Statut des neuf Gouverneurs et 
Defenseurs de la Commune de Sienne " par 
JULIEX LuCHAIRE. Extrait des Melanges d'Ar- 
cheologie e d' Histoire publics par I'Ecole fran- 
caise de Rome. T. XXI (Rome, Imprimerie 
de la Paix de Philippe Cuggiani, 1901). 

— 9 — 
P7'ovvedi77ienti cco7iomici della Repubblica di Sie7ia 7iel 

1382, per cura di A. LisiNi, Siena, Enrico 

Torrini, 1895. 
Statuti delle Arti per cura di G. MiLANESi nei 

DociL7ne7iti per la Sto7ia deW A7'te Senese (Siena, 

O. Porri, 1854) vol. I pag. 1-135. 


Besides the numerous documents which have 
been printed from time to time in the Bulletti7io 
Se7iese di Storia P atria, in the Miscella7iea Sto7'ica 
Se7iese, in the Dociu7ie7iti per la Storia dell' Arte 
Se7iese of G. MiLAXESi, in the Nttovi Doc2C77ie7iti 
of BORGHESI and Banchi, and in the notes and 
appendices of many of the works hereinafter 
cited, the student should consult the Codice della 
Citta d' 07'vieto by L. Fuisil, and the Docu77ie7iti 
dell' x4.7itica Costituzio7ie del Co77tii7ie di Fire7ize by 
P. Santini, being volumes VIII and X of the 
" Documenti di Storia Italiana " published by 
the Royal Deputation for the Provinces of Tus- 
cany and Umbria. They contain many of the 
treaties and conventions entered into between 
Siena and Orvieto and Siena and Florence. 

In volume IX of the same series, the celeb- 
rated Lib7'o di Mo7itape7'ti was edited by C. Paoli. 
It contains the original registers of the Florentine 
army which was destroyed in 1260. 

It may be noticed that in volume V of the 
Bullettiiio Se7iese di Sto7'ia Pat7'ia, A. LiSlNl has 

published an Inventory of all the documents con- 
tained in the five Instriimentarii of the Republic, 
known as the Caleffo Vecchio, the Caleffo dell'As- 
sunta, the Caleffo nero, the Caleffo rosso and the 

It is probably superfluous to remark that 
the Antiquitates of ]MURAT0RI contain documents 
relative to Siena. 

AIURATORI, Re7'iu}i Italicarum Sa'iptores. 

Vol. XV. Cronica Satiese r Andrea Dei: Agnolo di Tuva; Nero 

di Donati). 
Vol. XX. Historia Senensis. 
Vol. XXIII. Cronica Sanese di Allegretto AUegretti. 

Framviento di ufia Cronachetta Senese d' Anonimo del 
Secolo XIV per cura di X. ^Mexgozzi ed 
A. LisiNl, Siena, Tip. Lazzeri, 1893. 

La cronaca di Bindino da Travale (13 15-14 16) per 
cura di V. Lusixi, Siena, Tip. wS. Bernar- 
dino, 1900. 

Due Cronache sulla sconfitta di Montaperto, pubbli- 
cate per cura di Giuseppe Porri nella 
" ^liscellanea Storica Sanese ", Siena 1844, 
presso Onorato Porri. 

Carlo Quinto in Siejia nell' Aprile del 1536, relazione 
di 2171 contemporaneo , pubblicata per cura di 
PlETRO Vigo, Bologna, G. Romagnoli, 1884. 

// Campo Imperiale sotto Montalcino net MDLIII 
narrazioiie storica di Anonimo contemporaneo, 
pubblicata da L. Baxchi ed A. Lisixi, Siena, 
Gati, 1885. 

— II — 

Diario delle Cose avvenute in Siena dai 20 luglio 1550 
ai 28 giugno 7555 scritto da AleSSANDRO Soz- 

[This Diario is published in vol. II of the Archivio Storico Ita- 
liano (1842). It contains other narratives and documents relative 
to the fall of the Republic]. 

Relazione della Gue7'ra di Siena di Don Antonio di 
Montaho tradotta dallo Spagnolo da Don Garzia 
di Montalvo suo figlio, Torino, Tip. V. Ver- 
cellino, 1863. 

Comentarii di Stato e di Gnerra del Sig. BlAGGIO 
DI MONLUC, viaresciallo di Francia, nnova- 
7nente tradotti dalla Lingua Francese nelV Italiana 
per D. Giulio Feri'ari Creniojiese, In Cremona, 
per Marc' Antonio Belpieri, MDCXXVIII. 


// primo libro delle Istorie Sanesi di MarcANTO- 
xio Bellarmati, pubblicato per cura di G. 
PORRI nella " Miscellanea Storica Sanese ", 
Siena O. Porri, 1844. 

Malavolti, Orlando, Historia de'fatti e gnerre 
de' Sanesi, In Venetia, 1599. 

TOMMASI, GlUGURTA, Historie di Siena, In Ve- 
netia 1626. 

PeCCI, Gio. Antonio, Storia del Vescovado della 
Citta di Siena, Lucca, 1748. 

— Memorie storico-critiche della Citta di Siena (4 vol.) 
Siena, A. Bindi, 1 755-1 760. 

BUONSIGNORI, V. Storia della Rep2ibblica di Siena 
esposta in compendio, Siena, 1856. 



Le Pompe Sanesi o' vero Relazione delli Juiomini, e 
donne ilhistri di Siena e siio stato, scritta dal 
Padre Maestro Fr. IsiDORO UgurGIERI Az- 
ZOLINI. In Pistoia nella Stamperia di Pier' An- 
tonio Fortunati, 1649. 

Diario Sanese opera di GiROLAMO GiGLI in ciii si 
veggono alia giornata tiitti gli avvenimenti piii 
ragg2iardevoli spettanti si alio spiritiiale si al tem- 
porale della Citta e Stato di Siena, con la notizia 
di molte Nobili Famiglie di Essa delle qnali e 
caduto in acconcio il parlarne (seconda edizione) 
Siena, Tip. dell' Ancora, 1854. 

Diziona7'io geogi^ajico fisico storico della Toscana con- 
tenente la descrizione di tutti i hioghi del Gran- 
diicato &c. compilato da Emanuele Repetti, 
Firenze, 1833-1846. 

Siena e il sno territorio. Siena, L. Lazzeri, 1862. 

Bidlettino Senese di Stoi'ia Patria vol. I-IX. (1894- 

Miscellanea Storica Senese vol. I-V (i 893-1 898). 


G. RONDOXI, Tradizioni popolari e leggende di un 
Coimine medioevale e del sno contado, Firenze, 
Rassegna Nazionale, 1880. 


P. Rossi, Le Origini di Siena — I. Siena avanti 
il Dominio Romano. IL Siena Colonia Romana 

(Conferenze tenute nella R. Accad. de' Rozzi 
per cura della Commissione Senese di Storia 
Patria, il i6 marzo 1895 ed il 3 aprile 1897) 
Siena, Lazzeri. 

G. RONDONI, Sena Vetus il Comune di Siena 
dalle Origini alia battaglia di Montaperti, Estrat- 
to dalla Rivista Storica Italiana vol. IX, fa- 
scicolo I-II anno 1892, Torino, Fratelli Boc- 
ca, 1892. 

L. BaxcHI, // memoriale delle offesefatte al Comiine e 
ai Cittadinidi Siena ordinate nell'annoMCCXXIlI 
dal Potesta Bonifazio Gnicciardi Bolognese, pub- 
blicato nel " Arch. Stor. It. " Serie III, 
T. XXII, (1875) pag. 197-234. 

L. Zdekauer, La Vita Privata dei Senesi nel Dic- 
gento, Siena, Lazzeri, 1896. 

— La Vita Pubblica dei Senesi nel Dugento, Siena, 

Lazzeri, 1897. 

— Sidle Origini dello Studio Senese, Siena, C. Nava, 


— II Mercante Senese nel Diigento, Siena, C. Nava, 


L. BanCHI, GH Ordinamenti Economici dei Comuni 
Toscani nel medio evo e segnatamente del Comune 
di Siena Parte prima, La Lira o V Estimo in 
" Atti della R. Accad. dei Fisiocritici di 
Siena ", Serie III vol. II, Siena, Tip. del- 
r Ancora, 1879. 

C. Paoli, Siena alle Fiere di Sciampagna, Siena, 

— 14 — 

F. Patetta, Caorsini Senesi in Inghilterra nel sc- 
colo XIII in " Bullettino Senese di Storia 
Patria " vol. IV, (1897) 311-344. 

Berlixghieri, Notizie degli Aldoh-andeschi, Siena, 
O. Porri, 1842. 

F. E. Baxdixi Piccolomixi, Del Conte Umberto 

di Guglielmo Aldobrandeschi da S. Fiora negli 
" Atti e memorie della R. Accad. dei Rozzi " 

III, 73-83- 

C. PaoLI, La Battaglia di Montaperti, Estr. dal 
vol. II del " Bullettino della Societa Senese 
di Storia Patria ", Siena, Tip. dell'Ancora, 

A. ProfesSIOX'^E, Corradino di Svevia e il siio Pas- 

saggio per Siena, Verona, Fratelli Drucker, 

B. AquaroX^E, Dante in Siena ovvej'o acceujii nella 

Divina Commedia a cose Sanesi, Citta di Ca- 
stello, vS. Lapi, 1889. 

C. Paoli, / '' Monti " fazioni 7iella Repiibblica 

di Siena nella " Xuova Antologia " Serie III 
vol. 34 fasc. 15. 

G. Arias, La Compagnia Bancaria dei Bonsignori, 

in Studi e Dociunenti di Storia del Diritto, Fi- 
renze, Successori Le Monnier, 1901 (^). 

(') Since the statements of Dott. Arias are not always to be implic- 
itlj- relied upon, this work should onl}* be read in connection with E. 
Casanova's valuable review of the same — See the Bullettino Senese di 
Storia Patria, Vol. VIII (1901) pp. 46 et seq. 

— 15 — 
N. MenCtOZZI, // Monte dei Paschi di Siena e le 
azieiide in esso riiinite, vol. I, Siena, Lazzeri, 


L. Banchi, / Porti della Maremma Senese diirante 
la Repiibblica. 

[It is published in successive numbers of the " Arch. Stor. It. " 
beginning with the year 1869]. 

A. ProfessiONE, Siena e le Conipag7iie di Ventura 

nella seconda meta del sec. XIV. Civitanova, 

D. Natalucci, 1898. 
C. Falletti-Fossati, Costumi Senesi 7iella seconda 

meta del secolo XIV. Siena, Tip. dell'Ancora, 

L. Zdekauer, Lo Studio di Siena nel Rinascimento, 

Milano, U. Hoepli, 1894. 
L. FuAIl e A. LiSlNl, L' incoritro di Federigo III 

Imperatoi'e con Eleonora di Portogallo, sna novella 

sposa, e il loro soggiorno in Siena, Siena, Tip. 

Lazzeri, 1878. 
C. Paoli, Del magistrato di Balia nella Repiibblica 

di Siena, notizie e dociimejiti in " Atti e me- 

morie della vSezione Letteraria di Storia Pa- 

tria della R. Accad. dei Rozzi di Siena ". 

Nuova Serie (i 870-1 888) III, 11 3-1 59. 
U. G. MONDOLFO, Pandolfo Petrucci Signo7'e di Siena, 

Siena, Tip. Cooperativa, 1899. 
C. Falletti-Fossati, Principali cause della Cadnta 

della Repubb. Senese in " Atti della R. Accad. 

dei Fisiocritici di Siena ". 
B. Aquarone, GH Ultimi Anni della Storia Repub- 

blicana di Siena, Siena, Tip. Lazzeri, 1 869-1 870. 

— i6 — 

G. ROXDOXI, Siena nel secolo XVI nella " Vita 
Italiana nel Cinquecento " ^lilano, Fratelli 
Treves, 1897. 

A. COPPIXI, Piero Strozzi nell' assedio di Siena, 
Firenze, G. B. Paravia & C.°, 1902. 


Vita del Beato Bernardo Toloniei, fondatore della Con- 
gregazione di Monte Oliveto, dell' Ordine di S. Be- 
nedetto di D. Bernardo ]\Iaria ]\Iarechau 
tradotta dal francese dal Parr. Telemaco 
Barbetti, Siena, Tip. S. Bernardino, 1890. 

La Vita del Beato Giovanni Colo^nbini da Siena, Fon- 
datore dell' Ordine di Poveri Giesiiati, composta 
per Feo Belcari, Impresso in Siena per 
Calisto, Francesco di Simone Bindi. A Di 
XXVII. d' Ottobre, M. D. XLI. Ad Istantia 
di Giovanni di Alessandro Libraio. 

Della Vita e degli scritti di Giovanni Colombini da 
Siena, G. Pardi nel " Bullettino Senese di 
Storia Patria " vol. II (1895). 

Stoj'ia di S. Caterina da Siena e del Papato del sno 
tempo per AlfoXSO Capecelatro, Siena, 
Tip. S. Bernardino, 1878. 

Le lettere di Santa Caterina da Sieiia, per ciira di 
N. TOMMASEO, Firenze, Barbera, i860. 

S. Bernardino da Siena, opera di PaoLO Thureau- 
Daxgin tradotta in lingua italiana da Mons. 
Telemaco Barbetti, Siena, Tip. S. Ber- 
nardino, 1897. 

— 17 — 

Storia di San Bernardino da Siena e del siio tempo, 
F. Alessio, Mondovi, Tip. Vesc. edit. B. Gra- 
ziano, 1899. 

L ' Eloquenza di S. Bernardino da Siena e della sna 
scuola D. DOMENICO RONZONI, Siena, presso 
la Direzione della Biblioteca del Clero, 1899. 

Le Prediche volgari di San Bei'na^'dino da Siena dette 
nella piazza del Campo V anno MCCCCXXVII 
ora primamente edite da LuCIANO BaxCHI, 
(3 vol.) Siena, Tip. S. Bernardino, 1 880-1 888. 


Le Novelle di Gentile Sermini da Siena ora per 
la prima volta raccolte e pubblicate nella loro iii- 
tegrita, In Livorno, Coi tipi di Francesco 
Vig-o, 1874. 

Storia di Due Amanti di Enea Silvio PiCCOLO- 
MINI dipoi Pio II Pontejice, Milano, G. Daelli, 

Novelle di Antori Senesi, being vols. 1 4 and 1 5 of 
the Raccolta de' Novellieri Italia?ii, IMilano, per 
Giovanni Silvestri, 18 15. 

Tre Novelle inedite di PlETRO FORTINI Senese, 
Bologna G. Romagnoli 1877 (in the " Scelta 
di Curiosita Letterarie inedite o rare dal se- 
colo XIII al XVII " Dispensa CLV). 

Novelle di PlETRO FORTIXI Senese — Le Giornate 
delle Novelle de' Novizi in the " Bibliotechina 
Grassoccia " Firenze, II " Giornale di Eru- 
dizione " Editore, 1 888-1 891. 

— lb — 

Raccolta di Burle, Facetie, Motti e Buffonerie di trc 
huotnini Sanesi, cioe Salvadoi'e di Topo Sca?-- 
pellino, lac 0)710, alias Scacazzone, e Ma?'ianotto 
Secitrini, fattore delV Opera del Diiomo di Siena, 
poste insieme da AleSSAXDRO DI GiROLAMO 
SOZZIXI Sanese, per passar tempo, e fuggir 
r otio, Siena, O. Porri, 1S65. 

La Raffaella ovvero Delia bella creanza delle donne, 
dialogo di AlESSANDRO PiCCOLOMIXI, 5/^?'- 
dito Intronato, ]\Iilano, G. Daelli, 1862. 

Le Novelle di Scipione Bargagli premessavi la 7iar- 
7'azione dell' Assedio di Siena, prima edizione 
Senese per ciira di LUCIAXO Baxchi, Siena, 
Gati, 1873. 


Docuvienti per la Storia delV Arte Senese raccolti ed 
ilhcstrati dal Dott. Gaetaxo Milaxesi, Siena, 
O. Porri, 1854-6. 

Nuovi Dociimenti per la Storia dell' Arte Senese rac- 
colti da S. BoRGHESi e L. Baxchi, Siena, 
Enrico Torrini, 1898. 

Sulla Storia deW Arte Toscana, Scritti Varj, di Gae- 
TAXO Milaxesi, Siena, Tip. Sordomuti, 1873. 

[Note. There are, of course, several valuable articles on artistic sub- 
jects in the Biillettino Senese di Storia Patria.] 


I hold that nothing is more withering 
in its effects, and nothing more contempt- 
ible, than a contempt for the glories of the 

J. B. LiGHTFOOT, D. D., Historical Essays 

Et pourtant, s'il fallait voir s'abimer 
r Italie avec son passe ou 1' Amerique avec 
son avenir, laquelle laisserait le plus grand 
vide au cceur de I'humanite ? Qu'est-ce que 
V Amerique tout entiere aupres d' un raj-on 
de cette gloire infinie dont brille en Italie 
une ville de second ou de troisieme ordre, 
Florence, Pise, Sienne, Perugia? Avant de 
tenir dans echelle de la grandeur humaine 
un rang comparable a ces villes-la, New 
York et Boston ont bien a faire. 

Ernest Renan, Etudes d'Histoire Religieuse 

THE origin of Siena, like, that of other Italian 
cities, is lost in a mist of legend. It was 
probably founded by the Etruscans, and then, 
falling under Roman rule, became the colony 
Saena Julia, in the reign of Augustus or a little 
earlier. Few memorials of the Roman era or 

of the first centuries of Christianity remain to 
us, and none at all of the interval preceding the 
Longobard period. The city as we see it today 
is wholly mediaeval (^). 

According to a very ancient legend, which 
probably has some foundation in fact, Siena was 
converted to Christianity early in the fourth 
century by Ansano, a noble Roman, who sealed 
his faith by martyrdom at Dofana on the Arbia. 
In 1 107, his remains were brought into the city 
through the Porta Pispini, which thus acquired 
its alternative name of Porta San Viene, from 
the cry of the multitude who crowded thither 
to meet the sacred relics, shouting exultantly, 
// santo viene / // santo viene / 

We have documentary evidence that during 
the reign of Rotharis (636-652) the Sienese church 
was governed by a bishop named Maurus; but 
■ all attempts to trace earlier bishops as far back 
as the 5th century have yielded only vague and 
contradictory results. 

Early in the 8th century the famous contro- 
versy between the sees of Arezzo and Siena 
commenced, and it is to the numerous docu- 
ments which refer to that protracted struggle that 

(') This paragraph I have taken almost verbatim from Professor 
Paoli's Siena in the "Encyclopaedia Britannica ", XXII. 39, The article 
in question is one of the most perfect examples of condensation combined 
with lucidity and accuracy with which I am acquainted. I have more than 
once yielded to the temptation to borrow from it. 


we owe nearly all the information which we 
possess concerning' the government of the city 
during the Longobard period. From these Ave 
learn that Siena was not subject to the Dukes of 
Tuscany, but formed part of the royal patri- 
mony or Jisciis, and was administered by Gastaldi, 
one of whom, a certain Warnefred — Magnificjis 
Waniefred Castaldms Senensis Civitatis, — founded 
the Abbey of S. Eugenio, Avhich is known today 
as il Monistero. In the quarrel with Arezzo, 
Gastaldi and citizens alike espoused the cause 
of their bishops, and the uprising of the whole 
Sienese people (Universiis Senensis Populus) to 
t9,ke vengeance on the Aretines (712) seems to 
point to a nascent sentiment of civic unity. 

From the time of Charlemagne, Siena was 
ruled by Counts of Longobard or Frankish race. 
Originally their jurisdiction extended from the 
Val di Chiana to Monticiano, and from Poggi- 
bonsi to San Quirico in Osenna, where their 
contado marched with that of Chiusi. Thus the 
Val d' Orcia and the Val di ^lerse were outside 
the Sienese contado which, though long, was 
narrow, and, in the direction of the Maremma, 
scarcely passed the point where the Arbia joins 
the Ombrone. 

About the middle of the i ith century, prob- 
ably between the years 1053 and 1056, the Em- 
peror Henry III granted and confirmed to John II, 
Bishop of Siena, many rights and privileges 


such as the possession, among other places, of 
the Castellum Vetus (Castel Vecchio), the oldest 
portion of the city, jurisdiction over those who 
dwelt on the episcopal lands, and judicium per 
pugnam together with the right facere mtinitiones 
in omnibus prosdictis suce Ecclesice, ubicimique necess- 
ariu7nfuerit, and that free from interference on the 
part of any Archbishop, Bishop, Duke, Alargrave, 
Count, Viscount or other person whatsoever. 

From this period the Sienese prelates pos- 
sessed temporal as Avell as spiritual powers ; and, 
in the course of the next fifty years they succeed- 
ed in ousting- the Counts from all jurisdiction 
in the city and district, although these latter 
still continued to represent the Empire more or 
less effectually in the towns of the contado. 

Thereafter, in the first half of the 12th cen- 
tury, we find the Bishops and the Consuls as- 
sociated in the government; but, by this tim.e, 
the power of the former was on the wane ; and 
the fate of Ranieri, who died in exile in 1170, 
suffices to prove how completely the Sienese 
emancipated themselves from ecclesiastical rule. 

Already, in 11 58, the Emperor had shown 
himself favourably disposed towards the Com- 
mune, and had granted fidelibus nostris Seuensibus, 
that curious privilegiiun whereby the Counts of 
Orgia and the Seigniors of Orgiale were forbid- 
den cedijicare aliquod castellum prope civitatem Senam 
usque ad duodecim miliaria. In the conflict be- 

— 23 — 

tween Barbarossa and the Pope, the Sienese 
espoused the cause of the former and the au- 
thority of the Bishop received an irreparable 
shock. As loyal partisans of the Emperor, the 
Consuls were determined to compel the clergy 
to transfer their allegiance to the antipope, and 
actually went so far as to imprison certain presbi- 
teros meliores civitatis qiios (says Alexander, in a 
letter written from Benevento in 1168 or 1169) 
nos cariores habemiis. No diplomacy could pre- 
vent a collision, and Bishop Ranieri, a stanch 
adherent of the Pope, replied to the violence of 
the consuls by pronouncing the anathema of the 
Church against them and against their principal 
partisans, and by laying Siena and its suburbs 
under an interdict. A few weeks or months 
later he was compelled to flee for his life, never 
again to return to the city which he had ruled 
for forty years. The age of a government, half 
feudal, half theocratic, was over, and the greater, 
freer and grander Imperial or Ghibelline period 

Originally the government of Siena, like 
that of every other Italian commune, was essen- 
tially aristocratic. Indeed it was, perhaps, more 
aristocratic than many others in that it was more 
deeply impregnated with the feudal element. 
The consuls (of whose rule we have documentary 
evidence as early as 1125) were all nobles, and 

— 24 — 

the order of Alagnati or Gentiluoinini from which 
they were chosen was perfectly distinct from 
the merchants and artisans who formed the main 
body of the citizens. These latter, up to the 
middle of the 12th century, had no participation 
in the government of the state ; but unfortunate- 
ly the nobles were not united, and, in 1147, 
their dissentions enabled the popolani, or lower 
classes, to enforce their claims to a share in the 
public offices. The consuls, who had previously 
been two in number, were increased to three 
by the admission of a popolano, and at the same 
time the General Council was reconstructed, a 
gap being thus made in the barriers of class 
•privilege which was destined never to be closed 

AVe are unable to fix the precise date of 
the abolition of the consulship; but the institu- 
tion of a foreign potesta (a form of government 
which became permanent in 12 12) gave a severe 
blow to the elder magistracy. There was, how- 
ever, no sudden or violent chang'e, and for some 
years Consuls and Potesta ruled together, the 
authority of the latter gradually superseding 
that of the former, in much the same way as, 
half a century earlier, the power of the Bishops 
had passed into the hands of the Consuls. The 
constitution of the Commune Avas sufficiently 
elastic to permit of tentative arrangements, and, 
as late as 1262, a rubric was still to be found 

— 25 — 

in the Sienese statutes whereby it was provided 
that the General Council should decide year by 
year whether they preferred habere potestate?n sive 
consitles (^). 

The institution of the potesta forestiero may 
probably be regarded as a popular victory, since 
the nobles were thereby ousted from the highest 
executive and judicial office in the gift of the 
Commune ; and, in this connection, it is interest- 
ing to note that the year 1 2 1 2 was marked by 
civic tumult. Then, as we learn from the chron- 
icles, " St Francis of Assisi came to Siena, and 
there was great enmity between the People 
and the nobles, and he caused peace and unity 
to be made among them ". According to the 
Fioretti, blood had already been shed when the 
saint intervened to stay the conflict. It would 
be, perhaps, too hazardous to affirm that these 
dissentions were due to the desire of the Nobles 
to reassume their old consular powers, but the 
coincidence of date is at least curious. 

From this period the triumph of the de- 
mocracy was merely a question of time. Already, 
in 1209, if we may credit Andrea Dei, were 
formed the Compagnie pe7' la Citta delle Contrade, 

(1) See Constit. del C. di S. Dist. I Ruhr. 135— A similar state of 
afifairs seems to have existed in other Communes. Thus in Genoa we find 
the consuls binding themselves and their successors, but with the condition, 
"si consules tunc fuerint in lanua" fAttisoc. lig. I. p. 325). As to Pisa, 
see G. VoLPE, Stiidi sidle Istituzioni Comunali a Pisa, Pisa, Tip. succes- 
sori Fratelli Nistri, 1902. 

— 26 - 

to wit, those Societates contratorum or armorum 
upon which, in Siena as in Bolog*na, the organ- 
ization of the People rested; while, as early 
as 12 13, we have unimpeachable testimony of 
the existence of a Societas Popiili Senensis which 
was governed by three Rectors. In an instru- 
ment of that year, drawn and attested by an 
imperial notary, these officials acknowledge that 
they have received from the Potesta septemcen- 
tiini libi-as den. Sen. pro facto penarnni turj'iiun. 
The importance of this document can hardly be 
overrated, since it demonstrates that, from the be- 
ginning of the 13th century, the People, through 
their representatives, exercised jurisdiction over 
the towers; and what this implies we realize 
when we recall the fact that the towers were 
the special glory of the aristocracy, and that 
(as Alalavolti tells us) " it was granted to many 
gentlemen to build them as an evidence of the 
splendour and nobility of their families ". 

In Siena the problem of the factions is a 
complex one; but, in the 13th century, the strife 
between them was, as Professor Zdekauer re- 
marks, above all else an economic strife. In the 
feudal period and, in fact, during the whole of 
the time during which the nobles dominated the 
commune, they seem to have enjoyed immunity 
from taxation, and it was only when the People 
obtained a share in the government that the 
magnati were at last compelled to bear their part 

— 27 — 

of the common burden. Moreover, this reform 
was followed by another of almost equal impor- 
tance. The first method of direct taxation was 
a duty or impost pro foculari or per massaritiam, 
a kind of family or hearth tax which was collect- 
ed impartially from rich and poor alike. A 
massaritia apparently consisted of a minimum 
of three persons. For a while attempts were 
made to obviate the injustice of this tax by 
varying the amount exacted according to the 
wealth and position of those from whom it was 
collected; but, as time went on, it was perceived 
that, in order to remedy the evil, a radical 
change was necessary. The new system, known 
by the name of the Lira or Estwio, was based 
upon the principle of assessment, each individual 
being taxed according to the declared value of 
his property. The first Lira w^as " made " in 
iig8, at about the time when the office of Po- 
testa was introduced (^), and I am disposed to 
believe that an attentive study of Sienese history 
enables us to discover a distinct connection be- 
tween the successive popular victories and the 
various extensions of the Lira. 

In the 1 2th and 13th centuries there was a 
perpetual influx of new citizens as the feudal 

(') According to Malavolti, the first Potesta was Orlando Malapresa 
of Lucca, elected in June 1199 (Sienese style) ; but, as early as 1197, in a 
submission of Asciano, we find a record of that office as well as of the 

— 28 — 

seigniors of the contado were, one after another, 
compelled to accept the overlordship of the Com- 
mune; and, after the year 1225, it was required 
of each civis novics, as a condition precedent to 
his admission to the rights and privileges of 
citizenship, that he should declare the quantity 
and value of his possessions (bona sua omnia al- 
libra7'e). His name was then duly registered /;/ 
2ino Hbro ciini tabnlis among the cives viaioi'es, 
viedioa-es or minores — a classification which, if 
convenient and even necessary to insure equi- 
table taxation, yet served to taint the communal 
institutions with that worst and most invidious 
of all forms of class distinction, the aristocracy 
of mere wealth (nobilitas divitiarum). 

The new social standard, thus introduced, 
naturally aroused in the breasts of the rich popo- 
lani a desire to obtain entrance to the ranks of 
the viagnati. The Commune interested itself in 
the creation of knights, contributing towards 
their expenses out of the public purse, and, by 
admission of members of the middle class to an 
order which had hitherto been open only to the 
nobles, did much to modify the old fundamental 
division of milites and popiilus (^). Nor was this 

(1) The Cavalieri ftnilitesj formed a class apart ; and, although thej- 
were citizens, were governed \>y no special statute (breve) except with regard 
to their militarj' duties. In their relations to one another they observed the 
consueUidines feudorum as far as the Commune would permit them to do 
so, and how charj-, at first, was the Commune of interfering with those 
customs we may infer from the fact that for many years the Potesta swore 



Lombard! photo. 

Palazzo Pubblico 

the worst. By their loans to the Commune, the 
Arti obtained undue influence in the conduct of 
public affairs. Money became the criterion of 
worth. The old nobility were ruined by debt, 
and the commercial spirit so far prevailed that 
even the vengeance of the Republic began to 
take a pecuniary form. The Memoriale delle offese 
was the natural complement of the Libro dei 
Censi (^). 

A further reform in the government was 
completed between 1233 and 1240, whereby a 
new magistracy of 24 citizens was created, which, 
from the number of its members, received the 

upon taking office: Et pro aliquo vialeficio , quod dominiis fecerit vel cotnit- 
teret in villanum vel hominum suum, captione vel liberatione, vel quocumque 
modo ipswn offenderet, eidem domino vel alii \qui\ pro eo faceret, nullam 
penam faciam vel dampnum dabo. (See il piic aniico ConstiUito Senese — 
1262-1270— Distinction V. Rubric. 34). The Societas militiim possessed its 
own property ; nd its intercourse with the Societas Populi was regulated 
by special agreements which might have enabled them to live side by side 
without too much friction, had not the milites, by holding aloof in haughty 
contempt of mere merchants and artisans, taught the People to regard them- 
selves as the true representatives of the entire Commune. Thus, even apart 
from their turbulence and tyranny, the magnati had from the first sown the 
seeds of their own subsequent ruin. 

(') The Memoriale delle offese (Memorialis offensarumj was a regis- 
ter wherein were officially entered, as in an open account, all the injuries 
and offences suffered by the commonwealth at the hands of her neighbours, 
to the end that they might be repaid in due season. It was published by 
L. Banchi in the Arch. stor. it.. Series III, vol. XXII. (1875) pages 197-234- 
—The Libro dei Censi (Liber Census et redditiium— the "Book of Tributes,,) 
actually forms part of the same codex as the Memoriale delle offese. The 
introduction to the former has been printed by Professor L. Zdekauer, in 
an appendix to his Vita pubblica dei Setiesi net dugento. 

cording to the best opinion, it consisted of twelve 
nobles and twelve popolajii. Frankly devoted to 
the imperial cause, this council proclaimed its 
political creed in its title, XXIIIL^^' partis Ghibcl- 
line popiili civitatis et coinitatus senariim ; and the 
popolayii, finding it eminently adapted to assist 
them in the attainment of their ends, endeavoured 
in every w^ay to augment its powers and to 
render it independent and supreme. 

Under its protection they provided them- 
selves with an official head in the person of the 
so called Capitano del Popolo — Capitanetis popidi et 
comunis (a magistracy which, according" to An- 
drea Dei, was established in 1253), and then 
created a council of their own, the Consilium 
Generate Capitanei et Popicli. Here they enacted 
law^s which, although at first only binding upon 
members of the Societas Popidi, were in the course 
of a few decades imposed upon the Commune. 
Thus the People became a separate and indepen- 
dent political party with full consciousness of 
its ultimate aims and of the means by which 
those aims were to be attained. In 1255 it set 
up its own bell, on the pretext that the bell of 
the Commune was not loud enough — aim cam- 
pana Comunis non bene aiidiatur; and, in a docu- 
ment of the period, we read of 2tniim sigillum 
Populi Se7iaruin de octone in quo est quidam Leo 
desingnatus ctini croce in capite. This was the same 
lion which, if the legend is to be believed, the. 

_ 31 — 

Emperor Otho gave to the People as their device 
in 1209, and which we still see blazoned about 
Siena. The book containing " the Ordinances 
of the People and the names of the men who 
are included in the Sienese People " was copei'his 
de corio riibeo, et uno Leone biillariim czivi croce 
bullarum in capite desingnatus ; while, in 1264, a 
certain Ventura di Gualtieri was condemned to 
pay a fine of 35 lire because he had painted 
upon a shield the figure of a lion standing over 
a prostrate she-wolf whose bleeding face he tore 
with his claws, an all too obvious emblem of the 
approaching subjection of the Commune to the 
democratic element. 

During the rule of the nobles and the mixed 
rule of the nobles and popolani, Siena was en- 
gaged in a succession of petty wars with the feudal 
seigniors of her contado (Scialenghi, Aldobrande- 
schi, Pannocchieschi, Visconti di Campiglia, &c.) 
who, one after another, were compelled to make 
submission to the Commune ; while, during the 
greater part of the 12th and 13th centuries, she 
w^as perpetually embroiled with Florence. 

vSiena was Ghibelline, Florence Guelf ; either 
in the absence of the other might well have dom- 
inated all Tuscany; each had need of expansion, 
and their frontier lines were doubtful. 

During the protracted hostilities which this 
state of things naturally produced, the arms of 

Florence were generally successful, and Siena, 
overmatched and overborne, was content for the 
most part to stand on the defensive, so that it 
could be truthfully said of her, after a victory, 
inde triiimphasti pacevi quia semper amasti. 

"With the instinct of a people born to great 
destinies, the Florentines lost no opportunity of 
thwarting and crippling the rival commune ; and 
the latter, fearing to be hemmed in, in the di- 
rection of Montepulciano, and so menaced at once 
both on the front and on the rear, put forth all 
her strength to preserve that lofty frontier city, 
the key of the Val di Chiana, together Avith the 
towns of Poggibonsi and of Montalcino. From 
Poggibonsi she might hope to arrest, at the 
mouth of her defiles, the advance of the enemy 
by the way of the Val d' Elsa ; while from Mon- 
talcino she was able to dominate the Alaremma, 
to guard against invasion from the direction of 
Montieri and Volterra, and to prevent herself 
from being cut off from her natural ally, imperial 
Pisa. But the enmity of Florence was tireless 
and implacable, and, not content with open hos- 
tilities, she intrigued perpetually, fomenting dis- 
cord and rebellion among the tributary com- 
munes and vassals of the contado. As early as 
1 174, the bloody victory of Asciano enabled her 
to dictate the harshest terms to her well nigh 
ruined neighbour, while in 1203, the iniquitous 
arbitrament of Ogerio pushed her frontiers south- 

— 33 — 
ward as far as the Staggia, and Siena was 
forced to build the two strong fortresses of Mon- 
tereggioni and Querciagrossa to guard her new 

With Florence was united Orvieto, and the 
Sienese territory was horribly devastated, the 
insolent invaders extending their inroads up to 
the very gates of the city, and hurling from 
their mangonels asses " e altra bruttura " over 
the walls. In 1230, they actually burst through 
the Porta Camollia and penetrated into the towm 
as far as S. Pietro alia Magione ; the Count 
Alberto di Mangone hung his shield upon the 
gate in token of victory ; and, says the Florentine 
chronicler, " had they not been pitiful they might 
have destroyed all Siena with fire and sword ". 

Montepulciano andMontalcino were lost, and 
the Aldobrandeschi divided in their allegiance. 
It appeared that Siena Avas doomed to destruc- 
tion. She was surrounded on every side and 
clutched, as it were, in the claws of her relentless 
enemy, at last, it seemed, secure of her prey. 
But the indomitable Ghibelline city was not dis- 
mayed. She turned in the hour of her need to 
the blond and beautiful knight Manfred (^), and, 
animated by the most ardent courage, gathered 
all her forces for the final struggle. The great 

Biondo era e bello, e di gentile aspetto. 

Piugatorio III. 107. 

— 34 -- 
day of Montaperto (4. Sept. 1260) saw the haughty 
Florence humbled in the dust and her ancient 
people " broken and brought to naught ". The 
flower of her army perished on the field of battle 
or were led captive by the victors; while so 
great was the consternation of the fugitives that 
they abandoned all hope of further resistance 
and voluntarily exiled themselves from their na- 
tive city. 

For the moment the Guelf cause seemed 
lost, and Siena was supreme in Tuscany. Yet, 
as the event proved, she had conquered little 
more than the right to live, for scarcely, after 
more than a century of conflict, had she planted 
her heel upon the neck of her enemy, than the 
wheel of Fortune spun round, and the death of 
INIanfred changed the whole aspect of affairs. 
The high hopes of the victors were buried Avith 
their suzerain beneath the g?'ave mora at the 
bridge-head of Benevento ; the battle of Colle 
ruined the Ghibellines; and Siena herself became 

During the decade which followed the Battle 
of Alontaperto the march of events was rapid. 
On the 8th September Montalcino submitted and 
humbly sued for pardon ; on the 13th the Guelfs 
fled from Florence, and on the i6th the Count 
Giordano, the vicar of king Alanfred, together 
with the Count Guido Novello and the Ghibel- 

— 35 — 
line fuorusciti, entered the city. In December 
Pistoia made her peace with the victors ; the 
following July IMontepulciano surrendered and 
received a Sienese Potesta ; only Arezzo and 
Lucca remained faithful to the Guelf cause ; and of 
these the former was compelled to yield in 1262, 
the latter in 1264. With the accession of Lucca 
to the Ghibelline league the Florentine exiles 
lost their last refuge in Tuscany, and fled across 
the Apennines to Bologna, where, says Villani, 
" they abode in much discomfort and penury ". 
Thus the Ghibelline arms were everywhere 
successful when the landing of Charles of Anjou 
at the mouth of the Tiber (May 1265) and the 
decisive victory of Benevento (26 February 1266) 
revivified, in a moment, the apparently moribund 
Guelf party. In November, the always cowardly 
Count Guido Novello (^) fled from Florence, which 
was thenceforth lost to the Ghibellines ; and, 
in the following year, Lucca, Pistoia, Volterra, 
Prato, San Gimignano and Colle di Val d' Elsa 
joined the Guelf league or tagHa under the com- 
mand of Philip de Montfort, whom Charles had 
sent to Tuscany with 800 French men-at-arms. 
Pisa and Siena alone remained Ghibelline, and 

(') I am not, I trust, unjustly blackening the memorj' of this prudent 
gentleman. We shall see him again spurring hard out of the rout of Colle; 
while ten years later, at the Battle of Campaldino, it is recorded in the 
chronicle of Dino Compagni that " il Conte Guido non aspetto il fine, ma 
sanza dare colpo di spada si parti ". 

. - 36 -- 

all their hopes were centred on the youthful Cor- 
radino whom they earnestly besought to come 
to their assistance. Xor did they plead to deaf 
ears. In October 1267 he arrived at Verona 
with 3000 men-at-arms and a considerable body 
of footsoldiers ; in January, 1268, he entered Pa- 
Aia ; in April he was at Pisa, and thence he 
advanced to Siena, there to be welcomed with 
the Avildest enthusiasm. Poggibonsi flung off 
the Florentine yoke, and other towns prepared 
to follow her example ; five hundred French 
men-at-arms fell into an ambush at Ponte a Valle, 
and such of them as were not cut to pieces were 
led captive to Siena ; while to the southward 
the newly acquired kingdom of the Angevin 
blazed out into rebellion. 

But the exultation of the Ghibellines was 
soon to be turned to mourning by the fatal day 
of Tagliacozzo, and by the tragic end of Corra- 
dino, two months later, on the Piazza del Mercato 
at Naples (29 Oct. 1268). For more than a year 
Siena remained faithful to a lost cause, and car- 
ried on a well nigh hopeless struggle against 
overwhelming odds. One after another the towns 
and castles of her contado fell into the hands of 
the Guelf exiles, who made their head-quarters at 
Colle di Val d' Elsa, and soon became so bold 
that they pushed their incursions even to the 
walls of the city. 

Such a state of things was intolerable, and, 

— 37 - 
on the 8th June 1269, the Sienese marched out 
of the Porta Camollia under the command of 
Provenzano Salvani ('). They were reinforced by 
some Pisan levies, and by the Count Guido No- 
vello with a body of Florentine Ghibellines and 
German men-at-arms who had escaped from the 
rout of Tagliacozzo. In all, the army consisted 
of 1400 cavalry and 8000 footsoldiers. 

The allies drew near to Colle on its eastern 
side and pitched their camp in the neighbourhood 
of the Badia a Spugna, which is situated on the 
left bank of the Elsa and quite close to Colle- 

The news of their advance reached Florence 
on the night of the gth June, and to such good 
purpose did the vicar of Charles of Anjou bestir 
himself that he was able to set out the next 
morning with 800 men-at-arms, leaving orders 
for the infantry to follow with all possible speed. 
The road was long and hilly, but he reached 
Colle the same evening. The Sienese do not 
appear to have made any attempt to intercept 
him; but, on the morning of the nth they re- 
solved to march round the western end of the 
town and to take up a stronger position on the 
level ground about S. Andrea delle Grazie, some 
half a mile to the south of Colle-alto; and this 
movement they commenced with the utmost 

(') Mentioned by Dante in Purgatorio XI. 


possible confidence, doubtless believing that the 
enemy were as yet too few to venture an attack. 
Unfortunately the Guelfs were captained by an 
experienced soldier who knew how to seize his 
opportunities, and, while the Sienese were strag- 
gling through the Valle Buona, secure in their 
superior numbers, he suddenly sallied forth and, 
charging over the bridge which spans the Elsa 
below the Badia a Spugna, fell upon their left 
flank. The result justified his generalship and 
they were routed with great slaughter. Com- 
paratively few prisoners were taken, for the 
memory of ]\Iontaperto made the victors pitiless. 
Among the dead was Provenzano Salvani. He 
was, it would seem, taken prisoner and killed 
in cold blood by Misser Cavolino Tolomei who 
thus revenged an ancient grudge. The head of 
the great Ghibelline was cut off and stuck upon 
the shaft of a spear and carried through the 
streets of Colle. As usual, the Count Guido 
Xovello saved himself by flight. 

Exulting in the triumph of his faction, a 
Lucchese chronicler write?,'. Devicti simt Seiieiises, 
et viaxima strages de eis est facta, et viulti sunt 
ibidem in bello mortui, miUtique capti, sed pi-aecipne 
Senenses et Theutonici, qui sic sunt ex tunc iii Thuscia 
extirpati, quod usque ad tempora praesentia nulla de 
ipsis Jit vientio, quantum ad bella. 

This was the battle whereon Sapia looked, 
praying for the defeat of her fellow citizens, and 

— 39 — 
rejoicing in their flight with a joy so great and 
satisfying that, while yet the victors hacked 
among the fugitives, she cried aloud to the 
Almighty, " Omai piic non ti tenio — Henceforth, 
O God, I fear thee not " (^). 

For a few months longer Siena continued 
to resist. In October military operations were 
stopped by torrential rains and she obtained 
a short breathing space which she utilized to 
prepare for a seige, to obtain supplies and to 
wall up many of the gates (^). But the death 
of Provenzano Salvani had deprived the People 
and the Ghibellines of the only leader who could 
have steered the ship of state through such tem- 
pestuous seas. Ipse rector, ipse gubernator, he had 
been the heart and soul of the Parte Ghibellina, 
in the days of vSiena's greatest triumphs (^), with 

i') Pitrgatorio XIII. 

('^) See page 4 supra. 

(3) " Provenzano Salvani... che fu 1' anima nella lotta del Popolo 
contro i Signori, e dei XXIIII, per la parte del Popolo " — L. Zdekauer, 
La Vita Ptibblica dei Senesi nel Dugento, pag. 78. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that, in one of the most 
ancient of Italian political poems, attributed by Celso Cittadini to the year 
1262, and written by a Sienese, the following words are put into the mouth 
of the great Ghibelline. He is speaking of Siena. His interlocutor, Rugieri, 
is alarmed at the departure of the Guelfs to Radicofani (Dec. 1261), and 
fearful of the enmity of the Pope. 

Rugieri, or ti konforta 

Ed abi giuoko et riso 

Gieso Cristo la tiene et porta, 

Da lliei non e diviso ; 

Lo franko popolo accieso 

La porra in altura, 

Siena, cio m' e viso, 

Citta di natura ! 

— 40 — 

him " Toscana sono tutta ", and he left no suc- 

In the spring the Guelfs again took the field, 
and advanced to il Monistero, a scant mile from 
the Avails. Thence they dictated terms of peace. 
On the 15th August the Ghibellines of Florence 
left Siena, even as six short years before the 
Florentine Guelfs had departed from Lucca. The 
Government was reformed by the addition of 
twelve boni homines to the Twenty-four, the ncAV 
magistracy being called the Triginta sex Gitberna- 
tores Civitatis et Comunis Sejiensis, and for it both 
popolari and nobili were eligible. 

What folloAved is thus succinctly recorded 
by Andrea Dei : " The Guelfs did not keep the 
peace; and the Ghibellines departed from vSiena ". 
And, in fact, that is about all that any of the 
chroniclers tell us. The result was war in the 
contado and disquiet in the city. In 1270 many 
Ghibelline palaces were destroyed. The Potesta 
swore destruere et destrui facei'e radicibics palathun 
et tiuTim et Casamentum filiorum Salvani et filioriim 
P7'ovenzani. Charles of Anjou wrote to urge 
on the work of destruction. In 1273 he visited 
Siena ; and, in the same year, the papal interdict 

Christ and the Free People. What better champions could Siena 
have ? — See the Rime antiche senesi trovate da E. Molteni e illusti-ate da 
V. de Bai-tholomoeis published b\- the " Societa Filologica Romana " (Roma, 
presso la Societa, 1902) page 28. 

— 41 — 

was removed amid great public rejoicings. Siena 
had been excommunicated since 1260. 

Thus did the imperial city forget her ancient^ 
faith to follow after strange gods ; and it has 
been said with some truth that this change " was 
little less than suicide ; she might lead the Ghi- 
bellines, but in the Gueliic party she could only 
sit below the salt ". 

It is a fascinating subject for conjecture 
what the result would have been had vSiena re- 
mained faithful. She might have joined hands 
with the great Ghibelline Bishop, Guglielmo 
degli Ubertini, and Campaldino might have had 
another issue. She and Arezzo might have done 
much to save Pisa from ruin, and the hegemony 
of Florence might have been delayed. That it 
could have been altogether averted is hardly pos- 
sible. Wealth, then as noAv, formed the sinews 
of war and the commercial supremacy of Florence 
was already well nigh assured. To say nothing 
of the disabilities under which, through lack of 
water, the Arte della Lana laboured in Siena, 
the Sienese were already being rapidly sur- 
passed in every branch of mercantile enterprise. 
In the first half of the century they had, it is 
true, held the foremost place, and the Grande 
Tavola, or Tabula de Sena, was still a name to 
conjure Avith both in Italy and beyond the Alps ; 
but a large part of their success had been due 
to the fact that they had possessed an almost 

— 4- — 

complete monopoly of the papal business, and 
as campsores dominipp. had enjoyed unprecedented 
advantages. These they lost by their loyalty to 
Manfred ; and thus, in a sense, the victory of 
Montaperto may be said to have ruined Siena. 
The Pope not only excommunicated her, but 
transferred much of his business to the Floren- 
tine Guelfs ; and before many years were over 
Siena was doomed to see herself outstripped by 
her ancient rival. Under these circumstances, 
alliance with Florence and reconciliation with 
the Pope doubtless recommended itself strongly 
to the Sienese merchants; and that alliance and 
reconciliation could only be obtained by a change 
of political faith. 

This change, as I have shown, took place 
in 1270, and it was followed, in 1277, by a great 
popular revolution which definitely started the 
Commune upon its dismal journey towards the 
depths of democracy. 

Although the nobles had been compelled to 
acquiesce in a diminished authority, and to see 
the representatives of the People associated with 
them in the supreme offices of the state, their 
acceptance of the new regime had never been 
loyal, and they only awaited a favourable oppor- 
tunity to recover the ground which they had 
lost. Such an opportunity appeared to be offered 
them in the events which followed the battle of 

— 43 — 
Colle. The Twenty-four had fallen, and the 
popular cause had sustained a heavy blow in 
the death of Provenzano Salvani. Charles of 
Anjou was no friend of the People, and openly 
favoured the great Guelf houses. It was a period 
full of tumult and uncertainty. Might not the old 
consular families turn the Guelf victory to their 
own advantage and make themselves predom- 
inant in the party ? At first it seemed that 
fortune favoured their designs and, anticipating 
an easy triumph, they refused to obey the laws 
and conducted themselves with the utmost vio- 
lence. Their palaces in the city and their castles 
in the contado were filled with assassins and 
bravoes; they outraged and insulted the popolajii ; 
they set the officers of justice at defiance, and 
at last, in August 1276, even ventured to attack 
the chief executive officer of the Commune. 

It was evening, and the household of the 
Potesta were passing through the Strada di Ca- 
mellia, whither they had come to arrest certain 
retainers of the Salimbeni. These refused to 
surrender and, after a short scuffle, took refuge 
in the palace of their patron (now the Monte 
de' Paschi). Hearing the uproar misser Notto 
Salimbeni rushed out with more of his follow- 
ers, and, in the fight which ensued, was wounded 
in the leg. On the following day, when the 
household of the Potesta again passed that way, 
they were assailed by the creatures of the Salim- 

— 44 — 
beni, and a kinsman of the Potesta was slain. 
A great part of the city rose in arms, but mis- 
ser Notto, notwithstanding his wound, put himself 
at the head of his retainers and went to the palace 
of the Ugurgieri, where the Potesta lodged, to 
burn it Avith fire and him therein. The Forte- 
guerri and the Incontri interposed to keep the 
peace, but the Salimbeni were joined by other 
nobles, and, although the People rose in defence 
of the Potesta, he was besieged for tv/o days, 
until the Forteguerri and " the Grandi and Popolo 
of the Terzo di Citta " succeded in conducting 
him in safety to the Palazzo degli Alessi, where 
he dwelt for the remainder of his term of office. 
It seems, however, that he was unable to bring 
the vSalimbeni to justice (^). 

(') I apprehend that in these events we ma}- find an example of that 
more or less open antagonism which, throughout the 13th and 14th centuries, 
existed between the three Terzi of the city — an antagonism which the stu- 
dent of Sienese history can by no means afford to forget, since in it we 
find an explanation of many facts which would otherwise prove incomprehen- 

Originally Siena seems to have consisted of three separate fortresses. 
To the north was that of Caniollia ; to the south-west was Castel Vecchio 
or (as it is called in at least one document of the nth centurjO Castel Senio ; 
and to the south-east the Castello di Val di Montone. And herein, if we 
may credit the old writers, we discover the reason why, in Latin, Siena was 
spoken of in the plural number, Senae, Senariim. 

According to the legend of the Origin of the City, the rivalrj- between 
these fortresses began at a ver}- early date ; and it is said that tne Arms of 
the Commune, the part3--coloured shield known as the Balzana, owes its 
origin to a portent which occurred at their first reconciliation. Peace had 
been made and the magistrates were sacrificing to Apollo and to Diana in 
what is now the Piazza del Campo, when from the one altar arose a very 
black smoke, from the other a smoke of singular whiteness, and, instead of 
mingling, the two columns floated away side by side, the white one upper- 

— 45 — 

As a result of these disorders it was deter- 
mined to exclude the nobles from the Supreme 
Magistracy for all time, and in the Consiglio 
Generale della Campana of 28 May 1277, it was 
resolved that the thirty-six should be elected 
de bonis et legalibus ^nercatoribus et amatoribus partis 
guelfe, and that among their number should not 
be included aliqitis de casatis. 

This exclusion of the nobles from the gov- 
ernment and from the general body of the 
citizens had the effect of converting them from 

most. This the citizens accepted as a message from the gods, and accord- 
ingly they assumed the Balzana as the device of the now united city. 

The three Terzi, however, remained in many respects separate com- 
munities. Each had its own organization, civil, military and economic. The 
number of the Supreme Magistracy of the Republic, from the time of the 
consuls onwards, will be found to be nearly always a multiple of three — 
24, 36, 15, 9, 18 and so forth — and it was, as a rule, composed of an equal 
number of citizens taken from each Terzo ; while, in the Constihito del 
Comiine of 1262, it was provided that " si contigerit potestatem Senensem 
stetisse vel habitasse in uno ter^erio civitatis per annum, non debeat eius 
successor in eodem ter9erio habitare, nisi duobus annis mediantibus ", (I. 211). 
And all this was necessary because the interests of the three Terzi were 
often opposed, although, as a rule, in all cases of discord, the Te^-zi of Ca- 
mollia and of San Martino were leagued together against that of the City. 
Even in their games of Pugna and of Elmora this alliance was maintained. 
(See chap. Ill of my Our Lady of August and the Palio of Siena) . 

And now, having prefaced thus much concerning the Terzi, we may 
consider the tumults of 1276 in reference to those facts. 

The Salimbeni, as we have seen, resided in the Terzo di Camollia. 
The palace of the Ugurgieri was in the Terzo di San Martino, in an angle 
of the city behind the church of S. Vigilio. The Incontri and the Alessi 
belonged to the Terzo di Cittd, and those who came to the rescue of the 
Potesta were, as Andrea Dei informs us (Cronaca Sanese in Muratori ad 
anjium) " e Grandi e'l Popolo del Terzo di Citta ". Thus we see that the 
Terzo di San Martino and the Terzo di Camollia were opposed to the 
Terzo di Cittd which alone defended the Potesta. 

— 4^ — 
thenceforward into a separate caste, an aggrega- 
tion of casate united together by the same inter- 
ests, traditions, prejudices and offences. Thus 
was born the first of those political and social 
divisions which, in Siena, were afterwards called 
Monti; the old consular families who were now 
excluded from office forming, together with 
their descendants, the Ordine <?r vionte dei Gen- 
tiluoinini (^). 

And here it is important to note (what I shall 
have occasion to refer to at greater length here- 
after) that the People — la meza gente, the middle 
class — which had thus made itself master of the 
state, was b}^ no means synonymous with the 
proletariat, " the mutable rank-scented many " 
of Shakespeare's Coriolanus. It did not even 
include the smaller tradesmen. The ruling oli- 
garchy up to the middle of the 14th century 
was, in fact, as exclusive of the masses as it was 
of the nobles. Under its regime the Arte dei 
Mercanti properly so called, that is to say the 

(') The casate excluded from the Government bj- the resolution of 
1277 were the following: — 

Terzo di Citta — Baroncelli, Bostoli, Incontrati, Forteguerri and An- 
tolini, Mazenghi, Mainetti, Marescotti, Incontri, GoUi, Alessi, Martinelli, 
Codennacci, Montecchiesi, Scotti, Gregori, Saracini. 

Terzo di S. Martixo — Mignanelli, Trombetti, Sansedoni and Anco- 
nitani, Gherardini and Gottoli, Ugurgeri, Maconi and Abrami, Renaldini, 
Piccolomini, Ragnoni, Guastelloni, Ulivieri, Arzocchi, Pagliaresi, Cauli. 

Terzo di Camollia — Tolomei, Gallerani, Barbotti, Accarigi, Albizi, 
Provcnzani and Salvani, Buonsignori, Ressi, Salimbeni, Viviani and Sara- 
cini, Ponzi, Montanini, Bulgarini, Malavolti, Rustichetti, Paganucci, Selvo- 
lesi, Gazzanctti, Paparoni Bandinelli and Cerretani, Senali and Ubertini. 

— 47 — ^ 

bankers and the great importers and exporters, 
together with the Ai'te della Lana, retained all 
or almost all the power in their own hands. 
In a word, it was an aristocracy of wealth, a 
government of merchant princes — boni et legales 
mercatores (^). 

In the year 1280 there were fresh tumults. 
The law excluding the nobles from the supreme 
magistracy was confirmed, and its numbers were 
reduced from 36 to 15, with the title of the 
Quindici Governatori e Difensori della Repubblica di 

The first care of the new magistracy was 
to conclude peace with the rebels, in which they 
were assisted by the Cardinal Legate, and on 
the 29th September many of the nobles gave 
their adherence to the new regime. Moreover, 
it was decreed that the names Guelf and Ghibel- 

(') In view of the inaccurate statements recently made by two lady 
writers with regard to the character of this magistracy, I am tempted to 
emphasize the above remarks by the following quotation from Mr. J. A. 
Sj-monds' ^^^ of the Despots (edition of 1880, pages 50-51). He says : 
" Interpreting the past by the present, and importing the connotation gained 
by the word people in the revolutions of the last two centuries, students are 
apt to assume that the Popolo of the Italian burghs included the whole 
population. In reality it was at first a close aristocracy of influential families, 
to whom the authority of the superseded Counts was transferred in commis- 
sion, and who held it by hereditary right (Compare the pura cittadinanza 
of Cacciaguida — Paradiso XVI); and the technical terms primo popolo, se- 
condo popolo, popolo grasso, popolo minuto, frequently recurring in the 
records of the Republics, indicate several stages in the progress from oligarchy 
to democracy. The Commune included the Popolo but was distinct from it ". 

- 48 - 

line should be no more used in the Sienese 
dominion, and that every book, writing and or- 
dinance which treated of those parties and of 
their conservation should be burned. The office 
of the Captain of the Party Guelf was abolished, 
and it was forbidden, under heavy penalties, even 
to speak of Guelfs or Ghibellines or their equiv- 

An effort was also made to put an end to 
private feuds. The Tolomei were compelled to 
make peace with the Salvani, with the Arzocchi 
and with the Ponzi ; the Incontri, the Piccolo- 
mini and the Forteguerri were in like manner 
reconciled with one another, Avhile marriages 
were arranged between the families which had 
been at enmity. 

In the last week in October the Ghibellines 
returned to the city. Some of the fifteen went 
forth to meet them as far as Buonconvento, and 
the others, with all the Orders of the City, await- 
ed them outside the gates, embracing them and 
welcoming them with so much evident joy " that 
the entire people, and they likewise who returned, 
wept tenderly for great contentment of heart ". 

Thus did the ruling oligarchy endeavour to 
establish itself more firmly by the pacification 
of intestine discords. But it was too much to 
hope that hatreds which had been handed down 
from father to son for three generations could 
be extinguished by a simple kiss of peace, or 

— 49 — 
that men who had been taught the sacred duty 
of revenge even at their mothers knees, should 
be able to live in constant contact with former 
enemies without remembering the old wrongs 
which cried aloud for vengeance. With what 
heart could a Salvani have joined hands with 
a Tolomei when he recalled the cruel w^ork of 
1269, and beheld the spot w^here once the lordly 
palaces of his house had stood, still covered with 
debris or lying vacant ? Moreover, small as w^as 
in any case the prospect of a permanent paci- 
fication, the efforts of the new magistracy were 
rendered wholly nugatory by the unfortunate 
choice of Misser ^latteo Rosso degli Orsini as 
Potesta. A bitter and bigoted Guelf, he as- 
sumed office in January 1281, and the evident 
disfavour which he showed to the Ghibellines 
soon fanned the smouldering embers of discon- 
tent into a blaze. So great was the fear of 
tumult that it was resolved to banish certain 
of the more unquiet spirits. Among the exiles 
w^as Misser Niccolo Buonsignori who, only three 
years earlier, had, together w4th his brothers, 
received from the Magistrates of the Commune 
the honour of knighthood, at the festival of Our 
Lady of Mid-August. A member of the great 
banking house which bore the name of his fam- 
ily (i), and which was then at the height of its 

(*) The Compagnia dei Buonsignori, also known as la grand table, 
magna tabula, or simply tabula de Sena. —See C. Paoli, Siefia alle Fiere 
di Sciampagna, pages 23-24. 4 

— 50 — 
influence and renown, he was ill disposed to 
endure such an injury Avith patience. Filled 
with indignation he departed for Roccastrada, 
and there plotted against the government, hop- 
ing, with the aid of the popolo vibmto and of such 
of the Ghibellines as had remained in Siena, to 
re-establish the nobles in office and to overthrow 
the Guelfs. 

Xiccolo took into his counsel the Count of 
Santa Flora and many of the barons of the ]\Ia- 
remma, and having gathered a force of i6o 
cavalr}^ and a considerable body of foot soldiers, 
moved from Roccastrada, and reached Siena on 
the night of 13th July. They found the Porta 
air Arco barred, but succeeded in forcing a way 
through that of the Castellaccia, and afterwards 
through the other gate of the Terzo di Citta, 
whence they marched down the Casato and oc- 
cupied the Campo, fortifying themselves in the 
palaces of the Belmonti towards San Martino. 
Then they raised the cry of " Death to the 
Guelfs ! " and awaited an insurrection of the 
populace in their favour. They were, however, 
disappointed, since, besides the old Ghibelline 
families, only about 200 of the citizens joined 
them. Meanwhile the Potesta and the Signori 
Quindici had rung the great bell of the Com- 
mune, and the military companies of all the three 
Terzi were hastening to their aid. Alany of the 
rebels were slain, many taken prisoners, while 

— 51 — 
the remainder were compelled to flee for their 
lives. The slaughter was particularly great at 
the mouth of ]\Ialborghetto (now Via Giovanni 
Dupre) ; Misser Niccolo with a handful of his 
followers escaped to Roccastrada, and some few 
of those who had occupied the Palazzo de'Bel- 
monti held out till daybreak, when it was stormed 
by the household of the Potesta. The usual con- 
fiscations and destruction of palaces and towers 
followed. " And there departed from Siena 
Misser RufFredi Incontri and all his house, and 
part of the Forteguerri and of the Ugurgieri and 
Salvani, and Pagliaresi, and Ragnoni and many 
other folk". 

Foiled in their attempt upon the city, the 
Ghibellines carried the war into the contado. 
Campagnatico was surprised and the garrison 
of Sant' Angelo in Colle cut to pieces. Then, 
pushing northward along the banks of the Asso 
and through range after range of tumbling hills, 
the rebels occupied Rigomagno on the Aretine 
border. The position was serious in the extreme. 
From Campagnatico they dominated all the Ma- 
remma, and cut off communications with Gros- 
seto, while at Rigomagno they were in touch 
with Guglielmo degli Ubertini, the Ghibelline 
Bishop of Arezzo, lord of many castles in the 
Val d' Ambra, and a tried and valiant warrior. 
The Quindici, however, were equal to the occa- 
sion, the militia of the Terzo di San Martino 

— 5-^ — 
were called out, Rigomagno was stormed with 
great slaughter, and Misser Ranieri Belmonti, 
the captain of the garrison, w^as taken prisoner 
and beheaded as a traitor (^). 

In February 1282, Florence, Lucca, Prato, 
Volterra and Siena entered into an alliance for 
the common defence, and, though no doubt the 
hopes of the Ghibellines were raised by the news 
of the Sicilian Vespers, they were afraid to 
move ; while ere long all eyes were turned to- 
ward Pisa, whose fleet had been destroyed in 
the bloody battle of ]\Ieloria (1284), but who was 
still fig'hting desperately against overwhelming 

Towards the end of October 1285, the Sien- 
ese fiioritsciti, with the aid of the Bishop of 
Arezzo, made themselves masters of Poggio 
Santa Cecilia, a strongly fortified castle a few 
miles to the north-west of Rigomagno. " And 
(says an old chronicler) they held the place 
against the Sienese and the Florentines and all 
Tuscany for fourteen months and eighteen days, 
until they were compelled to eat rats and to 
gnaw the leather of their shields ; and they col- 

(') As in the Pistoiese, the contado was divided into three districts 
which corresponded to the division of the city into Terzi. The contado thus 
represented a circle divided into three vast sectors, each of which contained 
at its apex the Terzo to which it belonged. Rigomagno was in that part of 
the contado which corresponded to the Terzo di San Martino ; aod this, I 
presume was the reason why the militia of San Martino were called out to 
attack it. 

— 53 — 
lected the dew for the thirst which they had... 
Finally, on the night of Good Friday, being able 
to endure no longer, they abandoned the castle 
and issued forth and fled during a great rain ; 
and so they saved themselves alive ". Never- 
theless, according to Andrea Dei, " many of 
them were taken as they went forth and were 
led to Siena. And while they were in the Palace 
of the Potesta, whither they had been taken to 
be put to death, the people rose in tumult, 
crying ' Peace ! Peace ! ' and they began to attack 
the Palace. AVherefore the Nine who then gov- 
erned the State (sic) were afraid, and they gave 
them the gonfalon and surrendered unto them 
the prisoners. Then the people took the pris- 
oners to the Palace of the Bishop who had come 
to their aid when the tumult commenced. And 
they were by themselves, and the Guelfs with 
their followers set upon them in the Campo ; and 
they brake them and discomfited them, the 
Monday after Easter; and they gat them to the 
Palace of the Bishop, and drew forth the pris- 
oners and led them into the Campo ; and there 
they cut off the heads of five of the chief among 
them, and the rest they hanged between the 
Arbia and the Bozzone ; and the number of them 
was sixty ". Poggio Santa Cicilia was razed to 
the ground. 

Two years later the Sienese troops fell into 
an ambush at the Pieve al Toppo, and lost 

— 54 — 

" between dead and wounded more than three 
hundred of the best citizens of Siena (^); " but, 
in the following year, the Battle of Campaldino 
finally destroyed the last hopes of the Ghibel- 
lines, and Tuscany, with the exception of the 
half-ruined Pisa, became wholly Guelf. Even 
the descent of the Emperor Henry VII into Italy 
could not rekindle burnt out fires ; and w^hen he 
died at Buonconvento in 13 13, the old Ghibel- 
line families of Siena, who had peaceably left 
the city sixteen months earlier at the desire of 
the government, returned as peaceably. The 
precaution of their temporary banishment had 
hardly been necessary. 

The merchant Olig'archy Avas by this time 
firmly established in power. The solemn recon- 
ciliation of the Guelfs and Ghibellines in 1280, 
futile and short-lived as it had proved, was at 
any rate a sign of the complete subjection of 
the nobles. From thenceforth the People w^as 
master of the Commune. It took, however, nearly 
sixteen years to consolidate its authority and to 
finally settle its form of government (i 277-1 292). 
At first, as we have seen, the number of its 
wSupreme ^Magistracy w^as thirty-six and then 
FIFTEEN. In 1287 these w^ere reduced to XIXE. 
Later on, for a little while (i Feb., 1290, to 

{*) The '' giostre del Toppo " of Dante. Inferno XIII. 121. 

— 00 — 
31 July, 1 291) they were increased to eighteen; 
the year following they fell to six ; and it was 
only in 1292 that the number of the Governors 
and Defenders was definitely fixed at NINE. 
These changes, however, are simply indications 
of a search for the most workable number, and 
not of any dissentions among the boni et legales 
mercatores who constituted the ruling class. The 
SIX were, in fact, only embryonic forms of the 
Nine ; and the Nine — " Li signori NO VE Gover- 
natori e Difendiiori del Coimine e del Popolo di Sieiia^'' 
— they remained until the fall of the Popolo di 
mezzo, sixty-three years later. 

In May, 1309, the Consiglio Generale del la Cam- 
pana ordered that the statute of the Commune 
should be translated into the vulgar tongue " to 
the end that poor folk and other persons who 
know not latin (gramatica) may be able to see 
and copy the same at their will ". The trans- 
lation was to be written " in fair large letters, 
legible and well formed, on good parchment ", 
and was to be kept in Biccherna. The work 
was completed in 13 10, and the sixth Disiinctioii 
which treats del officio de li Signori Nov e (') enables 

(') This Distinction has been recently edited by Monsieur J. Lu- 
CHAiRE. The text of the statute is, of course, printed in the original Italian, 
but the introduction (of which I have made considerable use in the follow- 
ing paragraphs) and the notes are in French, a fact which will make that 
portion of the work accessible to most readers. 

I am informed that in the spring the entire Statute will be published, 
together with an Introduction bj' Cav. A. LisiN'i. 

- 56 - 

us to form a very clear idea of the way in which 
those merchant oligarchs ruled Siena. 

At the head of the Commune were the so 
called Orders of the city (Ordini della Citta), 
consisting of ist. the SIGXORI XovE ; 2nd. the 
Consuls of the chevaliers (consoles viUitum, 

consoli de' Cavalier i) ; 3rd. the CONSULS OF THE 
MERCHANTS (consoli de' mercanti ; consoli della mer- 
canzia) ; and 4th. the FoUR Proveditors OF 
THE Co:vIMUNE (Qnattro Provveditori). 

In the hands of these Orders rested the 
election of the legislative body, the Consiglio 
Generale della Campana: so that they were, in fact, 
the source of all authority. But their share of 
power was not equal. The Provveditori, who, 
with their Camarlingo, were the administrators, 
financiers and treasurers of the Commune, were 
an ancient and responsible magistracy (^), but 
they were dependent upon the Nove and the Con- 
soli della viercanzia who appointed them. The 
Consoli de' Cavalieri represented the nobility (^) ; 
but it is absurd to suppose that the Xobles, 
defeated and discriminated against as they were, 
exercised any real influence in the vState. More- 
over the Consoli de' Cavalieri were not elected b}'' 
the Nobles, but by the other Orders of the City, 
so that the title was little more than a derisory 

1') As to the Quatlro Provveditori and the magistracj- of Biccherna, 
to which they belonged, see my Pictorial Chronicle of Siena pages, 16-28. 
(-) See page 28, note i, supra. 

~ 57 — 

The Move, on the other hand, were always 
mentioned first among the Orders, and were the 
real Governors, uniting- in themselves almost all 
authority. They were further practically self- 
elected, since it was the Nove who appointed 
their successors, selecting them exclusively from 
their own class, according to the rubric of their 

statute which provides " che li signori Nove 

sieno et essere debiano de mercatanti de la citta 
di Siena, overo de la meza gente ". Besides 
the N'ove no one was permitted to take part in 
this election except the Consuls of the Merchants. 

Thus all power, all authority, all the func- 
tions of the State were concentrated in the hands 
of a merchant aristocracy. On this point the 
Statute of the Nine is convincing. It would be 
impossible to imagine any more perfect type of 
a government of capitalists. 

The statute provides that the Signori Nove 
" shall have full power over all the affairs of the 
Commune, and that all which they shall do, 
resolve or order for the good of the People of 
Siena shall have the force of laAV ". From the 
very earliest times, the outgoing officials of the 
Commune had been held strictly accountable for 
their actions while in ofhce('); but the Nove, in 
spite of the enormous extension of their powers, 
were not subject to the sindacamento. In other 

(') See A Pictorial Chronicle of Siena, page 26. 

— 50 — 

words, they incurred no responsibility for their 
official acts. Moreover, great precautions were 
taken to render this inviolable government the 
uncontaminated organ of the class from which it 
emanated, and to prevent any possible collusion 
between it and other social or political divisions 
of the body politic. Not only were the Nobles 
di casato, the old consular families, excluded from 
the ^Magistracy of the Nove, but also knights 
(Cavalieri), judges, notaries and physicians ; while 
per contra any citizen who had formed part of 
the Nove w^as ipso facto disqualified from becom- 
ing either Console de' Cavalieri or Capitano delta 
Parte Guelfa. It was determined to set up an 
impregnable barrier between the two rival classes. 
Ghibellines, naturally enough, were excluded 
from the Magistracy. They w^ere excluded also 
from "any other office in the Commune of Siena"; 
and by Ghibelline, in this connection, we must 
understand any person suspected of leanings 
towards that faction. 

On the other hand, the Nove were guarded 
against themselves with almost equal care, and 
especially against the temptation to seek to 
perpetuate their powder, either in their own hands 
or in those of their families. The bourgeoisie, 
at the same time that they established their own 
class in authority, took care to maintain the most 
scrupulous equality among its members. The 
Alagistracy of the Nove held office for two months 

— 59 — 
only, and no member of an outgoing Magistracy 
could be re-elected to serve as his own successor. 
Two near kinsmen could not be members of the 
Nove at the same time, nor could they succeed 
one another in office. It was further provided 
that the Consuls of the Merchants and certain 
other important officials could not be called to 
the Supreme Magistracy until six months after 
they had completed their terms. Nor can we 
doubt that these precautions were effectual, since 
during all the time that the merchant oligarchy 
ruled the State, we have no instance of any of 
their number attempting to raise himself above 
his peers. " The Government of the Nove was, 
at one and the same time, the strongest and the 
least personal it is possible to conceive of ". 

For the rest, at this period, both the Potesta 
and the Captain of the People lost much of their 
power, while the General Council became a mere 
mouthpiece of the Nove by whose suffrages it 
had been called into being and whose creature 
it was. 

Clothed with such vast and unfettered au- 
thority, it is a startling tribute to the wisdom, 
righteousness and patriotism of those old mer- 
chants that they did not abuse their position more 
than they did. They were a class of exceptional 
men, strong to labour and to endure, shrewd, 
far-sighted and iron-willed, with family traditions 

— 6o — 

behind them which kept them brave and honest 
■ — an aristocracy of Avealth, but also an aristoc- 
racy of Avorth, optimates in the best sense. 

These were the men w^hose sires had trav- 
elled land and sea; had built palaces in London 
and purchased cloth in Flanders; had fought 
the Florentines at Montaperto, and stormed the 
almost impregnable heights of Campiglia d'Orcia; 
had visited half the capitals of Europe, and 
grown very wise and wily in dealing Avith kings 
and princes. Their honour, perhaps, was the 
honour of the ledger and of the counter, their 
courage rather that of the burgher than of the 
knight ; but that courage, such as it was, suf- 
ficed to guard the rights of the Commune, and 
that honour to keep their hands clean in the 
administration of public affairs (^). 

Under their rule Siena enjoyed a long period 
of peace and of prosperity ; the borders of the 
state were enlarged until the dominion embraced 
almost all the modern provinces of Siena and 
of Grosseto ; a friendly alliance was maintained 
with Florence ; trade flourished ; the city was 
embellished with splendid edifices ; the Palazzo 

(1) For the benefit of those who do not read Italian I ma}- mention 
that a certain amount of information concerning the Sienese merchants maj- 
be obtained from Mr. Lewis Einstein's Italian Renaissance in England 
(New York, The MacmlUan Co. 1902). He devotes an entire chapter to 
" The Italian Merchant in England ".—See also my " Ensatnples " of Fra 
Filippo, a sUidy of mediaeval Siena, pages 43-47, and the whole of the 
first section of chapter IV, pages 137-161. 

— 6i — 

Pubblico was built, and the walls of its lordly 
chambers were clothed with the masterpieces of 
Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Simone Martini ; the 
Torre del Mangia (which now that Venice has 
lost her campanile is incomparably the noblest 
tower in Italy) sprang, like a flight, into middle 
air (^) ; and the enlargement of the cathedral was 
commenced on such a scale as would have made 
it one of the grandest, if not the grandest, 
temple in the world. Nor was learning neglect- 
ed ; the ancient University was embued with 
new life by the migration thither of Bolognese 
scholars ; while, finally, those charitable institu- 
tions which are the pride of modern Siena in- 
creased and prospered. 

Unfortunately, however, as years rolled by, 
the ruling oligarchy deteriorated, and became 
ever less and less mindful of the fact that they 
were the Governors and Defenders of the whole 
Commune and the whole People. Unlimited and 
irresponsible power sapped their energy and 
their virtue ; they grew more and more careless 
of the public weal, and more and more careful 
of the privileges and advantages of their OAvn 
class. Then the great pestilence swept over 

(') " I stood in the piazza and saw the Tower of the Mangia leap 
like a rocket into the starlit air. After all, that does not say it ; j-ou must 
suppose a perfect silence, through which this exquisite shaft for ever soars. 
When once you have seen the Mangia, all other towers, obelisks and 
columns are tame and vulgar and earth-rooted ; that seems to quit the 
ground, to be not a monument but a flight" — W. D. HowELLS, Tuscan 

— 62 — 

Italy (134S), and for a time obliterated many of 
the social landmarks. There was a plethora of 
money ; men were unwilling to labour at their 
accustomed trades, and, as Agnolo di Tura tells 
us, " All those \vho remained alive lived as if 
they were brethren ; and every man was familiar 
and jested w4th his neighbour, as though they 
were kinsmen ; and ever they feasted and made 
merry; for to every each of them it seemed that 
he had regained the world ". Yet, rejoice as 
might the survivors of that horrible calamity, 
they were but a pitiful remnant of the hundred 
thousand souls who had thronged the streets 
of the city but a year earlier (^). Siena had 
received a blow from which she never wholly 
recovered ; and the rule of the Xove which had 
been unwillingly borne even when the Commune 
was great and prosperous, was now felt to be 
unendurable. Again and again, nobles, judges, 
notaries and populace had risen in furious revolt 
against that intolerant oligarchy, and now, at 
last, their day of vengeance was at hand. 

In 1354, Charles of Luxemburg descended 

(') As I am full}- aware the statement of the old writers that in 1348 
the population of Siena was 100,000, is generally supposed to be an exag- 
geration (See The ^' Ensamples ^' of Fra Filippo, Sec, op. cit. pages 43 
n., 94) ; but before the reader definitely makes up his mind on this point, 
I would suggest that the considerations presented by Signor G. Salvemini 
in Cap. II., § 5, of his Magnati e Popolani in Firenze (Firenze, Tip. Carne- 
secchi, 1899), are worthy of some attention. 

- 63 - 

into Italy to receive the imperial crown; and, 
at the same time, he took care to distribute 
privileges and to collect subsidies. On the i8th 
January, 1355, he reached Pisa, and halted there 
to receive the homage of the ambassadors of 
the various Tuscan communes. It was a century 
of merchants. The heroic struggle between 
Emperor and Communes was a thing of other 
times, unknown and incomprehensible to this 
age of sleek burghers, intent only on the counter 
and the till. The Communes w^ere satisfied to 
secure their proper sovereignty by the purchase 
of imperial confirmations, and to obtain for their 
supreme magistrates the title and authority of 
vicars of the Empire ; the Emperor thought only 
of filling his treasury ; so many privileges, so 
many thousands of florins ; a simple question of 
accounts, and the contract was made (^). 

In this matter Florentines and Sienese were 
in full accord, but it seems that the latter, or at 
any rate the Nove on their behalf, overstepped 
the mark. Alarmed at the ever increasing 
discontent of the citizens, and wishing to make 
sure of imperial protection at any cost, they had 
instructed their orators to swear fealty to Charles, 
to offer him the obedience of the city, and to 
submit themselves fully to him, " without reserv- 

(') In the following pages I have made considerable use of the late 
Professor Paoli's ' Monti ' o fazioni nella Reptibblica di Siena. 

- 64 - 

ing any franchise of the ancient liberty of the 
Commune ". This abject surrender of every 
right greatly displeased the Florentines, who saw 
in it a grievous peril to Tuscan liberty, and in 
a moment alienated their sympathies from that 
government with which they had lived in perfect 
harmony for so many years. Xor w^as the action 
of the Nove any better received in Siena, where 
it was felt that they had shamefully abused their 
powers. Misser Guccio de' Tolomei, the head 
of the Sienese embassy, after listening to the 
representations of the Florentines, was afraid to 
make so ample a submission \vithout a more 
explicit mandate. The delay aroused Charles' 
suspicions, and the N'ove found that, in their 
attempt to obtain the imperial favour, they had 
overreached themselves. The Nobles and the 
lower classes alike vied with each other in de- 
monstrations of devotion to the Emperor, and 
while, at first, they had shown themselves anxious 
to defend the liberty of the Commune against 
the pusillanimous concessions of the Nove, they 
were now equally zealous in exciting* the distrust 
of the Emperor against that magistracy whose 
overthrow they so ardently desired. 

For the moment, Charles granted the re- 
quests of the Nove, conceding privileges, the title 
of Vicars of the Empire, and sending forward 
his marshal with 150 men-at-arms to their de- 
fence. He w^as resolved as yet to keep up 

— u^ — 

appearances, although he now not only doubted 
their good faith, but also suspected their weak- 

In this unpropitious humour he came to 
Siena, on the 23rd March 1355, to be reverently 
welcomed by the Magistrates and hailed with the 
utmost enthusiasm by the Nobles and the mas- 
ses. With shouts of Viva V Impe^-atore / mingled 
ere long the sinister cry oi Muoia li Nove / On 
the night of the 24th, many of the chains of 
the city were cut by the Nobles — those chains 
which, nearly half a century earlier, the merchant 
oligarchy had caused to be placed in all the 
principal streets, to the end that they might be 
barricaded at a moment's notice against the 
charge of an iron-clad cavalry. A perpetual token 
of their subjection to the Popolo di mezzo, it was 
fitting that the Nobles should cut them now, 
when the government of the Popolo di mezzo was 
tottering to its fall (^). Before morning the gates 
of the City had been burned, the houses of some 
of the merchants had been attacked, and the 
Emperor had not interfered to protect the Mag- 
istrates or to maintain order. 

(') These chains were bolted to the walls at a height from the ground 
of a little more than a yard. Several of the old bolts are still to be seen 
in Siena, e. g. in the Via Cavour almost opposite the Via di Vallerozzi ; 
in the Via de' Rossi, in the Via di Citta, and in the Casato. According to 
Andrea Dei, " si cominciorono a porre le catene per le vie di Siena nel 
mese di Giugno 1312 "; and, in 1339, as we learn from the researches of 
Sig. Cav. A. Lisixi, there were nearly 300 of such chains. (See the Miscel- 
lanea storica senese, vol. IV (1896) pag. 198-201). 

— 66 — 

By daybreak, all the city was under arms. 
Headed by the Xobles, the populace rose in 
furious revolt. The Nove were thrust forth from 
their palace, and they and their adherents were 
hunted through the city like wild beasts. " And 
so were they wounded and slain throughout the 
city in this place and in that; and no man spoke 
on their behalf ; but they that looked thereon 
shrugged their shoulders. "Wherefore all the 
Nove, and their brethren and sons and kinsfolk, 
fled to hide themselves ; and they were all robbed, 
and there was no man who would receive, 
or regard, or hearken unto them, neither the 

religious orders nor other folk And many 

infamous things were spoken against the Nove; 
they w^ere called thieves and traitors,... and he 
that could say any worse thing of them hesitated 
not to say it ". The Emperor openly aided the 
insurgents, and, after formally ratifying the de- 
position of the Magistrates and revoking every 
privilege w^hich he had granted them, appointed 
a commission of twenty citizens to reform the 
State. Then, on the 28th March, he departed 
for Rome, where, on Easter day the 5th April, 
he received the imperial crown at the hands of 
the papal legate. 

Thus suddenly and ingloriously fell the gov- 
ernment of the Nove, and that intelligent and 
industrious class (which, from the number of its 
chief magistracy, was called the Monte dei Nove 

- 67 - 

or de' Noveschi) was, like the Mo?ite de' Gentil- 
icomini, set aside. Ancient hatreds and new- 
born ambitions had overthrown it, but from the 
day of its fall the Republic never again enjoyed 
the same prosperity. New Monti sprang into 
being without, destroying the old ones ; the 
conflict between the various classes, whether 
political or social, became ever more fierce and 
more implacable ; and nevermore, until she closed 
in her death-grapple with Spain and with the 
Medici, was there unity in Siena. Indeed it 
seemed as if she were seeking to deserve the 
bitter judgment which Philippe de Comines 
passed upon her some century and a half later, 
when he declared that " la ville est de tout temps 
en partialite ct se goiiverne plus foUenicnt que ville 
d' Italie ". 

The commission nominated by Charles IV 
created a magistracy of Twelve popolari, with 
a consultative college of twelve (others say six) 
Gentiluomini. The number of the new magistracy 
gave its name to a new faction, consisting of 
citizens of a lower class than those who had 
constituted the Noveschi. Thus when we speak 
of the Dodici we refer not so much to the number 
of those who composed the supreme magistracy 
of the Republic as to the class or consoi'teria 
from which the members of that magistracy were 
exclusively drawn. From Avhatever point of 

— 68 — 

view we regard them, the Dodici were vulgar, 
incapable and turbulent, Consisting of retail 
tradesmen, (" Negotiatores abiecti " Pius II calls 
them in his Commentaries) their souls did not 
soar above their pockets, and they lived and 
governed in an atmosphere of continual strife. 
Almost the earliest use they made of their 
new authority was to rob the State. Xero di 
Donati (himself one of the Monte de' Dodici and 
whose father sat in the Supreme magistracy of 
the Signori Dodici in March and April, 1363) 
records, under the year 1355, that " in June they 
practised many and great barratries (JY molte e 
graiidi barattarie) in their Office. Wherefore the 
Potesta of Siena made inquest and process 
against them ; and he took ]\Iisser Giovanni del- 
r Acqua, who had been of the said magistracy, 
and his guilt being proved, caused him to be 
beheaded as a forger with the mitre upon his 
head ; and Guccio Pieri and Ser lacomo, the son 
of Domenico Ricci, who were likewise members 
of the magistracy, he proclaimed as outlaws. 
They could not be arrested, therefore were they 
outlawed ". — And these are the men whom 
Mrs. Oliphant confounds with the Nobles ('). 

(1) Blackwood's Magazine, July 1898, page 31— A perusal of the 
paragraph in question well exemplifies the methods of research adopted by 
the authoress of The Makers of Florence. After slurring over all the 
earlier history of Siena (presumably as too complex to be mastered without 
some study), she finds that in the year 1383 (sic) there was a Magistracy com- 

- 69 - 

Truly English writers have given us some curi- 
ous specimens of Sienese history! 

The Dodici soon quarrelled Avith the con- 
sultative College, and, in June of the same year 
(1355), the Gentiluomini were compelled to with- 
draw from the government. The principal char- 
acteristic of the new faction was, however, its 
intense hatred for the Nove — the petty envy and 
dislike of the small shop-keeper for the wholesale 
merchant. With almost feminine spite, the very 
name of the Nove was erased from the public 
statutes ; but persecute theil- predecessors as 
they might, the Dodici were quite incapable 
of emulating their industry and wisdom, or of 
maintaining the Republic in the same prosperity 
and greatness as it had heretofore enjoyed. 

It is true that the times were perilous, and 
that the difficulties which confronted the Dodici 
might well have puzzled wiser heads than theirs ; 
but, when all allowances have been made, it 
is indisputable that they showed themselves 
supremely incompetent. Numerous dependent 
towns revolted ; the Sienese territory was overrun 
by Companies of Adventure who had to be bought 
off with great sums of money; and there Avere 

posed of four Noveschi, four Dodicini and two Popolaii. What the first 
and last are she knows, and of course, in a Commune as essentially feudal 
as was Siena, there must be an aristocracy as well. The inference, to her 
mind, is too obvious to require a second thought, and she naivelj' informs 
us that the Dodici were the nobles! 

long and bitter quarrels with Perugia and with 
Grosseto. Indeed, during the thirteen years 
that those miserable tradesmen misruled the 
State, Siena had little to congratulate herself 
upon. Her one great success, the rout of the 
Compania del Cappello near Torrita in the Val 
di Chiana (1363), was due to ^lisser Ceccolo 
degli Orsini of Rome, w^ho was in command of 
the Sienese levies and who attacked against the 
orders of the ^Magistrates ; and " he was not 
confirmed in his office, because he had been 
commanded not to join battle by reason of the 
peril which might befal therefrom ; and for this 
he was not re-elected ". Nevertheless, the Si- 
gnoria were not ashamed to make pomp of the 
victory they had tried their best not to win ; 
and they " caused the said discomfiture to be 
depicted in their Palace in the Hall of the Ar- 
balists " (i). 

In the city matters were even worse than 
in the contado. The ancient feuds between the 
great houses, so far from being assuaged, became 
daily more violent, since the magistrates did not 

(1) "La detta sconfitta li Signori Dodici la fero depegnare in Palazzo 
nella Sala delle Balestre " — Cronica Sanese in Muratori ad atinum. The 
Sala delle Balestre is, of course, the same as the Sala del Mappamondo. 
In the MiLAXESi Documents, I. 28, it is recorded that in 1373 Maestro 
Luca di Tomme was paid for a picture which he had painted b)- the order 
of the Consiglio Generale " to the honour and reverence of St. Paul the 
Apostle, at the time that the Commune of Siena conquered the Conpagnia 
del Cappelluccio ". The Sienese fought to the battle-cry of " Saint Paul '\ 

scruple to foment them with a view to weaken- 
ing the nobles ; and soon the faction of the 
Dodici itself split into two parties. One of these, 
the most respectable, was called dei Cmieschi, and 
attached itself to the Tolomei ; the other, dei 
Grasselli, which was headed by the Salimbeni, 
was turbulent and lawless, and soon absorbed 
the dregs both of the Gentiluoviini and of the 
Popolmii, On this latter alone were the Govern- 
ment able to depend, and they early realized by 
how many and great perils they were threatened. 
The chronicler Nero di Donati thus sums up the 
position in words which constitute a veritable 
picture : '' E Signori Dodici di Siena entraro in 
grande paura dell' aria, e fero molti Baj'igelli per la 
Citta in ogni Terzo, e con molti fanti, e diero loro 
grandissima balia, che di fatto artiannajassero chiiin- 
que tossisse contra lo7'0, e fero molti ordi?ii e forti 
chi ricordasse hnperadoi^e , e fero murare le pot^ti " ('). 

The Government of the Dodici came to an 
end in the latter part of the year 1368 ; and, 

(1) " The Signori Dodici entered into great fear of the air, and made 
many Sheriffs (Bargelli) through the City in every Terzo, with many soldiers 
(under them) ; and gave them passing great authority to behead whosoever 
should cough against them, and they issued many and strict orders against 
whosoever should bring to remembrance the Emperor, and they caused the 
gates to be walled up ". — The phrase chi ricordasse Imperadore is by no 
means easy to translate ; but, if it bears the meaning which I have given 
it, it depicts in a forcible manner the uneasiness of the Dodici, when even 
the friendly Emperor was a source of alarm. 

in the complicated vicissitudes of those days, 
Nobles, People and Emperor were alike con- 
cerned. That summer so violent were the dissen- 
tions between the two parties that the magistrates 
themselves, in the very Palace of the Commune, 
drew their knives upon one another — ed erano 
pe7' accoltellarsi. At the end of Aug-ust matters 
came to a head, for (says the old chronicler) 
" the party of the Dodici which was called G7'as- 
selli spake unto the Salimbeni which held with 
them and said, Ann you, and make you i^eady to 
battle, because the Caneschi are gathered together and 
conspire against us. And, in like manner, the 
Caneschi spake unto the Tolomei which held with 
them, saying. Be ye valiant, and make ready, 
because we hear that the Grasselli have conspired 
together against us and are gathei'ing to battle. For 
this cause the Gentiluomini assembled in Siena, 
they and the Nove, eight thousand fighting men. 
And the nobles of Siena, beholding the iniquity 
of these Dodici, and that they sought to cause 
the nobles of Siena to cut one another to pieces, 
made peace and amity among themselves, and 
promised and swore fealty together, generally 
the one w^ith the other, all the nobles of Siena ; 
and they promised the Popolo miniito and the Nove 
to reform the government according to their will. 
Thereafter, on the 2nd day of September, they 
sent to tell the Signori Dodici that they willed 
that the Palace should be given up to them. 

Lombardi photo. 

Palazzo Tolomei 

and were minded to reform the City ; and incon- 
tinently, without stroke of sword, the Dodici gave 
up the Palace and the wSignory to the nobles. 
Wherefore the nobles entered into the Palace 
and had the rod of office (bacchetta) , and the 
seals, and the bells, and all the fortresses of 
Siena, and reformed the City ". 

The new Signoria, consisting of thirteen 
magistrates (lo Gentihiomini, and 3 Noveschi), 
adopted the style and title of Consuls, in memory 
of the heroic age of the Commune. Their gov- 
ernment, however, endured but a few days. 
The vSalimbeni (although they were represented 
among the Consuls) at once sold themselves 
to the Dodici, while the Popolo beheld with 
uneasiness an aristocratic reaction contra stahun 
popiilarem. Nor was the Emperor any better 
pleased. From the Dodici he had received sub- 
mission ; and, with their aid and that of the 
Salimbeni, he hoped to acquire a more direct 
dominion in Siena. 

On the 5th September he arrived in Lucca, 
and hardly had the news of the revolution reached 
him, than he sent forward Malatesta da Rimini, 
the Imperial Vicar, with 800 men at arms. On 
the 23rd September, Malatesta encamped at 
Fontebecci, and in the name of the Emperor 
demanded possession of the City. The people, 
ever imperialist, together Avith the Salimbeni and 
the Dodici, took up arms, and hewed down the gate 

— /4 - - 

of San Prospero. With the cry of Vh'af domimis 
Imperator et Populus! they rushed to the attack. 
The fray began at Sant' Andrea, " and thither 
came Gentlemen of all the noble houses (d' ogni 
Casata); and the Consuls which were in the Pa- 
lazzo came ; and there was a great and grievous 
battle ". 

Finally the imperial troops were victorious. 
Demiim popuhts ad Campiim veniens expiignavit 
palatiiim ubi e7'ant Consides, qui prostratis januis, 
intraverunt, et sic expidsi fiieriint Consules. Such 
is the terse official account of the notary of the 
Palace, Jacopo Alanni. He adds : Ego Jacobus 
Manui notarius vidi hec, quare semper fui in palatio, 
cancella7'ius a prima die septembris predicti (^). 

A Council of 124 Riformatori created a new 
magistracy de duodecim popularibus which took 
office on the 24th. HoAvever, the faction of the 
Dodici had no longer exclusive control, for the 
duodecim populares consisted of 4 Dodicini, 3 A'o- 
veschi and 5 of the Popolo 7ninuto. Thus the 
lowest class of citizens were at last admitted to 
the government ; and possibly not to its disad- 
vantage. Things had come to such a pass that 
no change could be for the worse ; and the 

(1) It maj' be of interest to note that, in this revolution, the painter 
Andrea di Vanni took a prominent part. During the rule of the Riforma- 
tori he occupied many of the most important offices of the Republic — See 
MiLANESi Documenti, I. 304, 305, and compare the Arch. stor. it., IV. 41 


artisan is generally a more honest and virile 
specimen of humanity than the counter-jumper. 

The nobles paid dearly for their twenty-two 
days of authority, for, after their overthrow, they 
were excluded not only from the Signoria as 
heretofore, but also from the Councils and minor 
offices of the Commune. The Salimbeni, on the 
other hand, were permitted to inscribe them- 
selves among the Popolo, and were further re- 
warded for their treason to their class by the 
gift of no fewer than six castles, and were 
provided with a guard of 200 soldiers at the 
public expense. 

In October, Charles IV, passing through 
Siena on the way to Rome, gave the sanction 
of his presence to the new government. " And 
he dismounted in Casa Salimbeni ; and he had 
with him 11 00 horsemen, among whom were 
500 men-at-arms ; and they were all lodged and 
quartered in the houses of the nobles who had 
fled; and all their pleasant chambers were used 
as stables ". 

The Emperor only remained in Siena two 
days, from Thursday Oct. 12th to Saturday 
Oct. 14th; and hardly had he left the City, than 
the Dodici, ill content to share with others an 
authority which they had enjoyed alone for 
thirteen years, began to conspire against the 
Noveschi, whose three representatives they hoped 
to exclude from the Signoria. In this, however. 

- 76 - 

they found that they had reckoned without their 
host. They could stir up tumults and revolts, 
but they could not direct them. By this time 
the proletariat had realized its strength ; and on 
the I ith day of December, insiirgente ad rtimoj-em 
in civitate Senaimm popolo minuto (so writes the 
Notary Simone di Conte), et facto tumultu et clamorc 
maximo apicd palatium in quo ei'ant dd. Duodecim, 
et denmm apposito igne ad uniwi ex hostiis ex- 
terioribns dicti pcilatii, patuit ingressiis in palatinm 
populo siipradicto, qui cum furore maximo deposuit 
officium dictorum dd. Dicodecim, et expulit exti-a pala- 
tium septem ex dictis Dominis, videlicet tres de mimero 
seu gente Novem et qiLcittuor de dicta gente Duodecim, 
remanentibus in dicto palatio quinque ex dictis dd. 
Duodecim de gente populi mimtti. 

Thus the government remained in the hands 
of the lowest class, who, with the approval of 
Malatesta (who was still in Siena), constituted a 
Council of 150 Riformatori, all of the Popolo mi- 
nuto, and a Signoria of fifteen, also of the Popolo 
minuto, to serve up to the ist January. Among 
the fifteen were included the five already in office. 
The new magistracy, which was called the Do- 
mi7ii Defensoi'es Populi et Comunis Senarum, did 
not, however, complete even the short term as- 
signed to it; for, on the i6th December, the 
Riformatori, fearing the result of the representa- 
tions which the Dodici Avere making to the Em- 
peror at Rome, summoned to the Palace the 

three Noveschi and the four Dodicini who had 
been expelled, and readmitted them to the Si- 
gnoria, retaining therein eight of the Popolo 
nmmto, and providing that from these eight 
should be selected the Captain of the People ; 
while, as a further precaution, it was ordered 
that the Gonfalonieri Maestri, or standard bearers 
of the three Terzi, should also be members of 
the Popolo mimcto. 

And now, let us pause for a moment to take 
breath, and to make sure that we have not lost 
our way in this labyrinth of numbers and of 
names, this dizzying mutation of governments 
and of factions. 

To recapitulate. In the last four months 
of 1368 the government of Siena was changed 
four times. The exclusive rule of the Dodici 
having come to an end w4th the revolution of 
2nd September, the following magistracies came 
into being and disappeared in rapid succession : 
first, on the 6th September, a magistracy of 
THIRTEEN CONSULS, consisting of 10 Gentiluomini 
and 3 Noveschi ; second, on the 24th September, 
a magistracy of TWELVE, consisting of 4 Dodi- 
cini, 3 Noveschi and 5 Popolani viiniiii; third, on 
the iith December, a magistracy of fifteen, 
composed exclusively of members of the Popolo 
mimtto; and fourth, on the i6th December, another 
magistracy of fifteen, consisting of 8 Popola7ii 
minuti 4 Dodicini and 3 Noveschi. 

Thus a fourth Monte, that of the Rifonnatoii , 
came into existence, its name being taken from 
the Consiglio dei Rifoi'viatoi'i which had instituted 
the new order of things. This Council, which 
was subsequently enlarged more than once, 
elected the most able of its members to the 
Signoria, and remained at the head of the State 
as a permanent assembly, superior to the magis- 
tracy of the Oidndici and the other ordinary 
councils. ^Moreover, that magistracy itself (in 
spite of the participation therein which was 
granted to the 4 Dodicini and 3 Noveschij was 
known as the magistracy of the Rifoyinatori from 
the preponderant portion of its members. 

There can be but little doubt that the Ri- 
forviatori sincerely and earnestly desired to be 
Reformers in the best sense of the word; and 
their first efforts were devoted to the healing 
of old discords. 

The gentibiomini, they felt, must still be ex- 
cluded from oihce. That was the general sen- 
timent of the age in all the Italian communes; and 
indeed, as Gregorovius remarks, " the struggle 
of the People against the nobles was merely a 
continuation of the struggle against feudalism ". 
Nor had the conduct of the Casate, during the 
brief period of their renewed authority, been 
such as to inspire the confidence of the lower 
classes ; for, says Xero di Donati, " in the said 

time, to wit in the twenty-two days that they 
ruled, the Geniiluomini cruelly killed many citizens, 
causing them to be beheaded and slain ; and 
great was the number of them " ; w^hile, after 
their government had been overthrown and they 
themselves expelled from the City, they had 
never ceased to burn and pillage the country- 
side up to the very gates of Siena, " on such 
wise that the City was besieged ". 

With regard to the Nove and the Dodici 
(although neither the narrow and intolerant oli- 
garchal rule of the one, nor the pusillanimity 
and self-seeking of the other were forgotten) the 
Rifor77iatori proved themselves generous. As we 
have seen, they admitted members of each of 
those Monti to the supreme magistracy, only re- 
taining for themselves a bare majority. Indeed, 
it w^as their great object to bring about a union 
of the whole People ; and to this end they com- 
manded that the party names of Nove and Dodici 
should be abolished and that, according to the 
number of the families of the two orders, the 
first should henceforth be called Popolo del minor 
numero ; the second Popolo del numero mediocre; 
while they themselves assumed the title of Popolo 
del maggior numei'O. 

Unfortunately, however, their honest efforts 
for a reconciliation met with no response; and, 
hardly had the new government been constituted, 
than the Dodici and the Salimbeni rose against 

— 8o — 

it. Aided by Charles IV, who returned from 
Rome on the 22nd December, and by the men- 
at-arms under Malatesta, with the secret agree- 
ment that " misser Malatesta dovea avere pe7' questo 
Siena a tirannia de Lompe7'ado7'e per 20 mila fio7'ini 
d' oro r anno. E li Salimbeni, e li Dodici dne di 
sangue, e li forestieri ti'e di sacco " {^), they attacked 
the Palazzo Pubblico (18 January, 1369) and ex- 
pelled the three Noveschi on the pretext that that 
Order was plotting to recall the nobles. But 
the Signoria knew the character of the men with 
whom they had to deal, and when they saw the 
troops of the Emperor, to the number of 3000, 
defiling into the Campo, " by inspiration of God 
they were aware of the treason, and anon com- 
menced the battle with them, and they fought 
in divers places in the Campo ". The bell of 
the Commune rang furiously overhead in the 
Mangia Tower, and from every workshop and 
forge and alley, artisans and mechanics hurried 
to the assistance of the magistrates ; " and the 
Captain of the People who was in the Palace 
(his name Avas Alatteino di Ser Ventura da Men- 
zano) went forth against them with the standard 
and with a small company ; and fighting with 

(*) i. e. " That for this, Misser Malatesta should have the lordship 
of Siena, pajing therefor to the Emperor twenty thousand golden florins 
yearly ; that for two days the Dodici and the Salimbeni should have full 
liberty to massacre their enemies throughout the city, and the foreign mer- 
cenaries three days in which to sack it ". 

— 8i — 

them, he drave not a few of them forth from 
the Campo and back to the Croce di Travaglio (^) ; 
and through every street there was a very great 
battle; and there was the Imperial Standard cast 
to earth and the standard-bearer slain. The 
Emperor, beholding that, suddenly turned back. 
At Piazza Tolomei all dismounted and, holding 
the palaces round about, made a stand; and 
there was a great and incredible battle, and it 
endured more than seven hours. And there were 
slain and wounded many Bohemians and gentle- 
men of the Emperor... And at the end the 
said Emperor and his folk were broken and 
driven and thrust back into Casa Salimbeni ; and 
there were taken from them 1200 horses, and 
all their harness and weapons of war ; and there 
were slain of them 400 men, captains of renown, 
and gentlemen of hig-h estate, among whom 
died one nephew of the Emperor, and one was 
wounded; and of counts and knights and noble 
persons, so many were wounded that all the 

hospitals were full of them without number 

The Emperor abode alone, alone, in the greatest 
dread that ever any coward had. The People 

(1) The Croce di Travaglio is the name given to that spot in the 
centre of the City, almost opposite the Casino de' Nobili, where the three 
main thoroughfares meet. The derivation of the name is, perhaps, not 
absolutely certain, but, according to the better opinion, the word Travaglio 
is simply a corruption of the latin trimn valliimi, it being the place of 
intersection of the three Valleys. Compare, however, my " Eiisamples ,, 
of Fra Filippo &c, op. cit. page 36, note i. 

kept him guarded, and he Avept, and excused 
himself, and embraced and kissed every person 
that came unto him, and said, ' I have been 
betrayed by Misser ]\Ialatesta and b}^ ^lisser 
Joanni, and by the Salimbeni, and by the Do- 
dici ' ; and he spake and told them after what 
manner.... " 

Thus was Charles obliged to come to terms 
with the magistrates, upon whom he conferred 
a privilegiiun with a gold seal, constituting them 
and their successors Imperial Vicars in Siena 
and in the contado, for ever. Thereafter he 
departed from the City, with little credit but 
with some thousands of gold florins which he 
had borrowed from Biccherna. 

The three Noveschi who had been expelled 
were reinstated in the Palace with great honour. 

In spite of all that had happened, the Rifor- 
matori were not yet willing to abandon hope of 
a loyal and permanent reconciliation between 
all the popular parties. On the 31st January, 
after having frankly begged the Noveschi and 
the Dodicini to act in concert with them, they 
caused a resolution to be passed in the Consiglio 
Generale whereby it was provided that, on such 
day as the Signori Difensori and the Captain of 
the People should ordain, there should be cele- 
brated with the utmost solemnity " la messa della 
Pace ", whereto were summoned, together with 

- ^3 - 
the Popolo, all the Nove and the Dodici, " e loro 
discendenti e pertinent!"; that, after the mass, 
all should make peace with one another and 
swear, " suUa pietra sagrata ", to be true and 
leal to the existing government. At the same 
time it was forbidden to " zanzalare ", or to 
calumniate any citizen, while the shouting, " al 
tempo d' alcuno rumore, che Dio cessi, Muoia el 
Popolo! Muoia e' Nove ! Muoia e' Dodici ! was, 
like the breaking of the peace or attempting to 
subvert the government " al presente riformato ", 
rendered highly penal. IMoreover, the Riforma- 
tori were resolved, if possible, that even the 
nobles should not be excluded from the general 
amnesty. Mediators from Florence were called 
in, and before the end of June, the exiles returned 
to the City ; " and they made great festival in 
Siena with trumpets, and bonfires, and merry- 
making, and professions of g'ood will (belle dicia- 
7'ie). The Gentiluomini were even admitted to the 
minor offices of the Commune, although the su- 
preme magistracy, of course, remained closed 
to them. 

Nevertheless, peace did not come. The dis- 
sentions between the Nove and the Dodici con- 
tinued, mainly by the fault of the latter. Through 
the contemporary chronicle runs the bitter re- 
frain, e tutto fii per operazione de' Saliinbeni e de' Do- 
dici. The nobles too, were not satisfied with the 
concessions they had obtained, and conducted 

- 84 - 

themselves with violence and lawlessness alike 
in the City and in the contado, until it became 
necessary to promulgate the severest enactments 
against them. 

Later on, the popolo viinuto itself, which had 
given birth to the government of the Riformato7'i, 
became discontented. From the nature of things 
but few^ of its many members could have a seat 
in the Signoria, and, of course, every man deemed 
himself as fit to rule as his neighbour. The 
appetite for personal powder had been created, 
and those who could not share the offices and 
emoluments of the State felt angry and sore at 
being passed over. The ill humour of the prole- 
tariat was increased by the high price of grain, 
and by the disputes which arose between the 
wool-carders and the Maestri of the Ai'te della 
Lana. In 1370, these wool-carders, men of the 
lowest class, dwelling in the precipitous lanes 
about the Porta Ovile, formed an association 
which they called the Compagnia del Bnico. There 
were about 300 of them, captained by a ligi'ittiere 
(or retail vendor of woolen stufifs); and hunger 
and wretchedness made them desperate. In 
July, 1 37 I, they resolved to suffer no longer, and 
marched tumultuously through the city, demand- 
ing grain at the houses of the wealthy and 
menacing those who refused them. The Sena- 
tor, a criminal mag'istrate, thereupon arrested 
three of them, and, having extorted confes- 

— ^5 - 
sion from them by torture, condemned them 
to death. The Covipagnia del Bruco immediately 
took up arms, and, after compelling* the Senator 
to liberate the prisoners, invaded the Public 
Palace, drove from the Signoria the four Dodi- 
cini and the three Noveschi, and replaced them 
by seven of their fellow tatterdemalions. 

For more than two weeks the city was in 
perpetual tumult ; and herein the Dodici and the 
Salimbeni thought that they saw an opportunity 
of regaining the authority which they had lost. 
Having suborned the Captain of the People and 
the Gonfalonieri Maestri, they laid their plans to 
" cut to pieces the Compagnia del Britco, the To- 
lomei, the Nove, the Bishop and certain others, 
and then to reform the City " (^). 

By a fortunate accident, the Signoria dis- 
covered the plot on the night of the 29th July, 
only a few hours before it should have been 
carried into execution, and were able to take 
steps for their own safety. They could not, 
however, stop the rising; and, before day broke, 
the Salimbeni and their followers had commenced 
their bloody work. The Compagnia del Bimco 
was attacked and massacred, houses and work- 
shops were broken into, and those wretched 

(') Cronaca Sanese, ad ann., in Muratori, XV. col. 226. — The 
Bishop was Jacomo de' Malavolti. He had been consecrated in Avignon, 
and had only returned to Siena on the 8th of the preceding month. He 
died in November of the same year — See Pecci, Storia del Vescovado. 

— 86 — 

wool-carders were put to the sword without 
regard for age or sex. The old chronicler graph- 
ically describes the horrid scene ; how " one 
fled here and another there", how " some sought 
to hide themselves and some threw themselves 
over the city walls ; their women dishevelled 
with their cradles on their heads, and their 
children in their arms or led by the hand, fleeing 
with their terrified burdens, so that never was 
there sight so pitiful ". 

Then the tide turned. Those who had at- 
tacked the Palace were beaten off; the People 
were everywhere victorious, and avenged those 
misdeeds w4th many summary executions. Final- 
ly the Magistracy of the Quindici was reformed 
by the expulsion of the four dodicini, their seats 
being filled by four popolani del maggior munero, 
so that the Signoria was now composed of three 
of the Nove and twelve of the Rifonnatori ; while 
the faction of the Dodici were declared incapable 
of office and were deprived of their arms. 

These continual commotions, this state of 
living, as it were, upon the brink of a precipice, 
exacerbated the minds of the Riformatori. Their 
nerves (if such things were known in those 
strenuous days) were affected, just as men's 
nerves are affected by continual seismic distur- 
bances, and their very nature seemed to change. 
Xo longer bent upon conciliation and forgiveness, 

- 87 - 

they became irritable and cruel, and gave vent 
to their lower instincts in ferocious and unjust 
measures of repression. They tortured witness- 
es, till, like that poor Fardello (^), men committed 
suicide rather than face " examination " at the 
hands of the magistrates ; many paid the death 
penalty on mere suspicion; and we read of a 
certain Ser Agnolo d' Andrea, of the Order of 
the Dodici, who was condemned on no better 
grounds than that he invited to a banquet cer- 
tain friends of his who were believed to be 
hostile to the government, without including 
among his guests any of the Riformatori. The 
minds of men were brutalized and that delight 
in witnessing suffering which lies dormant in 
human nature, Avas aroused and whetted by the 
constant sight of frightful barbarities. Criminals 
were slowly torn to pieces with red hot pincers 
(attanagliati), while bound upon a cart which was 
driven throug'h the streets of the city at a walk- 
ing pace, so that all the citizens might look 
ther-eon (^). Nero di Donati's chronicle becomes 

\i) Cronaca Sanese, ad ann. 1372, in Muratori XV. col. 234. 

("-) See the Cionica Sanese in Muratori, ad annum 1377. 

In an Inventory of the Camera del Comune of 1460, we find the 
following entries : " Un coltellaccio da squartare hnomini a la finestra di 
Alat-thiella^' ; "Duo paia di tanaglie da tanagliare huomini alia delta 
finestra "/ and, to complete the list, " due pezzi di catene da ardere 
huomini ". 

In a sonetto contra Don Diego Urtado da Mendozza, written in 
1552, it is declared that for his " tanti falli " he deserves no less a punish- 
ment than 

" La forcha, '1 fuoco, '1 carro e la tanaglia ". 

— 88 — 

one long wail. He complains that " all right 
and all justice was dead in the City of Siena b}^ 
reason of the works of the Dodici and of the 
Salimbeni " ; that " things came to such a pass 
that in Siena, and in the contado, they slew and 
robbed everyone — si uccideva e robava ogni per- 
sona ". He tells us how a certain Giovanni di 
^leo, a hosier of the Popolo maggiore was arrested 
by the Potesta, " the which Giovanni was the 
greatest and most enormous sinner that dwelt 
ever in vSiena. He burnt and robbed in Siena 
many of the houses and shops of the Move, and 
slew many women in new and unheard of Avays(^); 
he lived with his familiars (con commari) and Avith 
his daughters in most dishonest lechery. This 
man wounded himself and declared that one of 
the Dodici had wounded him, to the end that he 
might calumniate the Dodici and have money 
from the Commune ; and thereof he had much. 
He was worthy of a thousand deaths, more than 
any man of whom the world holds record ". 
Yet, because the Potesta wished to punish him 
after his deserts, " the Popolo de' Riformatori were 
wrath with the said Potesta ; and therefore he 
was not re-elected ". Finally, beholding the 
infinite miseries of those evil days, the chronicler 
is driven to the conclusion that they are due 

i'^ " c iiccise donne pin per niiovi modi im'sfii/iadi/i ^' — Apparently 
a 14th century ' Jack the Ripper '. 

- 89 - 

to some disastrous stellar influence. " At this 
time ", he says, " there reigned in the world a 

planet which had these eff"ects Brethren and 

cousins, husbands and wives, neighbours and 
friends, were at enmity with one another; in all 
the world were sanguinary quarrels. I speak 
not more at large for very shame, albeit I could 
give innumerable instances. In Siena no man 
understood or kept faith ; neither the gentlemen 
among themselves nor with others ; nor the Nove 
among themselves nor with others ; nor the Do- 
dici among themselves nor with others ; nor the 
Popolo, to wit those that ruled, with one another 
nor with others, in any perfect wise ; and so the 
world is all one darkness ". 

In their foreign policy the Riformatori were 
no more successful than in their government of 
the City. They were obliged to fight the Salim- 
beni in the Contado, where, after they had been 
expelled from the town for their crimes, they 
became a standing menace to the Commune. 
Grave injuries too were inflicted by the mercen- 
ary bands, especially the Bretons and Gascons. 
The rival claims of Charles of Durazzo and Louis 
of Anjou to the Neapolitan kingdom caused fresh 
disturbances in Tuscany ; and the Riformato7'i en- 
tertained hopes of gaining possession of Arezzo, 
which was first occupied by Durazzo's men, and 
then by Enguerran de Coucy for Louis of Anjou. 
But, while Siena was nourishing dreams of con- 

— go — 

quest, the French sold the coveted city to the 
Florentines, whose negotiations had been con- 
ducted with marvellous ability and despatch 
(1384). This cruel disappointment brought the 
gathering exasperation of the Sienese against 
their rulers to a climax ; and, at last in ]\Iarch 
1385, the popolo rose in insurrection, instigated 
and led by the Gejitiluomini , the Nove and the 
Dodici. By a cruel irony, the government of the 
Riformatoi'i, which had sought so loyally and 
laboured so earnestly after peace, was overthrown 
to the cry of Viva la pace / And they were 
" broken and cast forth and evil entreated and 
banished and slain ". More than four thousand 
" good artisans " were exiled from the city to 
the great injury of Sienese industries, and the 
Signoria was once more reconstructed ; this time 
with 4 Noveschi, 4 Dodicini and 2 of the Popolo. 
Those, however, of the last named order were 
excluded who had, at any time, been members 
of the Supreme magistracy or sat in the Council 
of the Rifo7^matori. Thus a new popular order 
came into being, which assumed the name of 
the Monte del Popolo, and which was destined to 
complete the tale of Sienese Monti. 

The bourgeois element, once more victor- 
ious, sought, by the admission of two of the 
lower classes to the magistracy of the Died Si- 
gnori Priori Governatori del Coniitne, to create a 
dualism in the Popolo del niaggior numero, and, by 

— 91 -- 
splitting it into two Orders (the Monte dei Rifo?-- 
mato7'i and the Monte del Popolo), to secure their 
own preponderance. True it is that, in the 
course of time, the Ordine del Popolo obtained 
great power and influence, but its first appear- 
ance on the stage of Sienese politics marked 
the victory of the factions hostile to the rule 
of the working classes, created a new division 
among the citizens, and interposed a new ob- 
stacle to that equality and civil concord in which 
consists the essence of an ideal democracy — an 
ideal the realization of which will probably prove 
for all time as illusory as the old search for the 
terrestrial paradise, and which the lapse of five 
centuries does not seem to have brought ap- 
preciably nearer. 

In 1383 the Qidndici Riforniatori had revived 
the old half-forgotten register of the memorialis 
offensa7'it7n in a book called " il Balzano " (^). 
Therein we find recorded the ravages of preda- 
tory bands in the contado, and how, about Tor- 
rita in the Val di Chiana, " they took passing 
great booty of prisoners, and left neither flocks 
nor herds, whether work-oxen, cows, sheep, swine 
or horses, to the value of very many thousand 
florins, so that in Torrita there remained scarce 

(1) See page 29 supra, note i. — The " Libro detto il Balzano, con- 
tenente le offese fatte al Comune di Siena dal 1383 al 1388 ", is published 
by L. Banchi as an appendix to the " Memoriale delle offese ". 

— 92 — 

three yoke of oxen ". A month later another 
entry recalls another raid, the slaying of certain 
shepherds and the driving off of five thousand 
sheep, followed by the capture of the Sienese 
captains who " volendo vendicai'e la detta offesa e 
ricoveraj^e V onore del Conitme di Siena ", rode after 
the marauders, but fell into an ambush and were 
held to ransom. 

These things vv^ere bad enough ; but the 
Dieci soon had more grievous matter to chronicle. 
In 1388, there is an entry which sets forth the 
fact that " Misser Giovanni of Montepulciano 
took Montepulciano from our Commune and 
gave it to the Commune of Florence " ; and 
then, in another hand, " The Florentines took 
Cortona from us while we were in alliance with 
them. In the Instrument of the said League 
they covenanted to defend for us Cortona and 
Montepulciano, and they have taken from us 
both the one and the other. In a thousand 
ways they mocked us and deceived us under 
pretext of desiring to return them to us, with 
such and so great lies and falsities that it would 
be over long to recount them, and all to the 
shame and infamy of our Commune ". 

In fact, Florence, ever greedy of dominion, 
and never bound by any pact which it was to 
her interest to break, had not been long in 
realizing how terribly Siena had been crippled 
by the banishment of so many of her citizens. 

— 93 — 
In 1387 she cast longing eyes upon Montepul- 
ciano — the old apple of discord between the 
Communes — and having fomented a rebellion in 
the subject town, then shamelessly offered her 
services as arbitrator. For the moment she 
delayed reaping the fruit of her treachery, and 
on the 29th October gave judgment in favour 
of Siena. This decision, however, had but little 
effect, for Montepulciano again revolted and of- 
fered itself to Florence, which now no longer 
hesitated to accept its submission. War fol- 
lowed, and Siena, unable to resist the aggres- 
sions of her stronger neighbour, appealed to Gian 
Galeazzo of Milan for assistance, only to find that, 
ere many years were over, her new ally had 
made himself her master. It is true that the 
ducal suzerainty only lasted till 1403 ; but the 
submission of the Commune to the dreaded one- 
man-rule (il governo d' U7i solo), for however short 
a period, is sadly significant of the weakened 
moral fibre of the Sienese. 

Thus ingloriously ended the 14th century 
which had beg'un so brightly ; and that same 
vSiena which had defied three Emperors; which 
had not feared to close her gates in the face of 
the terrible Barbarossa; which had hardly felt 
uneasiness at the approach of the seventh Henry; 
and had seen the fourth Charles humbled and 
weeping, and at her mercy, was now the prey 
of a petty Italian despot. 


It was a century of great crimes, steeped 
in cruelty, red with slaughter, and stained with 
ever increasing licentiousness. Naturally, there- 
fore, we should expect it also to be a century 
of great saints, for extremes meet, and, even 
as corruption and every kind of wickedness form 
the inevitable reaction from excessive devotional 
tendencies, so do asceticism, morbid introspec- 
tion and mystic yearnings follow close upon the 
heels of corruption. Xor are our expectations 
doomed to disappointment. The Blessed Ber- 
nardo Tolomei, who founded the Order of the 
Monks of Oliveto ; the Blessed Giovanni Colom- 
bini, who founded that of the Poveri Gesuati ; 
vSt Catherine, the worthiest of all women to be 
canonised; San Bernardino, the mighty preacher; 
were all Sienese. Verily, Mr. Symonds is right 
when he asserts that few cities have given four 
such saints to Modern Christendom. 

Of these, the most celebrated and, perhaps, 
also the noblest and the best, was Caterina Be- 
nincasa. Of the details of her life it is not 
necessary to speak. Countless books have been 
written about her, and her greatness has made 
her the possession of all ages and of all peoples. 
Indeed, it would hardly be too much to say that, 
for many persons, Siena is simply the town of 
St Catherine ; and it is unquestionable that the 

— 95 — 
ancient city has reaped more glory from the 
holy life of that simple maiden, than from all 
its wars and victories, all its poets and all its 
painters. " Taken as a whole, her life is perhaps 
unique in history. Women have risen up and 
prophesied since the days when Deborah was 
judge in Israel; they have rebuked evil in high 
places ; even in Catherine's day other voices 
beside hers were raised in protest. Women 
have been patriots and soldiers like Joan, the 
maid of Orleans. But few women have com- 
bined so many offices, and fulfilled all alike so 
faithfully " ('). Nor is this the less true if we 
admit with Mr. Trollope that her mystic trances 
were cataleptic fits (''*), or hold her, with Dean 
Milman, " the hysterical dupe of artful confes- 
sors " (^). We may even acknowledge that, at 
least in the sense in which Mr. Ruskin uses the 
word (■*), she Avas "insane"; but none of these 
things can change the g'randeur of her self-sac- 
rifice, the breadth and depth of her sympathy 
with all humanity, or the great work which 
she accomplished in an evil age. Possibly, to 
achieve all that she did achieve, she was almost 

(1) Florenxe Witts, 77?^ Story of Catherine of Siena. 

(■^) Thos, Adolphus Trollope, Article. St. Catherine, in the Ency- 
clopaedia Brittanica. 

(•') Latin Christianity (4th edition) Book XII, chap. XIII, pages 
26-30 and notes. 

(^) Mornings in Florence (New York, John W. Lovell Co. 1889) 
page 36. 

justified in torturing that poor lovely body of 
hers ; although, in this saner twentieth century, 
it is hard to think it. Nevertheless, when all 
is said and done, it is incontestable that hers 
was " one of the best and bravest and meekest 
woman's lives ever lived ". " Make the at- 
tempt ", says ]\Irs. Butler, in her Catheriiie of Siena, 
" make the attempt to live a life of prayer such 
as she lived, and then, and not till then, will 
you be in a position which will give you any 
shadow of a rig'ht or any power to gauge this 
soul's dealings with God ". Catherine finished 
her life as she had begun it, careless of self and 
full of care for others to the very last; and so, 
on the 29th April, 1380, 

.. mixed herself with heaven, and died; 
And now on the sheer city-side 
Smiles like a bride. 

Catherine was canonised by the great vSien- 
ese Pope, ^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini, Pius 11. 
The Bull which raised her to the Altars of the 
Church was published in June, 1461, and Pius 
gratified his love for his native city by drawing 
up her Office with his own hand (^). 

(') Pius gave his approbation to a service in which the celebrated 
miracle of the Stigmata was prominently asserted, while in some latin 
verses which he wrote ad laudem Seraphicae Sponsae D. Nostri Jesii 
Christi, Beatae CathaHtiae de Senis, it is declared that 

Stigmata passa fuit, dictu mirabilc, Christi. 

This, of course, greatly annoyed the Franciscans who, on behalf of 

— 97 — 

On the 8th September of the year in which 
St Catherine died, was born in Alassa Marittima 
the great Saint and preacher Bernardino Albiz- 
zeschi. After an exceptionally pure and noble 
boyhood, we find him, at the age of twenty, 
labouring with a little band of friends, in the 
Spedale della Scala, during the pestilence of 1400. 
Two years later he joined the Franciscan Order. 

To his initiative we owe the erection of the 
Convent of the Osservanza which stands upon 
the hill of Capriola, about a mile from Siena. 
The modern building is, however, of later date. 
Here he studied and here he preached for sev- 
eral years; and it was not until 141 7 that he 
began his apostolate in Milan, Ere long his 

their founder, claimed a monopoly in that peculiar brand of miracle ; and 
when SixtusIV, himself a Franciscan, ascended the papal throne, he hastened 
to vindicate the rights of St Francis and issued a decree by which it was 
forbidden to represent St Catherine as receiving the stigmata under pain 
of ecclesiastical censures. " Whether Sixtus intended by this decree to assert 
that no such miracle was performed on Catherine, or that it ought not to 
have been performed in justice to St Francis, or that having been unfor- 
tunately performed, nothing ought to be sai4 about it, is left (says Mr. Trol- 
lope) to the very unsatisfactory conjectures of indiscreet inquirers ". 

It was now the turn of the Dominicans to be indignant ; and so the 
troublesome controversy dragged on for about a century and a half, until 
Urban VIII,' adroitly reconciled (as far as possible) the equally authoritative, 
but quite contradictory, rulings of Pius II and Sixtus IV, by declaring that 
the stigmata were " not bloody, but luminous ". It would be curious to 
learn which sort of stigmata the pundits of the Church consider superior. 

For the student of Sienese art this otherwise futile and childish 
controversy acquires a certain interest on account of the picture of the 
Tavoletta di Gabella of 1499, representing St Catherine receiving the Stig- 
mata. To the right is Pius II, holding in his hand a scroll with the legend 
STiMATA PASSA FViT, a patriotic protest on the part of the artist against the 
decree of Francesco da Savona. 

- 98 - 

eloquence made him famous throughout Italy, 
and, wherever he appeared, crowds thronged to 
hear him. Between this year and his death in 
1444, he preached in more than eighty different 
towns and cities (^). With especial enthusiasm 
did he inculcate the adoration of the Holy Name 
of Jesus, and wherever he went he sought to 
persuade his hearers to paint or carve the sacred 
letters I. H. S., surrounded by a halo of golden 
rays, on their churches, houses and palaces^ — 
tiini sa7ictorimi teynplis, turn privatis domibus. This 
device is to be seen above the Camollia Gate, 
in the Sala del Mappamondo, and in countless 
other places in Siena. 

Some idea of Fra Bernardino's influence 
with his fellow citizens may be obtained from 
the fact that, in deference to his exhortations, 
the Consiglio della Campana actually amended 
the laws and enacted what were known as the 
Rifo7'i7iagioni di /rate Bemaj'dhio. 

He preached in Siena many times ; first in 
1405, in the Oratorio of Sant Onofrio; a second 
time in the Cathedral in 14 10; in May, 1425, in 
the Piazza del Campo, in the presence of the 
Signoria and of a crowd which, according to the 
chroniclers, numbered, on more than one occasion, 
40,000 persons; Avhile on the 15th August, 1427, 

(') A list of these will be found on pages 488, 489 of the Stoiia di 
San Bernardino da Siena by F. Alessio. 

— 99 — 

he commenced those forty-five sermons which 
were published, a few years ago, by Luciano 
Banchi, under the title of Le prediche volgari di 
San Bernar'dino da Siejia dette nella Piazza del Campo 
V anno MCCCCXXVIL They consist of three 
volumes, of about 400 pages each, every word 
of which is well worth reading. 

During the sojourn of the Emperor Sigis- 
mund in Siena (1432-3), he contracted a strong 
affection and regard for Fra Bernardino. " The 
days passed without seeing him ", he used to 
say, " are days without light ". 

The Sienese were most anxious that their 
great fellow citizen should become their Bishop, 
but, although the Pope nominated him to the 
see, he firmly refused the proffered honour. 

In the spring of 1 444 he saw Siena for the 
last time ; and the last time that his fellow cit- 
izens listened to his beloved voice he spoke 
with great earnestness of justice and of the good 
government of the Republic. He preached in 
the Piazza del Duomo. A few weeks later (20th 
May) he died at Aquila, at the hour of vespers, 
while the friars were singing the words: Pater, 
vianifestavi nomen tutini honiinibus. 

He was canonised six years later by the 
command of Nicolas V (^). 

C' It ma)' be remarked, for the benefit of those who do not un- 
derstand Italian, that a very readable Life of San Bernardino has been 
written in French by Paul Thureau-Dangin. The Italian translation is, 
however, more useful on account of the additional notes. 

lOO — 

Giovanni Tolomei (for the name Bernardo 
was only assumed when he entered the religious 
life) was born in 1272. At the age of sixteen he 
became doctor both of philosophy and of civil 
and canon law, was subsequently knighted, and, 
according to the legend of his life, " ruled the 
State " — an obvious exaggeration, since the To- 
lomei appear among the casate excluded from 
the government, by the law of 1277 (^). When 
he was forty years of age he was stricken with 
sudden blindness, and, having received his sight 
again in answer to a prayer to the Virgin, re- 
nounced the world. AVith two companions, he 
betook himself to the wild hills of Accona. 
The three anchorites were soon joined by re- 
cruits of a like temper. Six years later, Gio- 
vanni visited Pope John XXII at Avignon ! and, 
at that pontiff's bidding, the Bishop of Arezzo 
prescribed the rule of St Benedict for the new 
brotherhood, which took the name of the Con- 
gregation of St Alary of Alount Olivet. Its found- 
er died about the year 1348, and was beatified 
by the Church for his great virtues. 

It only remains to add that one of Air. J. A. 
Symonds' New Italian Sketches deals with Alonte 
Oliveto and the Blessed Bernardo Tolomei. 

Giovanni Colombini w^as born early in the 

(') See page 46, supra, note ('). 

— lOI - — 

14th century, probably between 1300 and 1304. 
He married in 1342. He seems to have be- 
longed to the Moiite de' Nove, and is said to 
have been one of the Supreme Alag'istracy. He 
was converted about 1355, and, having bestowed 
all his worldly goods on the Convent of Santa 
Bonda (where he had placed his thirteen year 
old daughter) and on the hospital of S. Maria 
della Scala, with the proviso that the income 
arising from the property thus conveyed should 
be payed to his wife during her lifetime, he 
" espoused Most High Voxevty—altissivia pover- 
ta'\ and wandered through the city and country, 
preaching a gospel of love and reconciliation. 
So great was his success, and so vast the num- 
ber of the disciples who abandoned the world 
at his bidding, that his biographer declares that, 
for this cause, he was banished by the Dodici, 
lest the city should be depopulated by his doc- 
trines (1357)- 

Ten years later the Order of the Poveri 
Gesuati, which he had founded, was approved 
by Urban V ; and, a few weeks or days after- 
wards, Colombini died at the Monastery of San 
Salvatore in Monte Amiata. 

His letters are among the most remarkable 
in the category of ascetic works of the 14th 
century ; while, besides his prose writings, he 
composed rime spirituali or lauds. It seems that 
the Gesuati were accustomed to sing continually 


as they wandered about the country, and indeed, 
at almost all other times. Naturally enough, 
those of them who had the knack of versifying* 
sang their own words. Of the lauds of Colom- 
bini himself only one authentic example has come 
down to us; but we possess quite a large num- 
ber by a follower of his, Bianco da Siena. These 
are w^ritten "in the golden tongue of the 14th 
century — nella linqita dell' aitrea trecento ". They 
form no contemptible contribution to Italian 
religious literature (^). 

It would, of course, be easy to mention 
many other Sienese Saints who lived during the 
period under consideration, but the four of whom 
I have spoken are the most important, and the 
space at my disposal is sadly limited. 

Over the events of the greater part of the 
15th century we may pass very lightly. Im- 
portant for the story of literature and of art, 
in its political aspect it is certainly the least 
interesting period of Sienese history, and is, 
perhaps, chiefly remarkable in connection with 
the names of three great men whose joint lives 
span its entire length: — San Bernardino (1380- 

(') The reader who is curious about the matter will find more than 
one of these rime spirituali in The " Ensamples " of Fra Filippo, &c. 
op. cit. See the Index to that work s. v. Laudi spirituali. 


1444); ^neas Sylvius Piccolomini (1405-1464); 
and Pandolfo Petrucci (1451-1512). 

Of the first of these I have already spoken ; 
the second belongs rather to the story of Italy 
and of the Papacy than to that of Siena (^); so 
that we need, in fact, only concern ourselves, 
in this place, with the last of the three, Pan- 
dolfo " the Magnificent ". 

During the earlier years of the century, we 
hear less than heretofore of the discord between 
the various vionti ; and it seems not improbable 
that, for a time, the intensity of their antag- 
onism was, in fact, diminished by the pressure 
of external circumstances. From 1409, when, 
in consequence of the decisions of the Council 
of Pisa, Florence and Siena had declared against 
Gregory XII, until the death of Ladislas of 
Naples, the Sienese had enough to do to defend 
themselves against the incursions of that mon- 
arch ; while, in 1431, they were involved in a 
fresh war with Florence. Indeed it was not till 
after the Peace of Ferrara, that the internal 
dissentions again acquired something of their 
old virulence; and doubtless, as long as he lived, 
the influence of Fra Bernardino was potent in 

(') How important a part Pius II played upon the stage of Italy and 
of Europe may be judged from the fact that the whole of the third volume 
of the late Bishop Creighton's monumental work might be entitled, with 
perfect propriety, " The Life and Times of Pius //"—With regard to 
the Pope's connection with Siena, see especially, pages 122-123, 212, 244-246 
and 355 seq. 

— I04 — 

maintaining civic concord. In 1433 niany of 
the Dodici were exiled; and, in 145 1, a large 
number of the Gentiliwmini, together with more 
of the Dodici, shared the same fate. In 1459, 
at the request of Pius II, the nobles were read- 
mitted to a share in the government ; but this 
concession, grudgingly made, only remained in 
force for a few years, and, on the death of the 
Pope (1464), was revoked altogether, save in the 
case of members of the Piccolomini house, who 
were decreed to be popolani and were allowed 
to retain all their privileges. 

The failure of the Pazzi conspiracy in 1478 
led to a war in which Florence and Milan were 
opposed to the Pope and the King of Naples. 
Siena sided with the latter and shared in the 
victory of Poggio Imperiale and in the taking 
of Colle di Val d' Elsa. In 1480, after peace 
had been declared, Alfonso of Calabria, who had 
captained the allied forces, attempted to impose 
his suzerainty upon the Commune, and had 
actually succeded in reorganizing the govern- 
ment to his own advantage and to that of his 
supporters among the citizens, when he was 
recalled to the south by the news that Otranto 
had been stormed by the Turks. In 1483 the 
Noveschi, who had favoured his designs, Avere 
condemned to perpetual banishment from the 
government and from the city, while the Monte 
del Popolo possessed themselves of the lion's share 

— I05 — 

of the offices and emoluments of the state. But 
in perpetuo was an empty form of words in those 
turbulent Italian Republics. The Noveschi, being 
" fat burg"hers ", with powerful connections, 
abilities and traditions, only gained increased 
strength and influence in exile ; and five years 
later, on the 22nd July 1487, they returned 
triumphantly to Siena, dispersed the few ad- 
herents of the popolo Avho offered resistance, mur- 
dered the Captain of the People, reorganized the 
State, and then, their own preponderance being 
assured by their numerical strength and influ- 
ence, they accorded equal shares of power to 
the other Monti. 

Among the returned exiles was Pandolfo 
Petrucci, a man of little learning but of great 
natural abilities, subtle and prudent, gifted with 
a profound knowledge of the baser side of 
human nature, and entirely free from conscien- 
tious scruples. The portrait which Baldassare 
Peruzzi has left of him, and which adorns the 
first volume of Pecci's Memorie, seems that of a 
typical Renaissance despot ; a broad and some- 
what high forehead ; clearly marked, but not 
too heavy eye-brows ; well formed nose ; calm 
vigilant eyes, reading all, revealing nothing; a 
square chin and large voluptuous mouth with 
firmly compressed lips — the presentment, in fact, 
of a strong, determined personality, dangerous 
to thwart, Avithout fear and without remorse. 

— io6 — 

In a city as corrupt and discordant as was 
Siena, it was no very difficult matter for such 
a man to make himself master of the State; and 
that power which he had gained by diplomacy 
and finesse, Pandolfo succeeded in preserving 
with a strong hand. Secure in the support 
of the French king, who had stood his friend 
when the Borgia sought his ruin, he fortified 
his position by alliance with Florence — the old 
policy of the Noveschi which had made Siena so 
prosperous during the first half of the fourteenth 
century — and directed the internal affairs of the 
State by means of the Collegia della Balm (a sort 
of permanent committee, first introduced in 1455) 
which, although occasionally reorganized for the 
purpose of conciliating rival factions, remained 
always subject to his will. Nevertheless, as 
Professor Paoli points out, his rule was, strictly 
speaking, rather a "domination" than a"signory", 
inasmuch as he left the established form of gov- 
ernment intact, and exercised despotic authority 
only in virtue of his strength of character and 
the continued increase of his personal power. 
He found an able servant and coadjutor in his 
secretary, Antonio da Venafro, whom Alachiavelli 
calls "il cuore siio ed il caffo degli altri icomini " , 
and whose selection by Pandolfo Avas alone suf- 
ficient, in the judgment of the Florentine, to 
prove the latter valentisshno iiomo. 

Pandolfo w^as not naturally cruel, but he 

— loy — 

seems to have been perfectly callous ; and, to 
say nothing of the removal of Nicolo Borghesi, 
his father in law, there are ugly stories of men 
precipitated down prison-drops and buried alive 
in razzaie or charnel-houses. Of one of these 
poor wretches it is related that he was thrust 
by treachery into the ossuary of the hospital, 
where for days his cries were heard growing 
fainter and fainter, until, at last, death came to 
his release. However, such and worse methods 
of execution were common enough in those 

That Pandolfo was avaricious and lent at 
usury to the Commune cannot be denied, but 
that was a time-honoured method of acquiring 
and maintaining influence in the conduct of 
public affairs, as we have seen in the case of 
the Arti as early as the 1 3th century (^). What 
may be expected to weigh more heavily against 
him, in a woman-ridden age like ours, when 
private morality is too often made the touchstone 
of public virtue, is his intrigue with the fair 
Caterina of wSalicotto, the daughter of a black- 
smith and wife of a pack-saddle maker, whom, 
on account of her buxom charms, the people 
called Spada a due mani. Certainly the most 
confirmed optimist can find nothing idyllic in 
the squalid amours of an old man of nearly 
sixty with a vulgar and mercenary plebeian. 

(') bee page 29 supra. 

— io8 — 

Still, when all is said and done, Pandolfo 
did good work in his day and generation. As 
long as he lived he succeeded in repressing the 
anarchy and turbulence which was hurrying 
Siena to her doom. Under his rule she enjoyed 
peace abroad, and settled government, equal 
laws and ever increasing prosperity at home. 
That the methods he employed were often blame- 
worthy, if judg'ed by the criterions of the twen- 
tieth century, is indisputable ; but, if ever the 
end can justify the means, this was assuredly 
such an end. " Pandolfo the Good ", even 
perhaps " Pandolfo the Great ", w^ould sound 
strangely ; but " Pandolfo the IMagnificient " 
appears to the dispassionate historian a fitting 
tribute to the man's true worth (^). 

At the same time, in arriving at such a con- 

(') The following is the judgment of a contemporarj' chronicler, ^Yho, 
although intenselj' hostile to Pandolfo, admits his ability : Tamen fjiit sa- 
pientissimus omniuvi, ut connumeraretiir ctcm Joanne Bentivolo, et Laii- 
rentio Medice. 

Of modem writers C. Falletti-Fossati, in his work on the Princi- 
pali cause della Caduta della Rep. Senese (page 92), fully recognizes the 
grande abilitd politica of Pandolfo, and points out how extremely superficial 
is the view of his character taken by Burckhardt ; while no less an authority 
than Professor Zdekauer speaks of him as U7i uomo non comune, and argues 
that the diametrically opposite opinions formed about him b)' different histo- 
rians are alone sufficient to prove that he was a remarkable man — See Lo 
Studio di Siena nel Rinasciniento, page 124. 

I am the more anxious to call the attention of the reader to these 
facts, because I am led to believe that Professor Laxgton Douglas, in his 
forthcoming History of Sie^ia, holds a brief for the prosecution. 

The arguments on either side of the question are impartially, if 
succinctly, stated in U. G. ^Ioxdolfo's Pandolfo PetTucci, pages 156-162. 

— lOy — 

elusion, it is necessary to keep perpetually in 
mind the great work which he accomplished and 
the enormous difficulties which he overcame. 
Apart from that, he might almost seem, as Burck- 
hardt calls him, " insignificant and malicious ". 
If he sinned, his end was sad enough to e- 
voke the pity of the sourest moralist. Hated 
and feared by the vast majority of the citizens, 
estranged from his wife, disappointed in his 
children and old before his time, he longed to 
retire into private life, but dared not trust the 
helm to untried hands. Wracked and wasted 
with asthma, he sought relief at the Bagni di 
S. Filippo, near Radicofani, but found no benefit 
from the waters, and resolved to return to Siena. 
On the 2 1 May, 15 12, he reached San Quirico 
and withdrew to his chamber to rest. Two 
hours later his servants found him dead. 

" The fire is out, and spent the dregs thereof. 
(This is the end of every song man sings.) 
The golden wine is drunk ; the dregs remain 
Bitter as wormwood, and as salt as pain ; 
And health and hope have gone the way of love 
Into the drear oblivion of lost things ". 

He was buried in the convent of the Osser- 
vanza where his grave may still be seen. Upon 
it was inscribed this legend: — 

Ui sua Postei-itas secu7n requiesceret, Urnam 
Hanc sibi Pandiilphus jussit & esse suam. 

Pandolfo w^as not successful in founding- a 
dynasty ; for his sons and kinsmen, while pos- 

I lO 

sessed of most of his worst qualities, displayed 
none of his political ability and strength of pur- 
pose. They succeeded to his authority, but 
could not maintain it, and in a few short years 
destroyed themselves and one another. 

The eldest brother, Borg^hese, an incapable, 
haughty and dissolute youth, was expelled by 
his cousin Raffaello in 151 5. The new despot 
proved himself a bitter enemy to Pandolfo's 
children. He caused Borghese and the younger 
Fabio to be proclaimed as rebels ; while the Car- 
dinal Alfonso was strangled in Castel Sant'An- 
gelo by a Moor, at the command of Leo X. 
Raffaello died in 1522, detested by the Sienese. 
When his body was carried to San Domenico 
for burial, the mob surrounded it with such 
execrations and fury that " it seemed as if the 
mouth of hell was opened ". At last the Bar- 
gello arrived, only to be greeted with showers 
of stones, while the crowd howled around the 
corpse which they attempted to carry to the 
Vetrice where the carcasses of dead horses were 
thrown ; " and all the friars fled, leaving the 
bier alone in the midst of the officers (bijTi) who 
were scarcely able to carry it into the church. 
And (says the old chronicler) no man had seen 
him die ; and he received not the sacraments; 
his death was according to his life, even as saith 
the proverb, chi vial vive, vial miiore " . In the 
following year, Clement VII. insisted on the 

— Ill -- 

recall of Fabio Petrucci ; but, while that careless 
youth dreamed sweet dreams of love, inspired 
by the blond beauty of the g'racious Onorata 
Massaini, a conspiracy was formed to overthrow 
him in which her brother joined, and, in 1524, 
a fresh popular outbreak drove him from Siena 
for ever. 

Thus ended the domination of the Petrucci, 
but the N^oveschi survived the shipwreck of that 
house, and succeeded in placing one of their 
number, Alessandro Bichi, at the head of the 
State. Their triumph was, however, short lived. 
Less than three months later the new despot 
was murdered; many of the Nove fled the city; 
and wSiena, rejoicing to be rid of her tyrants, 
put herself under the protection of the Emperor 
Charles V., and once more gave herself over to 
that anarchy and tumult which she loved so well, 
and which her citizens dignified by the name of 

In vain Charles tried to save her from her- 
self; he sent his ministers to pacify her discords 
and to reform her government; he despatched 
letters of earnest counsel and entreaty, beseech- 
ing her to recall her exiles and to live at unity. 
" This (he writes in 1530) your conscience bids 
you do ; this equity and justice ; this your Re- 
'public torn by your private hates ; this Italy, 
tranquillized in every part, you alone excepted; 

this your Caesar, anxious for your well-being ; 
this Christy the best, the greatest, who not only 
taught, but, by His most potent example, invited 
all men to pardon their enemies. ^lost earnestly 
do we beseech you to hearken. With you it 
lies to give heed to so many and such reason- 
able prayers, which, if they move you, shall 
turn not to your injury, but to your abiding 
gain ". 

To all representations, entreaties, counsels, 
Siena turned a deaf ear, until, at last, the Em- 
peror was compelled to use force; for not only 
was she a peril to herself but a dangerous 
nuisance to all her neighbours. 

The inefficiency of the government rendered 
the contado the rendezvous and refuge of all 
the criminals of Tuscany ; the merchandise which 
passed through the dominion was carried off, 
farms were invaded, crops cut down, houses 
burnt ; while, in addition to all this, private 
wars and family blood feuds lacerated almost 
all the subject towns. In Orbetello, for example, 
in 1528, not a night passed Avithout the break- 
ing open and sacking of granaries, magazines, 
houses and shops. In Manciano no day went 
by but some one appeared before the officials 
of the Commune to complain that he had been 
robbed upon the public highway; and, in these 
ill enterprises, a certain vScipione Bidelli acquired 
a sinister notoriety. He was an Arciprete of 

— 113 — 

Chiusi, who for some years, infested the dominion 
with a company of bandits, doing- much the 
same in the Senese, as Nicolo de' Pelagatti did 
in the territories of Ferrara. 

The political and economic conditions of the 
various Communes, the exiles, the outlaws, and 
the discharged soldiers, created brigandage and 
fostered it ; and for these lawless bands the ter- 
ritory of Siena was, as I have said, the chosen 
asylum and meeting place. Neither goods nor 
persons were efficiently protected from their de- 
predations, and they grew so bold and numerous 
that, on more than one occasion, they ventured 
to resist the levies sent against them by the 
Republic, and succeeded in putting them to flight. 
In such of the country villages as were not 
abandoned, the peasants, for their own safety's 
sake, were secretly leagued with the outlaws, 
kept them informed of the movements of the 
authorities, and, as far as possible, avoided tak- 
ing up arms against them when summoned to 
join the posse comitatus. 

As if the banditti did not suffice to render 
country life uncertain and dangerous, the con- 
tadini themselves not unfrequently associated 
together for lawless enterprises, and, either with 
the viev.^ of carrying out some local vendetta 
or, more often, made reckless by misery and 
famine, invaded a neig'hbouring" village or passed 
the confines of the State and drove off the flocks 

— 114 — 

and herds of the Florentines, of the Baglioni, 
of the Seigniors of Piombino and of wSanta Fiora. 
Such incursions gave rise to infinite law suits 
and to very lengthy diplomatic negotiations. 
Indeed, Professor Falletti-Fossati distinctly states 
that the principal care of Sienese diplomacy, 
from the second half of the 15th century almost 
up to the fall of the Republic, was to excuse 
the depredations of its subjects. 

These depredations were, of course, followed 
by reprisals. Those whose cattle had been driv- 
en off frequently took the law into their own 
hands, and made counter-incursions into the 
Sienese dominion. Thereupon the contadini fled 
for refuge to the nearest town, breaking down 
the bridges behind them. The enemy, having" 
done what harm they could, and gathered as 
much booty as possible, retired to prevent being 
surrounded. Then the community set about 
repairing the damage, but, since their neigh- 
bours were always ready to take the offensive, 
and since the public treasury was almost always 
empty, many bridges remained unrepaired and 
many once populous districts were wholly de- 

The Republic acquired a very evil reputa- 
tion, and was cordially hated by all its neigh- 
bours. The men of vSan Gimignano and of CoUe, 
the Ricasoli, the Florentines, the Farnesi, the 
Baglioni and the Pope were continually protest- 

ing against the depredations and quarrelsomeness 
of the Sienese. In 1529, Salimbeni wrote from 
Rome that to the agents of Caesar it seemed 
high time that the Sienese began to live at peace 
with their neighbours and " non si procacciassero 
piu scabbia addosso di quella cJie avevano " . Nor 
did the exasperation of those who suffered from 
their lawlessness always end in words. The 
Count of Anguillara waylaid three Sienese ora- 
tors who were returning from Rome, and shut 
them up in a sort of w^ell, demanding a heavy 

Much the same thing had happened about 
three centuries earlier, when the Count Omberto 
degli Aldobrandeschi had laid an ambush for 
the biioni sapienti et idonei homines whom the Com- 
mune had sent as ambassadors to his cousin 
Ildobrandino of Santa Flora ; but, in those old 
days, Siena was young and of high courage, and 
Omberto paid for his insolence in the piazza of 
Campagnatico ; 

come i Sanesi sanno 
E sallo in Campagnatico ogni fante (*). 

Now, instead, all that the Balia could do 
was to protest, scold, and threaten, and all in 

(1) Purgatorio XI, 65-66— Compare The " Efisamples " of Fra Fi- 
lippo &.C, op. cit. pages 31, 32, note. — It maj' be worth mentioning that, in 
one of the rooms in which the Tavolette di Biccherna e di Gabella are 
kept, there is to be seen a book-cover of the year 1429 upon which are 
depicted two Sienese ambassadors on horseback passing out of one of the 
city gates. They are preceded by a Rotellino di Palazzo. 

— ii6 ~ 

vain; for the Count of Anguillara refused to let 
the orators go, declaring that, however willing 
he might have been to oblige the Republic, 
he could not bring himself to do so when he 
thought of his own servants " captivati, tormentati 
et per taglia liberati " . 

The Counts of Pitigliano, long under the 
protection of Siena, were now always in arms 
against her, by reason of the continual inroads 
which w^ere made upon their lands ; and the 
same thing may be said of numerous other seign- 

Commerce naturally declined, and at the 
same time, little by little, Siena not only lost a 
great part of the large revenues w^hich she once 
drew^ from the pasture lands of the Maremma, 
but also saw the Roman road abandoned, a grave 
injury to all the towns and villages through 
which it passed, as well as to the trade of the 
City itself. The Republic was practically bank- 
rupt ; its officials unpaid; its roads unrepaired ; 
its fortresses in ruin ; its army neglected. 

The poverty of the masses was appalling. 
vSiena itself was thronged with mendicants w^ho, 
deprived of food and shelter, naked and starving, 
lived, slept and died in the public streets. To 
add to the miseries of those unhappy years, there 
were frequent outbreaks of the pestilence which 
seemed to have become endemic throughout the 
Peninsula. In 1527, according to an old chronicle. 

— 117 - 

Siena lost about 40,000 of its inhabitants from 
this cause, and over 100,000 in the contado. It 
is a tremendous cypher, and the more so that, 
if it be true (as Tommasi declares) that, in 
1526, a wolf entered Siena, the vSenese cannot 
have been very thickly populated. The pestil- 
ence raged for nine months and then decreased, 
only to break out again with renewed violence 
two years later. Grosseto was reduced to 
so pitiful a state that men died in the streets 
and the corpses were left unburied ; Montero- 
tondo was almost deserted ; while the panic of 
the people was augmented by the lack of doctors, 
of medicines, and of attendants for the pest- 
smitten. Pharmacies were rare, physicians rarer 
yet. Orbetello for example could not obtain 
a single doctor till there were sick folk in every 

Surely Charles was not all to blame when 
he intervened to destroy a government which 
was helpless to correct such disorders, and to 
relieve such miseries as these. Certainly the fall 
of Siena evoked no sympathy from her neigh- 
bours (^). 

(<) Thus, in a Barzelletta della Citta di Siena, published in Siena 
[581, but evidently written during the last siege, we read : 

Se mi volto al Pastor Santo 
Non ne vorra udir novella, 
Tal che fo dirotto pianto 

— ii8 — 

The year 1530 witnessed the death throes 
of Florentine liberty, and the short-sighted Siena 
joyfully sent artillery to assist the Emperor in 
humbling her ancient rival ; nor did she perceive 
till too late that she had thereby sealed her own 
fate. Yet, weakened though she was, she would 
not yield without a struggle, and the records 
of her last brave defence almost make us forget 
the centuries of folly which had reduced her. 

The minister employed by Charles to get 
possession of Siena was Don Diego Hurtado de 
Mendoza, who had learned the subtleties of 
intrigue in a Spanish convent. He was enthu- 
siastically welcomed by the citizens, some of 
whom recollected him as an idle law-student at 
their University, where he had proved himself 
as dissolute and pleasure-loving as any of his 
companions. He was now about sixty years of 
age, soldier, novellist, poet and diplomatist; and 
no doubt the Sienese felt that the Emperor had 

And again 

Giorno e notte meschinella, 
D' altro gia non si favella 
Che di Siena in ogni luoco, 
Ognun grida : sangue e fuoco 
Contra me disconsolata. 

Sono Siena sfortunata. 

In Italia son raancati 
Gia per me tutti i ripari, 
Tutti quanti son contrari 
Di me afflitta e tribolata. 

Sono Siena sfortunata. 

— 119 — 

paid them a very pretty compliment in sending 
so accomplished a man to represent him, and 
one who was also an old friend (^). 

Don Diego worked prudently ; but he could 
not long disguise his true intentions. He filled 
the city with Spanish soldiers who insulted and 
robbed the townsfolk, and when resistance was 
offered, an order was issued for a general dis- 
armament of the people. Then, feeling- strong 
enough to act, he began to build a fortress 
upon the hill of San Prospero, where now is the 
Passeggio della Lizza. To obtain materials, he 
destroyed the wall of the City between San Do- 
menico and the Madonna di Fonte Giusta, as 
well as many of those lofty towers which formed 
the pride and glory of old Siena. The Sienese 
were slow to move, but when they saw a fort 
beginning to be built, which would command 
their town, they sent ambassadors to Charles to 

(^} It may be of interest to note that it was during the government 
of Don Diego that Sir Thomas Hoby visited Siena. The Spaniard treated 
his guest with great courtesy ; anrt Hoby was charmed with the city and 
the people whose universal hospitality seems to have made a deep impres- 
sion on him. He also remarked on the learning of the Sienese women who 
"wrote excellently well both in prose and verse". It was in Siena that 
Hoby met that William Barker who later on became one of the Secretaries 
of the Duke of Norfolk, and was implicated in his plot. He confessed his 
share under torture, whereupon the Duke, who had denied everything, called 
him contemptuously an " Italianified Englishman ". — See Hoby's> Diary in 
the British Museum, Egert, Mss. 2148, f. 24b, and Mr. Lewis Einstein's 
Italian Renaissance in England (New York, Macmillan Co, 1902), delight- 
ful book, which contains many references to Siena. See, for example, pages 
39, 52, 119, 131, 139, 146, 223, 232, 233. 

I20 — 

implore him to respect their liberties. The only 
answer they obtained was Sk volo, sic hibeo, stat 
pro ratione voluntas. In vain they besought the 
intervention of Pope Julius, whose mother was 
a Saracini and a Sienese, and who had been 
heard to declare that he regarded Siena as his 
native city ; for he, either fearing to thwart 
Charles' plans, or realizing that Siena free was 
too unquiet to be a pleasant neighbour, refused 
to interfere, and sardonically told Don Diego 
that " if one castle Avas not enough to keep 
those hair-brained Sienese in order, his Impe- 
rial Majesty had better build two ". Thereupon 
the Sienese citizens in Rome, headed by ^neas 
Piccolomini, a kinsman of the second Pius, ap- 
proached the agents of the French king, and 
with their help collected men and money for 
the liberation of their native town. On the 
26th July, 1552, all was ready. Piccolomini, with 
his followers, appeared at the New Gate, now 
the Porta Romana, and Siena rose as one man. 
After three days hard fighting, from street to 
street and house to house, the Spaniards were 
driven from the city, and Don Diego's fortress 
was razed to the ground. 

The grateful citizens offered the signory of 
Siena to ^T^neas Piccolomini, but he unhesita- 
tingly refused the proffered honour, declaring- 
that the thought of seeing the free Commune 
subjected to the yoke of any individual was 

12 1 

abhorrent to him ; that what he had done he 
had done from no thought of private interest, 
but only for the liberation of his native city, 
" e 710)1 voleva niai dare occasione, che ne a lid ne 
a lei avesse a venh'e minimo pensiej^o di soggiogarla 
e metterla in servitii ". This gallant gentleman 
died as he had lived, the free citizen of a free 
State ; for when Siena fell, he departed with the 
other patriots to Montalcino and there breathed 
his last, before the Peace of Cateau Cambresis 
extinquished for ever the fond hopes of the ex- 
iles. His monument in the Church of S. Ago- 
stino in that city records how, '' aim parva Ci- 
vium ac Militum inamt, Caes. praes. Sena expulsis, 
Patriam servili jngo oppressam, acriter dimicando, 
libej'avit ". 

On the 8th August, the CoUegio di Balia, 
having first declared a general amnesty for all 
the fuorusciti, decreed that the Imperial arms and 
ensigns should be removed and erased both " in 
public and in private ", and those of France set 
up in their place. 

The wrath of Charles knew no bounds, and, 
even if he could have forgiven the Sienese for 
their rebellion, he could not forgive them for 
having appealed to France for aid, and for hav- 
ing put themselves under the protection of the 
French king. Moreover Cosimo de' Medici, the 
Grand Duke of Florence, who had conceived 


the idea of annexing Siena to his own dominions, 
took care that the Imperial irritation should be 
kept alive. In 1553 the blood-thirsty Don Garzia 
de Toledo was sent to punish the revolted Com- 
mune ; but the first hostilities in the Val di Chiana 
did little damage; the dogged resistance of ]\Ion- 
talcino caused an unexpected check; and finally, 
the sudden appearance of Turkish galleys in 
the southern Italian seas called the Spanish gen- 
eral to Xaples ; and Siena escaped for the time. 

The following year, however, Cosimo took 
the field with an army commanded by the Alar- 
quis of Alarignano {^); and on the 26th January 
the forts of Porta CamuUia were captured and 
the City was invested. 

At first the Sienese took the matter g'aily 
enough, and Alontalvo tells us of a sally made 
by a company of young nobles, " splendidly 
armed, with long plumes waving, and ladies' 
favours "; while all the fair dames and damosels 
of Siena thronged the towers and walls, as if to 
see a tournament. But the gallant charge was 
broken by a well directed fusillade from the 
musketeers and arquebusiers in the enemies en- 
trenchments, " thick as hail, so that in a moment 
all those nobles were slain — 7'estb tutta quella no- 
bilta vioria ". The next day the Sienese sent to 
beg permission to bury their dead; and, as those 

(*) Of this man some account will be found in " Como and il Me- 
deghino " in J. A. S\-moxds's Sketches in Italy. 

— 123 — 
torn and mangled corpses .were carried through 
the city gates, it began to be realized that war, 
as Marignano played the game, was a very grim 
and serious thing. 

The Sienese general was Piero Strozzi, a 
Florentine exile and a Marshal of France, whose 
father, after vainly seeking to liberate his native 
city, had died by his own hand, in a Medicean 
prison. Beside his corpse a slip of paper was 
found, bearing the following words, written in 
blood : Exoriai'e aliquis nostris ex ossibiis icltoi'. 

In the result Piero's selection proved unfor- 
tunate for Siena ; for while, on the one hand, 
his keenness for reveng-e led him to injudicious 
acts, on the other, Cosimo, finding his mortal 
foe ranged against him, strained every nerve 
to raise a sufficient army to overwhelm him. 
Strozzi's true policy would have been to hold 
Marignano in check until want of supplies should 
have forced him to retire ; but eager to take sum- 
mary vengeance on his enemies, and to liberate 
Siena from a state of siege, he led his army 
out, intending to join hands with his brother 
Leone and with fresh troops which were ex- 
pected to arrive by sea from Marseilles ; and 
then, by an invasion of the Florentine dominions, 
to raise a rebellion against the Duke. 

Unfortunately, Leone was killed at Scarlino, 
and Piero, after marching through the territories 
of Volterra, Pisa and Lucca; after having passed 

— 124 — 

and repassed the Arno; descended into the Val 
di Chiana and occupied Marciano and Fojano, 
there to await the enemy. 

The two armies faced one another on the 
heights between which flowed the torrent of 
Scanagallo. Both were suffering from lack of 
food, and especially of water. Strozzi's captains 
besought him to change his position at night ; 
but he, with that love of bravado so often seen 
in men of reckless character, determined to march 
in full daylight, with all the gallant ostentation 
of a tournament. At the last moment, Cornelio 
Bentivogli offered to sacrifice himself to secure 
the retreat, only to receive the insulting answer, 
" Let him who fears fly. I mean to fight ". 
" Sir, I Avill fly ", cried that brave gentleman, 
and rode into the foremost ranks. 

It was about an hour before noon, on the 
2nd August, and the sun shone down with scorch- 
ing heat. The vSpanish men-at-arms advanced, 
and, raising their visors as they passed the in- 
fantry, smiled upon them with joyful faces, " to 
show their good will to give them the victory, 
knowing well (says the historian) that in battle 
cavalry only decide the day ". The earth trem- 
bled beneath their tread and they seemed, as 
writes an eye-witness of their charge, " a moun- 
tain of iron with plumes waving to heaven, a 
spectacle as gallant as it was beautiful ". About 
Strozzi were gathered his fellow-citizens, exiles 


of Florence, while above them floated a green 
banner, bearing for motto the line of Dante, 
Libej'ta vo cercando ch' e si cara. 

Three pieces of artillery (sagri) thundered 
from the imperial ranks; two falconets gave back 
their faint reply (for Strozzi's heavy guns, which 
had been sent forward at mid-night, were already 
well on their way towards Fojano) ; and then 
the battle joined. Like two mighty waves, black * 
below, foam-topped above, the cavalry of either 
host hurled together. There was a thunder of 
rushing hoofs, a crash of steel, and lo ! with a 
shriek of treason and of fear, the French stan- 
dard-bearer turned and fled. In a moment the 
splendid squadron divided, broke, and spurred 
hard out of the fray, bought (it was said) with 
Spanish gold — " dodici jiaschi di stagno pieni di 
scudi d' oro "■ — a treachery and a flig'ht which 
lives even today in the songs wherewith the 
contadini awake the echoes of that solitary 

O Piero Strozzi in du' son i tuoi soldati 
Al Poggio delle Donne in que' fossati ; 
Meglio de' vili cavalli di Franza 
Le nostre donne fecero provanza. 

All was lost ; but the Sienese were not 
minded to yield. Like the west country peas- 
antry at Sedgemoor, after Monmouth's flight, 
they battled on with stubborn courage to the 
bitter end. And their leader did not desert them. 
High on the Poggio delle Donne, Strozzi, clad 

— 126 — 

in black armour inlaid with gold, mounted on 
an arab charger and with his truncheon in his 
hand, played the part alike of general and sol- 
dier, and played them well. He spoke words 
of comfort to his infantry, declaring that the 
flight of the French was nothing but a ruse ; he 
bade the drummers and the fifers sound to battle ; 
all the banners waved as if for victory ; and the 
Swiss charged down the hill shouting Franciaf 
Francia! while from the hostile ranks arose the 
answering cry of Spagnal Imperio! Swart Span- 
iards, who had kneeled to pray before they 
fought, French, Italians, Swiss, Germans, rushed 
together, slaughtering and slaughtered. The 
Imperialists had begun to give way, and might 
have been broken had not the Spanish men-at- 
arms returned from pursuing the French fug'i- 
tives, and charged the Sienese upon the flank. 
It became a butchery pure and simple, and for 
two long miles, even to the gates of Lucignano, 
the ground was strewn with the banners, arms 
and corpses of Strozzi's ruined army; while he 
himself, with bullet wounds in the side and in 
the hand, and his head half crushed by a blow 
from a mace, scarcely escaped to Montalcino. 

Even as Gavinana decided the fate of Flor- 
ence, so the dark slopes of Scanagallo were the 
grave of Sienese liberty. But what a difference! 
A few days after Gavinana, Florence surrendered; 
after vScanagallo, Siena continued to resist for 

— 127 — 

more than eight months. Thenceforward she 
was strictly invested ; and the war was carried 
on with the greatest cruelty. Marignano spared 
no one. The peasants who attempted to bring" 
supplies into the city were hanged without mercy, 
till the trees seemed to bear dead men rather 
than leaves. Within the walls the suffering was 
almost greater. Hospitals and churches were 
full of wounded ; while many lay dying in the 
streets and squares. Hope was almost dead, yet 
still the besieged held out. A glorious record 
of their heroism is to be found in the Diary of 
Sozzini, the wSienese historian, and in the Com- 
mentaries of Blaise de Monluc, the French gen- 
eral who conducted the defence. In vain the 
City was anew^ dedicated to the Madonna (^) ; in 
vain the " useless mouths " — little children, the 
old, the sick and the weak — were thrust out of 
the gates, to die a lingering death, between the 
walls and the camp of the enemy. At last, after 
superhuman valour and superhuman suffering, 
Siena w^as forced to yield, and on the 21st 
April, 1555, the Spanish troops entered the town. 
Many families retired to Alontalcino abandoning 
their native city to the stranger. 

Thenceforward Siena followed the destinies 

(') Siena was first dedicated to the Virgin in 1260 on the eve of the 
battle of Montaperto ; and this dedication was renewed in 1483, in 1526, in 
1550 and in 1555. I have treated the subject with considerable detail in 
my Our Lady of August and the Palio of Siena. 

— 128 — 

of the Duchy of Tuscany, of which, in 1557, she 
became a part. She, however, retained a sep- 
arate administration for more than two cen- 
turies, until the general reforms of the Grand 
Duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, 
and finally, the restoration, swept away all dif- 
ferences between the Sienese and Florentine 
systems of government. 

In 1859, Siena was the first Tuscan city 
which declared for annexation to Piedmont and 
the monarchy of Victor Emanuel II — this de- 
cision (voted 26 June) being the initial step 
tow^ards the unity of Italy. 

Then, a new day broke from under ground, 
and, in the clear light of that great dawn, the 
old enmities were remembered no more. Genoa 
sent back her chains to Pisa ; Assisi forgot to 
hate Perugia, and Siena stretched out a scarcely 
reluctant hand to Florence. For then, after 
three centuries of tyranny and superstition, the 
Queen of Nations, the Mighty Mother of Civili- 
zation and of Art, at last 

awakened out of sleep, 
And stood, full-armed and free ; and all her sons 
Knew it was glorious to have looked on her 
And felt it beautiful to die for her. 


Ut sylvae foliis pronos mutantur in annos, 
Prima cadunt ; ita verborum vetus interit aetas. 
Horace Ars Poetic a, 60, 61. 

IF Siena possessed no Dante, her literary his- 
tory is none the less rich in illustrious names. 
In the 13th century the vulgar tongue was 
already in common use, and we possess at least 
one poem, a canzone by a Sienese knight FoL- 
CACCHIERO FOLCACCHIERI, which from internal 
evidence seems to have been written as early 
as 1 177 (^). The following is the first verse: 

Tutto lo mondo vive sanza guerra All the whole world is living without 

Ed eo pacie non posso havere neinte; And j-et I cannot find out any 

O Deo, come faraggio ? O God ! that this should be ! 

O Deo, come sotenemi la Terra ! O God ! what does the earth sustain 

me for ? 

(^) Lettera apologetica delV Ab. Luigi de Angelis Pub. Prof, e 
Bibliot. nelV I. e R. Univ. di Siena in favore di Folcacchiero Folcac- 
chieri cavaliere Satiese del Sec. XII il primo di cici si trovino poesie Ita- 
liane. Siena 1818, dai torchi di Onorato Porri. See, however, D' Ancona 
e Bacci Manuale della Lett. Ital. (Firenze 1903) vol. I. p. 28. 

— I30 — 

E pare che eo viva inoia delagiente: ISIy life seems made for other lives' 

ill-ease : 
Ogn huomo mi e selvagio, All men look strange to me ; 

Xon paiono li fiori Nor are the wood-flowers now 

Per me comgia soleano As once, when up above 

E gli augelli per amori, The happ}' birds in love 

Dolci versi facieano agli albori. Made such sweet verses, going from 

bough to bough. 

In the latter half of the 13th century we 
find two other poets, Cecco Angiolieri (1258?- 
13 1 2?) and BiXDO BONICHI (1260-1337). Of these 
the former is probably best known to the or- 
dinary reader in connection with his love for 
pretty Becchina, the shoemakers daughter, and 
on account of that extremely unpleasant adven- 
ture of his at Buonconvento, which Boccaccio 
has described for us in the Decameron (IX. 4). An 
article by Professor D' Ancona, in the Nitova 
Antologia of January, 1874, contains almost all 
that is known about him (^). Of his poetry Pro- 
fessor A. Bartoli speaks as follows: "Laughing 
and crying, joking and satire, are all to be found 
in Cecco Angiolieri of Siena, the oldest humorist 
we know, a far off precursor of Rabelais, of 
Montaigne, of Jean Paul Richter, of Sydney 
Smith " (^). " Poetry of the senses (says Profes- 
sor d' Ancona) excited by a strenuous imagina- 

(') Cecco Angiolieri da Siena, poeta timoiista del secolo decimoterzo 
Compare also A. F. Massera, La patria e la vita di Cecco Angiolieri in 
the Bullettino Senese di st. patria, vol. VIII, (1901) pages 435-452 

(2) See the Encyclopcedia Brittanica, vol. XIII "Italy. Part III ", 
Compare also the same author's Storia delta Letteratura italiana (Firenze. 
Sansoni, 1879) vol. II, pages 269-270. 

- .3. - • ^^ 

tion, but at the same time voicing the pain and 
misery of real and pressing needs, which, how- 
ever, are exaggerated and coloured by a bitterly 
sarcastic humour ". The following is, perhaps, 
one of his most characteristic sonnets : 

S'io fossi fuoco, arderei lo mondo, If I were fire, I'd burn the world 

away ; 
S'io fossi vento, io '1 tempesterei, If J were wind, I'd turn my storms 

thereon ; 
S'io fossi acqua, io 1' allagherei. If I were water, I'd soon let it 

drown ; 
S'io fossi Iddio, lo mandere' 'n pro- If I were God, I'd sink it from the 
fondo, day ; 

S'io fossi Papa, allor sare' giocondo If I were Pope, I'd never feel quite 

Che tutti i Cristi'an tribolerei ; Until there was no peace beneath 

the sun ; 
S'io fossi Imperador, sai che farei? If I were Emperor, what would I 

have done? — 
A tutti mozzerei lo capo a tondo. I'd lop men's heads all round in my 

Own wa}-. 
S'io fossi Morte, io n' andre' da mio It I were Death, I'd look my father 
padre, up ; 

S'io fossi Vita, non stare' con lui. If I were Life, I'd run away from 

him ; 
E similmente farei a mia madre. And treat my mother to like calls 

and runs. 
S'io fossi Cecco, com' io sono e fui. If I were Cecco (and that's all my 

Torrei per me le giovane leggiadre, I 'd pick the nicest girls to suit my 

Le brutt' e vecchie lascerei altrui. And other folk should get the 

ugly ones. 

BiNDO BONICHI was a man of quite another 
stamp. He is said to have sat in the Supreme 
Magistracy, and was buried in the Church of 
San Domenico. He seems, judging by his poems, 
to have been a confirmed pessimist, and he sat- 

— 132 — 

irizes the vices and follies of his day with a 
bitterness which almost amounts to ferocity. 
The following sonnet is an adequate example : 

Gli asin del mondo sono i mercatanti, 

E' cavalier que' ch' han per vizio onori, 

E li tiranni son gli uomini maggiori 

Chi in corte e duca son cani latranti. 
E porci sono i cherci e mal usanti, 

E lupi sono i malvagi pastori, 

Ipocreti son li consigliatori 


L' altra bruttaglia, ch' e peggiore, o tale, 

Ciascun per ingannare adesca 1' amo ; 

Quegli e il piu dotto, che piu fa di male. 
Succidi, Iddio Signor, 1' albero e il ramo, 

Se vogli far vendetta universale, 

E poi rinnova il mondo d' altro Adamo. 

The Rime di Bindo Bonichi da Siena were 
published in 1867 in Bologna (presso Gaetano 
Romagnoli) in the Scelta di Curiosita Letterarie 
inedite e I'are. 

Two Sienese poets of whom less is known, 
but who wrote at about the same period, are that 
AIlCO of whom Boccaccio speaks as living at the 
time of the Sicilian Vespers ("), and Bexuccio 
wSalimbexi, who has left a few sonnets (^). Of 

(^) Here there is a lacuna in the manuscript. 

(2) Decameron X. 7. The canzonetta there given, is, I believe, the 
only poem of his which has come down to us. Compare Ugurgieri Le 
Pompe Sanest I. 546. 

(5) One of these is published by G. Gargaxi, Delia Lingua Volgare 
nel secolo XIII in Siena (Siena, Tip. Lazzeri, 1868) page 84. Two will be 
found in connection with the Rime di Bindo Bonichi, op. cit. pp. 159, 164. 

It may be mentioned that the Societa Filologica Romana has re- 
cently published four curious poems of the 13th century, under the title of 
Rime antiche Senesi. I have quoted a few lines from one of them on page 
39 supra. 

— 133 — 

Giovanni Colombini (1300?-! 367) and Bianco 
DA vSiENA I have already spoken (^). The Landi 
spirituali of the latter were published in Lucca, in 
1 85 1. The following" are the opening" lines of 
the only poem which can with any certainty be 
attributed to the former : 

Diletto lesu Cristo, chi ben t' ama 
avendoti nel core si ti brama, 
te sempre contemplando non si sfama : 
can tare e giubilar vo' per tuo amore 

Sfamar non me ne posso del diletto ; 
tant' amor mi circunda nell' affetto, 
ch' il tengo nelle braccia sempre stretto : 
cantare e giubilar vo' per suo amore 

I' vengo dentr' al core contemplando 
e vadomene sempre inebriando, 
poi so' inebriato vo' danzando : 
cantare e giubilar vo' per suo amore. 

Danzando, el cor mi sento venir mono ; 
quando di lesu Cristo so' ben pieno 
non posso ritener 1' anima a freno ; 
cantare e giubilar vo' per suo amore ('2). 

While the production of Italian poetry in 
the 13th century was abundant and varied, that 
of prose was scanty. The oldest specimen dates 
from 1 23 1 and consists of short notices of profits 
and expenses by Mattasala di Spinello dei Lam- 
bertini of Siena ('). There is, however, nothing 

(') See pages 101-102 supra. 

(■2) Published by G. Pardi in the BiiUettino Senese di Storia Patvia 
vol. II (1895) page 47. 

(^) N. TOMMASEO, Ricordi di una famiglia senese del secolo decimo- 
terzo. " Arch. Stor. It. " Tom V. (1847) -^PP- No. 20. 

— 134 — 

which can be dignified by the name of literature 
in these dry and colourless items; although it 
is undoubtedly interesting and curious to learn 
what was spent " nele nianiche di fnona Moscada " , 
or for " ic' ccro per sail N'lccold ". Far more im- 
portant are the commercial letters of Arrigo 
Accattapane, Aldobrandino Gonzolino, Andrea 
de' Tolomei and other Sienese merchants, pub- 
lished by Paoli and Piccolomini in i87i(^); and 
the letters toGeri andGuccioMontanini published 
by A. Lisini in 1889 ("); although even these can 
hardly be considered literature (^). 

Of .Sienese chronicles anterior to the 14th 
century but little need be said, since "they are 
so confused that it is almost impossible to dis- 
entangle truth from fiction, or even to decide 
the personality of the various authors ". Indeed, 
almost the only reliable data which we possess 
from which to reconstruct the history of that 
period, is to be found in the governmental 
records of the Republic. Among these may be 
mentioned the Libri di Biccherna ; the five In- 

(*) Leltere volgari del secolo XIII scriite da senesi pubblicate da 
C. Paoli e da E. Piccolomini. Bologna, G. Romagnoli, 1871. 

(■-) Lettere volgari del secolo XIII a Geri e a Guccio Montanini 
pubblicate per la prima volta. Siena, Tip. Lazzeri, 1889. 

We have also a Testameyito volgare senese del 1288, published in 
the Bullettino della Societa Filologica Romana, Num. Ill pag. 49. In 
Roma, Presso la Societa 1902. 

^5) A. Bartoli, Storia della Letteratura &c., op. cit., vol. Ill, p. 10. 

— 135 — 
striimentarii (especially the Caleffo Vecchio) ; the 
Deliberazioni del Consiglio della Campana; and the 
Brevi of the various magistrates, most of which 
were incorporated in the Constihdiivi Covmnis 
Senarum which Professor Zdekauer has so splen- 
didly edited. 

In the" 14th century, however, the chronicles 
begin to possess some historical value, as well 
as a certain degree of literary merit. Those 
attributed to Andrea Dei, Agxolo di Tura 
called II Grasso, and Nero di Doxati are pub- 
lished by Muratori in his Reriim Italicarum Scrip- 
tores, vol. XV., and are written in a style which, 
if not elegant, displays a directness, picturesque- 
ness and vigour which renders them most fas- 
cinating reading , The last of the three has 
almost entirely lost " that cold and monotonous 
impersonality Avhich characterizes the mediaeval 
writer ". 

Then too, the statutes were translated into 
the vulgar tongue. Of these, Milanesi has printed 
two (the Breve dell' Arte de' Pittori and the Breve 
dell' Ai'te degli Orafi) in the first volume of his 
Documenti ; while three volumes of Statuti Se7iesi 
have been published in Bologna per ao^a della 
R. Coynmissione pe' testi di lingua. Of the Statute 
of the Signori Nove, I have already spoken (^). 

In the 14th century also, translations were 

(*) See page 55 supra. 

- .36 - 

made of many of the classical authors. Among* 
these we may mention that of the Aineid, by Mis- 
ser CiAMPOLO DEGLI Ugurgieri (i34o)('); and 
the Fables of Aisop, by an unknown author {^). 

Turning to religious writings, the first place 
is of course held by Caterixa Bexinxasa. 
" Hers ", says Professor Bartoli, " was the strong- 
est, clearest, and most exalted religious utter- 
ance that made itself heard in Italy in the 14th 
century ". By the common consent of Italian 
scholars, her Avritings rank among the acknow- 
ledged classics of the language ; and the Delia 
Cruscans have placed them on the jealously- 
watched list of their authorities (^). iVnother 
ascetic writer of the same period was Fra Fi- 
LIPPO Agazzari (1339-142 2), Prior of the Mon- 
astery of Lecceto, whose Assempri are written 
in an idiom which Carpellini calls sanessissimo 
spiccato. A very able study of them has been 
made by Professor Antonio Marenduzzo (■^). To 

(1) This is the first translation of the A^neid into the vulgar tongue ; 
for the celebrated Fatti rf' Enea of Guido da Pisa is hardly even a para- 
phrase, but rather the story of ^neas retold in Italian. 

(^) Le Tavole d' Esopo volgarizzate per uno da Sietia, Parma, 
Pietro Fiaccadori, i860. In the Cronica Sanese, Muratori XV. col. 243, 
there is an extremely interesting note with regard to one of these fables. 

(^) See, however, the article on St Catherine in the Encyclopaedia 
Brittanica, cited supra. 

(*) Gli "Assempri'''' di Fra Filippo da Siena, Siena, Tip. Nava, 
1899— The text of the Assempri was published by D. C. F. in 
1864, and forms the second volume of the " Piccola Biblioteca Senese ". 
In my " Ensamples " 0/ Fra Filippo &c. op. cit, I have attempted a transla- 
tion of several of these narratives. 

— 137 .— 
the letters of GiOVANNi COLOMBINI I have already 
alluded (^), and we may pass on to Fra Bernar- 
dino Albizzeschi, whose sermons in the vulgar 
tongue are " models of style and diction " (^). 

In the first half of the 15th century we 
encounter the earliest of the Sienese Novellicri, 
Gentile Sermini, who probably composed his 
ioxty Novelle about the year 1425. He also wrote 
verses which are not devoid of grace and charm. 
To this period belongs ^NEAS Sylvius Picco- 
LOMINI, humanist, historian and political writer. 
His Storia di due amanti gives a striking picture 
of Sienese social life ; but it was not a book 
which as Pope he could read without shame, 
and Pius II apologised for having written it. 
It contained, he said, two things — an indelicate 
story and an edifying moral ; all read the first, 
but few heeded the last (^). Of him the late 
Bishop Creighton has said that " he is one of 
the earliest representatives of the man of letters 
pure and simple ; he is perhaps the only man 
of letters who has been equally eminent in lit- 
erature and in statesmanship ". 

It was a century of versifiers ; everybody 
could write sonnets, madrigals and canzoni; and 
it gave birth to the Canto Carnascialesco. If Siena 
produced no great poet, many of her sons could 

(M Page loi supra, See also G. Pardi op. cit. 

(') See p.age 99 supra. 

(3) See Creighton's History of the Papacy, vol. Ill page 343. 

rhyme musically. For some account of their 
verses the reader is referred to A. Ricci's excel- 
lent lecture on the Canzoiiieri senesl della scconda 
meta del quatt7'ocento (^). 

Of the authorship of the chronicle generally 
attributed to NiCCOLO DI VENTURA (d. 1464), and 
published by Giuseppe Porri in his Miscellanea 
Storica Sanese, I believe that Professor Langton 
Douglas will have something to tell us in his 
forthcoming book on Siena (^). AVhoever wrote 
it, it is a most picturesque piece of work and gives 
a stirring account of the battle of Montaperto. 
It should be read by every visitor to Siena. 
As a battle-piece, painted in glorious words, it 
stands without a rival. There you may read of 
gallant deeds, of armed knights crashing to- 
gether, of splintering- shields, of hard mail hewn, 
of shattered helms. There shall you find blood, 
blood in torrents, blood everywhere — the blood 
of " those dogs of Florentines ", whom the val- 
orous people of Siena slew like swine in a 
slaughter house. They seemed, cries the chron- 
icler, porci feriti. And to all this you will pass 
from a scene of prayer and reconciliation in the 
Holy Sienese church, where the Bishop and his 

(1) In the Bullettino Senese di Stotia Paltia vol. VI (1899) pages 

(-) Langton Douglas, A History of Siena, page 85, note ('). 

Professor Douglas' learned work has reached me while correcting 
ray final proofs. I have read it with equal pleasure and profit. 

— 139 — 
clergy sing " the old Latin hymns of peace and 
love ", and where the injured is seeking out the 
injurer to kiss him on the mouth and to pardon 
him ; while over all, battle-field and Cathedral 
alike, broods the sacred form of God's Most 
Holy Mother, Siena's Protector and Advocate. 

A little later we have the chronicle of Alle- 
gretto Allegretti, in Muratori (vol. XXIII); 
and during the same period flourished SiGiS- 
MONDO TiziO (i 448-1 528), who wrote, with his 
own hand, a history of Siena from its orig-in up 
to the second decade of the i6th century, in ten 
enormous volumes, in moderate latin. This 
monumental work, although discursive and dis- 
connected, is always valuable to consult. The 
original is preserved in the Biblioteca Chigiana 
in Rome, but the Biblioteca Comunale of Siena 
possesses a copy, made in the last century by 
the Ab. Galgano Bichi, to which is prefixed a 
biographical notice. 

The bestSienese historians belong to the i6th 
century. They are Orlando Malavolti (1515- 
1596), a man of noble birth, "the most trust- 
worthy of all " (^) ; Antonio Bellarmati ; 
Alessandro SozziNi Di GiROLAMO, the author 
of the Diario delle cose avveyiute in Siena dai 20 lu- 
glio i^so al 28 giugno i^SS (published in the 
" Archivio storico italiano " together with other 

(') C. Paoli in the Article Siena in the EncyclopcEdia Brittanica. 

— I40 — 

narratives and documents relative to the fall of 
the Republic) ; and GlUGURTA TOMMASI, of 
whose history only the first ten books have been 
printed, owing to the death of his wife Livia 
Cinuzzi in 1628, before she had completed the 
task of editing her husband's work. 

In the same category with these historians 
Professor Paoli mentions the learned scholars 
Celso Cittadixi (d. 1627); Uberto Bexvo- 
GLIENTI (d. 1733), one of IMuratori's correspon- 
dents (the notes to the Cronica Sanese are from 
his pen); and GiO. AxTONiO Pecci, the author 
of the Memorie storico-critiche della citta di Siena, 
which, beginning with the Life of Pandolfo Pe- 
trucci, carries the history of Siena up to the year 
1559. He also wrote a history of the Bishopric 
of Siena. 

In the 1 6th century, Alessaxdro Piccolo- 
MIXI, Bishop of Patras, produced that curious 
work known as La Raffaella ovvcro della bella 
O'eanza delle Donne. It is a dialog'ue between 
a procuress and a youthful wife, whom she is 
endeavouring to corrupt ; and, if not particularly 
edifying", throws considerable lig^ht upon the 
toilet arrang-ements of the Sienese ladies. To 
this same period belong the Novelle of SciPlOXE 
BarCtAGLI, of M. Giustixiano Nelli and of 
PiETRO Fortixi, as also the Raccolta di Biirle, 
Facetie, Motti e Bnffonei'ie di tre H^iomini Sanest of 
Alessaxdro Sozzixi ( i 5 i 8- i 608). None of these 

— 141 — 

works are remarkable for their delicacy, though 
the first mentioned author is a writer of some 
merit. The Raccolta of Sozzini is amusing, and, 
at the worst, only vulgar; but the Novelli of Xelli 
and of Fortini are both trivial and indecent. With 
regard to the latter especially, it is not a ques- 
tion of the mythical innocence of the " young 
person ", or even of that exaggerated prudery 
which has earned for us Englishmen a not 
altogether unmerited reputation for hypocrisy 
among our continental neighbours. Here there 
can be no mistake. Fortini is openly and fla- 
grantly obscene. 

In the 17th century we find LuDOViCO Ser- 
GARDI (Quinto Settano), a Latinist and satirical 
writer of much talent and culture ; but " the 
most original and brillant figure in Sienese lit- 
erature is that of GiROLAMO GiGLi (i 660-1 772), 
author of the Gazzettino, La Soi'ellina di Don Pi- 
lone, II Vocabolario Caterinia7io, and the Diario Ec- 
clesiastico. As humorist, scholar, and philologist 
Gigli would take a high place in the literature 
of any land. His resolute opposition to all hy- 
pocrisy — whether religious or literary — exposed 
him to merciless persecution from the Jesuits 
and the Delia Cruscan Academy " (^). 

Of the scientific writers of Siena I very 
frankly confess that I have read and know ab- 

(*) C, Paoli, Article cited. 

— 142 — 

solutely nothing. I therefore quote the follow- 
ing paragraph from the pen of the late Profes- 
sor Paoli : 

" In theology and philosophy the most dis- 
tinguished names are — Berxardixo Ochixo and 
Lelio and Fausto SOCCIXI (i6th century); in 
jurisprudence, three Soccixi — Mariaxo senior, 
Bartolommeo, and Mariaxo junior (15th and 
1 6th centuries); and in political economy, Sal- 
LUSTIO Baxdixi (1677-1760), author of the Di- 
scorso siilla Maremma. In physical science the 
names most worthy of mention are those of the 
botanist Pier Axtoxio Mattioli (i 501-1572), 
of Pirro Maria Gabrielli (1643-1705), founder 
of the Academy of the Physiocritics, and of the 
anatomist Paolo Mascagxi (d. 1825)". 

Among the modern Sienese writers who are 
worthy to be placed in the same category with 
Celso Cittadini, Uberto Benvog'lienti and Gio. 
Antonio Pecci, may be mentioned SciPiOXE BoR- 
GHESI (d. 1878) who has left us a precious store 
of historical, bibliographical and biographical 
documents ; and the librarian C. F. Carpellixi 
(d. 1872), the author of several monographs on 
the origin of Siena and the constitution of the 
Republic. He was one of that splendid band 
of scholars who with F. L. POLIDORI (d. 1865), 
the director of the then nascent Ajxhivio di Siato, 
founded, in 1859, "l^he Societa Senese di Storia Pa- 
tria Municipale, the precursor of the present Coin- 

— 143 — 
missione Senese di Storia Patria, which is doing" 
so much good work " in collecting materials for 
a complete history of Siena and of its ancient 
State ". Among its members, past and present, 
are to be found such names as Luciano Ban- 
CHI (d. 1887), Gaetano Milanesi (d. 1895), Ce- 
SARE Paoli (d. 1902), Alessandro LiSINI, Lo- 
Dovico Zdekauer, and Narciso Mengozzi, to 
mention only a few among the many learned 
men to whose labours Siena and those who love 
her owe so great a debt of gratitude (^). 

(') See the Relazione e hidici, pubblicati dalla Commissione Senese 
di Storia Patria nella R. Accad. dei Rozzi, per il Congresso hiternazio- 
nale di Scienze Storiche da tenersi in Rotna. Siena, Tip. Lazzeri 1902. 


Chi vedesse azzuflFar costoro in piazza 
Con tanta pertinacia per la parte, 
Avendo mille carte 
Non crederia che non fusser niinici 
E r altro di son fratelli ed amici. 

Gextile Sermini. // giuoco delle pugna. 

IX a work of this character, a mere Guide Book, 
it is, of course inevitable that very much 
which is interesting and important should be 
omitted. Especially do I regret that I have been 
unable to deal with that most fascinating of 
subjects, the social life of the old Sienese. That 
is, however, too large a question to be even 
touched upon in the two or three pages still at 
my disposal, and I must be content to refer the 
reader to a previous w^ork, l^he " Ensamples " 
of Fi'aFilippo, a study of Mediaeval Siena. There, 
taking as my text certain "tales with a purpose" 
told by an Augustinian friar of the Monastery 
of Lecceto, I have discussed the social state and 
beliefs of Italy, and especially of Siena, during 
the later Middle Ages and early Renaissance. 
I have sought to discover how men lived in 

— 145 -- 
those far off days ; what passions swayed them 
and what hopes consoled ; how they ate, slept, 
dressed, gambled, laboured, loved and died; and, 
as I have cited my authorities at every step, 
I venture to hope that, whatever may be the 
shortcomings of the book itself, it will at least 
serve to indicate the principle sources of in- 
formation on the questions treated. 

Unquestionably, however, the best book to 
consult on the whole Sienese story is Professor 
Langton Douglas' new w^ork, which, as I have 
already remarked, reached me while correcting 
my final proofs (^). 

In this place, I merely propose to say a few 
words concerning the Palio delle conb-ade, an in- 
stitution which is peculiar to Siena, and which 
is certainly one of the most curious and interest- 
ing of mediaeval survivals. 

(1) Langton Douglas, A History of Siena, London, John Murray, 

The following list of the titles of the various chapters will give some 
idea of the scope of the work. 

I. Sena Vetus. II. The Birth of the Commune. III. A Nation of 
Shopkeepers. IV, The Struggle with the Feudal Nobles. V. The Struggle 
with Florence. VI. Ghibelline Siena. VII. Montaperti. VIII. Life in Old 
Siena. IX. The Rise and Fall of the Nine. X. The Twelve and the Re- 
formers. XI. St Catherine of Siena. XII. The Age of San Bernardino and 
^neas Sylvius Piccolomini. XIII. Pandolfo Petrucci. XIV, The Battle of 
CamoUia, XV. The Siege of Siena. XVI. The Architecture of Siena. 
XVII. The Sculpture of Siena. XVIII. Sienese Painting. XIX. The Minor 
Arts in Siena. XX. Literature and Science in Siena. 

— 140 — 

Siena is, as I have said, divided into seven- 
teen conti'ade or wards. Between these civic 
divisions a strong feeling of rivalry exists, which 
finds its vent in the races which are run twice 
yearly, on the 2nd July and the i6th Aug'ust, 
in the historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele). In these races each horse 
and jockey (fantino) represents a contrada. The 
prize is a palio or banner. In each race ten 
contrade compete, seven because it is their turn 
to do so (d' obbligo), and three because their 
names have been draw^n to take part in the race 
(a sorte). The horses, which are distributed by 
lot, are ridden bare-backed, and each fantino 
wields the classic nerbo, which he uses rather as 
a weapon of offence than as a whip. The course 
is three times round the Piazza , the paved 
roadway, which forms its circumference, being 
covered with sand for the occasion, while wooden 
seats are erected in front of the shops which 
occupy the basements of the surrounding pal- 

Before the race, each horse is blessed and 
sprinkled with holy water in the chapel of its 

Companies representing the several wards, 
clad in their respective liveries fcomparsej march 
round the Piazza to the sound of music, and 
with waving banners. It is, in fact, a splendid 
pageant, bearing a distinctly mediaeval stamp, 

— 147 — 
and in full harmony with the architecture and 
history of the town. 

- Moreover, the Palio has a very real religious 
significance. It was instituted in honour of the 
Virgin ]\lary, the patron saint of the city ; and 
her figure is painted upon the banner which 
gives its name to the race. 

The history of the festival is long and inter- 
esting, and, whether we regard it as a religious 
ceremony or as a development of the old games 
of Pugna and Elmora, can be traced back to the 
13th century. (wSee my Our Lady of August and 
the Palio of Siena). 

The Palio " is still a vital part of Sienese 
social life " ; and certainly he who has not seen 
it does not know Siena. 







In writing my half of this Guide, I have 
judged it best to preface the actual description 
of the city by a short introductory chapter on 
Sienese Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting. 
Owing to the limited space at my command 
these notices are of the briefest, and include a 
mention only of the more important artists ; 
they do not pretend to form a critical essay, the 
writing of which was impossible within the 
limits of this Guide. Nevertheless, what little 
I have written will, I hope, suffice to arouse a 
greater interest in the somewhat neglected art 
of Siena, and also to counteract, in a measure, 
the undue attention which has hitherto been 
given — at least by the majority of visitors — to 
the Lombard Sodoma, at the expense of the far 
greater native Sienese painters. Those visitors 
who are desirous of enlarging their acquaintance 
with this delightful school of painting should 
consult Crowe and Cavalcaselle's account of the 
same, and more particularly Mr. Bernhard Be- 
renson's essay on the Central Italian Painters of 
the Renaissance, which contains the most com- 

— 152 — 

prehensive and conclusive criticism yet written 
on the Sienese school. It is perhaps hardly 
necessary to advise the reader carefully to peruse 
]\Ir. Heywood's historical sketch before study- 
ing the monuments of the city, as a far more 
satisfactory idea of a people's art can be arrived 
at with some previous knowledge of its history. 
I have to thank the Director of the Sienese 
Archives, Cav. Lisini, Sig. Casanova, and ^Ir. 
William Heywood, for various historical data. 
For man}^ valuable suggestions upon architec- 
tural matters I am indebted to ^Ir. Bernard H. 
AVebb. In regard to attributions and artistic 
matters in general, however, my best thanks 
are due to 'Mr. Bernhard Berenson and to Air. 
F. Mason Perkins, both of whom have placed 
at my service the results of much of their wide 
knowledge and continued study of Sienese art. 

Siena, 1902. 

Lucy Olcott. 



ALTHOUGH her many fortress-towers have long 
since been reduced to their present incon- 
spicuous height, Siena still preserves, as does no 
other city in Italy, her mediaeval aspect. Per- 
haps because her chequered political career and 
the consequent lack of wealth and enterprise had 
already partly stayed her hand, perhaps because 
the classic feeling of the Renaissance was slow 
to appeal to the more romantic nature of the 
Sienese, the city possesses comparatively few 
buildings of that period, the greater part of her 
architecture remaining to-day as it was produced 
during the 13th and 14th centuries — an archi- 
tecture which, as was the case with few excep- 
tions throughout all Italy, adopted Gothic ideas 
more as decorative features than as those of pure 

Several important Renaissance buildings 

— 154 — 
were erected in Siena, it is true, before 1500 (^) 
— more than one of them on Florentine rather 
than on Sienese designs, — but these represent 
isolated examples, rather than the general ac- 
ceptance of a style which did not meet with 
anything resembling a truly popular approval 
in that city until the i6th century Avas well 
under way. In more respects than one, the con- 
servative nature of the vSienese people, and their 
greatly reduced circumstances, were directly 
beneficial to the preservation of an architectural 
unity during those later centuries of corrupt 
and misguided taste, w^hich resulted in such 
fatal and deplorable " restorations " and " re- 
buildings ", w^hite-washings and enlargements, in 
the more prosperous cities of Italy. Such rare 
examples of the Later Renaissance and Baroque 
styles as are to be found within her walls, still 
retain, to an extraordinary degree, much of the 
refinement and good taste which was, throughout 
Siena's history, so distinguishing a feature of her 
artistic creations. 

Up to a very recent date, Siena has also 
escaped, to a remarkable extent, the still more 
dangerous effects of 20th century " improve- 
ments ". Unfortunately, that craze for unneces- 
sary and ill-advised municipal adornment which 

(') Such as the Loggia del Papa, the Palazzo Xerucci, the Palazzo 
del Governo, the Palazzo dei Diavoli, the Palazzo Spannocchi and the Pa- 
lazzo di San Galgano. 

— ^00 — 

has already proved so ruinous to the artistic 
appearance of many another Italian town, has 
lately given signs of a much-to-be-regretted ac- 
ceptance even here (i). It can but be sincerely 
hoped that this contagious infection may be 
checked, before it be too late, by those of Sie- 
na's citizens who still have at heart her glorious 
record of a long-departed time. 

Of the early architectures of Central Italy, 
there are scant traces in Siena. Some few and 
unimportant Etruscan tombs, unearthed some 
years ago outside the Porta Camollia, are all 
that can be said to date from the time of the 
city's early origin. Of Roman work (^) there 
remain some vestiges of brick construction in 
different places — on the Via Cavour near the 
Palazzo Tantucci, and in the west wall of the 
Palazzo del Magnifico. At one of these points 
there exists a fragment of a Roman inscription; 
and still another, preserved to us entire, is now 
embedded in the Porta Romana. The tablet on 

(') The recent disfigurements of the once charming Viale Curtatone, 
and a few of the recently erected edifices outside the Porta Camollia, may 
be taken as excellent and painful examples of this modern tendency. 

In their inexplicable hatred of trees, also, many of the Sienese are 
already rivalling their like-minded compatriots in other parts of Italy. The 
Passeggio della Lizza and the above-mentioned Viale Curtatone, not to 
speak of other examples, have been deprived of much additional beauty by 
the needless cutting down of trees and shrubs. 

{^) For a detailed study of Roman Siena, see P. Rossi, Le Oiigini 
di Siena. 

- 156 - 

the Via Cavour, bearing- the somewhat enig- 
matical Avords VERO ET VALE, is to be seen 
inserted in the wall to the right of the shoe- 
maker's shop, opposite the Palazzo Tantucci. 
The brick work above it, and that now forming 
the central portion of the tower opposite, was 
probably a part of the Northern Gate of Roman 
Siena (^). The tablet on the Porta Romana is 
inscribed : 

A U G U S T A L 
YO . SOL. 

It was put up in honour of the rustic deity 
Silvanus, by a certain Vitricius, who evidently 
belonged to the cult of the deified Augustus. 

The Lombard-Romanesque work of the 12th 
and preceding centuries is represented by the 
brick facades of two little-known churches C^). 
That of Sta. Maria di Betlem (^), outside the 

(1) The southern entrance to the citj- was probablj- through the Porta 
Aurea — a gateway situated near the present Arco di Santr* Agostino. The 
east gate was somewhere near the church of S. Martino, aud the west gate 
at the top of the slope which leads from the Via di Citta to Porta Fonte- 

(^) Remains of Romanesque work are also visible in the old church 
of Sant' Ansano in Castel-Vecchio, possibly at one time the principal church 
of early mediaeval Siena. The remnants of the ancient portal of the neigh- 
bouring church of S. Quirico are also essentially Romanesque in character. 

(^) This church, with its annexed hospital, was once a dependance 
of the Bishopric of Bethlehem, which was instituted after the First Crusade 
in 1099, and which, at the beginning of the 13th century, was transferred 
from Bethlehem to the diocese of Auxerre in France. The above-mentioned 
church, together with others of the Sienese diocese, was conferred upon the 

Porta Romana, is particularly remarkable for its 
simplicity and beauty of proportion. That of 
Sta. Chiara, a suppressed convent-church on the 
Via Pispini, now used as a military magazine, 
is scarcely less interesting, although, to the best 
of our knowledge, it has hitherto escaped the 
notice of architectural writers on Siena. The 
interiors of both these churches have been al- 
tered at various times, and their original plans 
entirely changed. Although no secular build- 
ing remains to us in its Romanesque entirety, 
there are vestiges of this period still to be re- 
cognized in occasional weather-beaten lions' heads 
and other fragmentary bits of sculptural orna- 
ment, and in various entrance-ways, Avindows, 
and remains of stone foundation walls scattered 
through different parts of the city. 

As the Gothic S3^stem of architecture was 
definitely introduced into Siena by the advent 
of the Cistercian monks who founded the near- 
lying Abbey of San Galgano (^), it would be 
advisable that visitors to the city make an early 

Bishop of Bethlehem by a bull of Clement IV, dated Maj' nth, 1266. The 
church is said to have been founded in 1133. The earliest documentary 
mention is one of 1189. In the course of time, the patrimony passed into 
the hands of the Piccolomini family, to whom it was assigned as a benefice- 
See Cavallucci, Storia deW Arte, vol. II, p. 195. 

(') The first Gothic buildings in Ital}-, with the exception of S. Fran- 
cesco at Assisi (begun in 1228 by a French master), were erected by the 
Cistercians, the earliest being : Fossanuova 1187-1208, Valvisciola 1203-1217, 
and Casamari 1203-12 17. San Galgano, aij outgrowth of the church at 
Casamari, was eommenced in 12 18, and finished in 1306, 

pilgrimage to the beautiful ruins of that church. 
A comparison can thus be made between the 
purity of this early French Gothic and the work 
done on the Cathedral and throughout the city, 
and they will the better be enabled to realize 
the differences between Italian and Northern 
(or French) Gothic — although S. Galgano itself 
shows not only the restless ideals of the Gothic 
workman, but also -much of the solidity and 
broadness of the then departing Romanesque. 
The Italian mason never grasped the northern 
idea of mysterious and endless height, of walls 
which are not walls but pillars of strength to 
receive the weight of the roof and to support 
the real walls of glass or light masonry. His 
ideals were rather those of solidity, simplicity, 
and space. His classical inheritance, always 
alive in Byzantine and Romanesque work, kept 
his interiors of a moderate height, and more 
spacious than those of his northern brethren ; it 
caused him to string his facades with horizontal 
lines, and to leave broad wall surfaces, the bare- 
ness of which he relieved with bright frescoes 
or with alternate rows of coloured marble. Nev- 
ertheless, despite these differences, the Sienese 
temperament was in many ways more closely 
allied to that of the North than was that of other 
Italian cities — Dante himself once irefully likened 
them to the French — and Italianized Gothic, 
once having obtained a foot-hold, seems to have 

— 159 — 
spread with incredible rapidity, developing there 
a character peculiarly Sienese. So popular did 
this pointed style become, and so anxious was 
each family of note to possess at least one 
prominent palace of its own, that, even at the 
present day, there is no other city which con- 
tains so large a number of Gothic buildings as 
does Siena. Most important among all the 
edifices of this greatest period of her architec- 
tural activity are the world-famous Duomo, and 
the scarcely less interesting Palazzo Pubblico. 

Although in plan obviously influenced by 
the Abbey of S. Galgano, the Cathedral of Siena 
is far less Gothic in feeling than is that of Or- 
vieto, and retains many Romanesque elements 
in its construction and method of decoration, 
not to speak of its purely Romanesque campa- 
nile. A detailed description of this church, com- 
menced during the second quarter of the 13th 
century, and of the various vicissitudes con- 
nected with its erection, is reserved for a sub- 
sequent part of this Guide. 

The Palazzo Pubblico is, in a way, typical 
of many of the Sienese Gothic palaces (^). Its 
lower storey is of travertine and the upper walls 

(*) At the end of the 13th century, while that palace was in process 
of construction, a law was enacted by the State which required that all 
houses facing on the Piazza del Campo should have windows similar to those 
of the Palazzo della Signoria, as it was then called. It naturally followed 
that other palaces were built after the approved pattern. 

— i6o — 

of brick, with many clusters of small pointed 
openings divided by white marble shafts. This 
brick construction, which is so characteristic a 
feature of Sienese palaces, probably came into 
general use early in the 14th century, as the 
"Palazzo della vSignoria" slowly reached comple- 
tion ; and finally, almost supplanting the earlier 
work in travertine, it gave the architect far 
greater opportunity to decorate his facade. How- 
ever, it is interesting to note that the earliest 
of the Gothic palaces were probably built almost 
entirely of travertine, with undivided openings. 
Remnants of such fortress-like palaces may still 
be seen on the Via Stalloreggi, Xos. 4, 12, and 
II, and on Via S. ^lartino, Xo. g. The Palazzo 
Tolomei, also of travertine, and frequently cited 
as the earliest of Sienese palaces, its assigned 
year being 1205, cannot possibly, as it now 
stands, date entirely from that period (^). Of the 
buildings in brick and stone, probably modelled 
after the Palazzo Pubblico, the most interesting 
are the Palazzo vSansedoni, the Palazzo Grotta- 
nelli, and the imposing Salimbeni and Saracini 
palaces. The Palazzo Buonsignori is a splendid 

(') There is ever}- reason to suppose that the earlier palace was 
partly, or even wholly, destro5-ed in 1265 after an insurrection of the Guelphs; 
but more convincing arguments as to its real age are the elaborate window 
traceries of the upper storeys. The ground floor may possibly date from the 
first half of the 13th centurj-, but the remainder of the palace undoubtedh- 
belongs to a far later period. 

— i6i — 

example of the highly decorative effect obtained 
by the use of brick alone (^). It would be easy 
to dwell in detail upon a score of other palaces 
scarcely less interesting than those already men- 
tioned, but lack of space forbids. 

Several Sienese architects of the 13th cen- 
tury, sometimes difficult to differentiate from the 
sculptors of the period, are mentioned by name 
in the public books of Siena; but it is useless 
to speak of them here, as their work can seldom 
be exactly identified, consisting, as it frequently 
did, in the erection of various fortifications, 
gates, bottini, fountains, etc. During the follow- 
ing century a few names stand out with some 
prominence. That of Loreyizo Maitani will ever 
be associated with the splendid facade of Or- 
vieto Cathedral (begun in 13 10), a w^ork which can 
scarcely be sufficiently praised. Camaino di Cre- 
scentino, during the second decade of the century, 
held the post of head architect of the Duomo 
of Siena — that is, when the present Baptistery 
and the superimposed choir of the cathedral 
were first building. He is also known to have 
been concerned, in 1298, with the construction 
of the Fonte Nuova. His son, Tino di Camaino, 
held the same position on the works of the 
Duomo for a few months only; his work, both 

(1) There is hardly a palace in Siena which has not suffered restora- 
tion or rebuilding at different periods ; it is therefore impossible to assign 
the majority of buildings to any precise date. 

— l62 — 

as an architect and as a sculptor, is of more 
importance in Pisa and in Naples. Angela di 
Ventura, while head architect of the Commune, 
designed the Porta Tufi, which was finished in 
1325, and shortly afterwards commenced to re- 
build the Porta Romana — then Porta 8. Martino. 
Still another Sienese architect who laboured 
much in Naples was Lando di Pietro. When, in 
1339, the citizens of his native city decided to 
erect a new and vaster cathedral, incorporating 
the older edifice, they called upon him, as their 
most famous son, to act as head architect of the 
projected building. 

As has already been remarked, the Archi- 
tecture of the Renaissance found but a tardy 
welcome in Siena. Passing over such tentative 
and transitional work as that of Sana di Matte 0, 
we find in Antonio Fedei'ighi (active 1444- 1490) 
tbe first real exponent of Renaissance architec- 
ture in this city. Delicacy and refinement were 
the chief qualities of his work ; and it is to him 
that the beautiful church of Sta. Maria delle Nevi 
— one of the most charming of Renaissance build- 
ings in vSiena^ — -is probably due. A more cer- 
tain of his creations is the almost equally charm- 
ing church of the Palazzo dei Diavoli. With 
Pope Pius II and the advent of the Florentine 
architects Bernado Rosellino and Giuliano di 
Maiano, the tide of Sienese thought turned to- 

- i63 - 

ward a more complete realization of Renais- 
sance ideals. To Francesco di Giorgio (143 9- 1502), 
one of Siena's most renowned citizens, we can 
ascribe no authenticated building in this city. 
Painter and sculptor, architect, and commentator 
of Vitruvius, military and hydraulic engineer, 
his fame and popularity was second only to that 
of Leonardo da Vinci. He is better known, 
however, as an engineer, as the inventor of mines 
and various contrivances for war, than as an 
architect. Nevertheless, what little authentic- 
ated architectural work he has left, at Jesi and 
Ancona as well as at Cortona (^), shows great 
refinement and harmony of proportions, although, 
as frequently happens in Sienese work, it lacks 
something of the vig'our of the Florentine school 
of architecture. We may here add that Sienese 
architecture of the Renaissance in general, al- 
thoug'h distinguished from that of the Floren- 
tines by a greater delicacy of detail and execu- 
tion, falls considerably behind it in initiative 
ability and breadth of conception. The achieve- 
ments of Francesco di Giorgio's pupil Giacomo 
Cozzarelli (1453-15 15) may be gauged by the 
present convent of the Osservanza, and the some- 
what formless Palazzo del Magnilico. What 

(1) The church of Sta. Maria del Calcinaio, near that city, France- 
sco's masterpiece in building, surely entitles him to rank among the greatest 
architects of the Quattrocento. 

- i64 - 

the eag-er and determined spirit of the Re- 
naissance could achieve, Avhen embodied in 
an architect possessing* a nicely balanced and 
discerning- mind, is demonstrated in the work of 
Baldassarre Peruzzi (1481-1537). His classicism 
is more Greek in quality than is that of any of 
his contemporaries, and is seldom either exag- 
gerated or misapplied. One must, however, go 
to Rome to know him well, for, apart from the 
Palazzo Celsi (now known as the Palazzo Pol- 
lini), but little in Siena can be assigned to Peruzzi 
himself. Nevertheless, a considerable quantity 
of work shows his direct influence — such as the 
courtyard of the house of St. Catherine, the house 
front, Xo. 24, on the Via Baldassarre Peruzzi, 
and again, in a later development, the Villa 
Sta. Colomba, in the neighbourhood of the city. 
With the Sienese pupils of Peruzzi, many 
of them nameless, the architects of Siena ceased, 
from an artistic standpoint, to be of any great 
importance. It is, nevertheless, interesting to 
note that their services were sometimes called 
upon by foreign princes, as when Henri II 
employed Girolamo Bellarmati to superintend 
the building up of Havre-de-Grace. And, at a 
later period, they extended the sphere of their 
activity not only throughout the countries of 
Europe, but as far as England itself (^). Of 

(•) Giuliano Pcricciuoli lived some time in England, during the 17th 

- i65 - 

later Renaissance architecture in Siena, the Pa- 
lazzo Tantucci (now part of the Monte dei Pa- 
schi) (^) and the fagade of S. Martino are excel- 
lent examples of two different periods, while 
the church of Sta. Maria Provenzano is an 
extraordinarily temperate specimen of the Ba- 
roque style. 

The surprising architectural wealth of Siena, 
even as she stands to-day, has never met with 
sufficient recognition on the part of architectural 
or other writers, and the majority of visitors, 
in their hasty passage through this beautiful 
city, seldom stay to consider it from other than 
a purely picturesque point of view. For those, 
however, who are actuated by a more purely 
artistic interest in brick and stone, Siena has 
endless half-hidden treasure to offer. 

(') The officials of the Monte de' Paschi not only occupy the Palazzo 
Tantucci, the building to the north of the square, but also the Palazzo Sa- 
limbeni, on its eastern side (see page 43 supra). It is the latter palace 
which gives its name to the piazza. 


As early as 1212 we have record in Siena 
of a corporation of Maestri di Pietra, which 
term was used to designate those who were not 
only sculptors, but often architects or builders 
as well. It was not, however, until the advent 
of Xiccolo and Giovanni Pisano, and the con- 
sequent introduction of a greater technical fa- 
cility and a more careful study of both natural 
and classic models, that a really distinctive 
school of Sienese sculpture rose into being. 
From this new-born school craftsmen went out, 
during the subsequent half century, to all parts 
of Italy (^), and it is in strange cities, far rather 
than in their native home, that we are best 
enabled to study their productions. vSuch sculp- 
tors as remained in vSiena herself appear to have 
been more occupied with various architectural 
duties connected with the construction of the 
Cathedral, and of other buildings, than in the 
exercise of their chosen profession — although 
sculptural work for the decoration of the original 

(1; Even Florence possessed no true school of her own until the 
coming of Andrea Pisano, and freely drew on Siena for much of the work 
she ordered. 

- i67 - 

facade of that great church was doubtless begun 
at an early period. Of a certain Ramo di Paga- 
nello, who was famous in his day, we know only 
that he worked on this same fagade. Go7'o di 
Gi-egorio has left us more certain proof of his 
talent in the sculptured tomb of San Cerbone 
at Massa Marittima, near Siena. In 1330, Ago- 
stino di Giovanni and Angela di Vejificra, both of 
whom have been immortalized by Vasari, carved 
for the city of Arezzo one of its finest monu- 
ments — the tomb of the Avarrior-bishop Guido 
Tarlati, the original plan of which was long 
falsely attributed to Giotto. None of their work 
in Siena can be identified, but Maestro Agosti- 
no's son, Giovanni d' Agostiiio, has left us a small 
tabernacle, still to be seen in the Oratorio di 
S. Bernardino. A contemporary of the above- 
named masters, Tino di Camaino — that interesting 
but somewhat heavy follower of the Pisani — 
evidently enjoyed a wide-spread reputation, if 
we may judge from the number of sculptured 
tombs which he was called upon to furnish for 
various famous personages of his time. In Pisa 
is his tomb of the Emperor Henry VII; in the 
Cathedral and in Sta. Maria Novella at Florence, 
are those of the two bishops, Orso and Aliotti. 
In Naples, where he spent the last fifteen years 
of his life, he erected several similar and equally 
important monuments. Cellino di Nese, who 
passed much of his life in Pistoia, carved, in 1337, 

— i68 — 

the tomb of ]\Iesser Cino, the famous jurist-poet 
and friend of Dante. This was probably the 
first of a series of secular monuments to scholars 
and professors which later became so popular 
in Bologna and in other cities of Italy, and of 
which there is an interesting example in the 
University at Siena. Indeed, the greater part 
of the Sienese work of this century, with the 
exception of that on the cathedrals of Siena and 
Orvieto, is limited to the carving of sepulchral 
monuments, both of a religious and secular type. 
It is still to be proved whether the beautiful 
sculptures in low^ relief which adorn the facade 
of Orvieto, are of Florentine or Sienese execution. 
It is more probable that they are the work of 
the latter school, embodying as they do the 
greatest achievement of Italian-Gothic sculpture. 
Lorenzo Maitani, already mentioned as the archi- 
tect of the facade, has of late been accredited 
with their authorship (^), but it seems preferable 
to attribute them to the school as a whole, as 
they distinctly show the work of different hands. 
But to whomsoever they may ultimately be 
given, there can be no doubt as to their having 
been produced under the predominating influence 
of the Pisani. 

Towards the end of the 14th century, the 
Sienese school of sculpture passed into a period 

{') See Burckhardt's Cicerone, 8th edition. A'ol. Ill, p. 396. 

of decadence unrelieved by any important Avork. 
The apparition oi Jacopo del/a Ouercia (i 374-1 428) 
is therefore the more startling and unexpected. 
Arising-, as he did, at a time when the grand 
traditions of the earlier Trecento were already 
on the wane, he re-incarnated much that was 
characteristic of them in his work, adding at 
the same time something of the more profoundly 
naturalistic ideals and the higher technical per- 
fection of the awakening Renaissance. The 
breadth and energy of his style — curiously di- 
vided as it is between Gothic and Renaissance 
— justify the appellation which has been be- 
stowed on him of the " Precursor of Michelan- 
gelo ", to whom he stands in closer relation 
than to any other sculptor of his own or of the 
following centuries (^). With none of the minute 
and oft-times exaggerated attention to detail 
bestowed on their work by so many of his 
Florentine contemporaries — such as Ghiberti and 
Donatello — he succeeded in imbuing liis figures 
with a life and movement combined with a grace 
and beauty peculiarly his ov.m. One of the 
earliest of his works was the tomb of Ilaria del 
Carretto at Lucca, without doubt one of the 
most splendid existing monuments of the Earlier 
Renaissance. In Siena, his work is represented 

(1) A study of the fine sculptures on the facade of S. Pctronio at 
Bologna is sufficient to prove the truth of this assertion. 

— lyo — 

by the sadly mutilated, but still beautiful, ruins 
of the Fonte Gaia, now preserved in the Opera 
del Duomo, and by the relief of the Expulsion 
of Zacharias, and other single figures, on the 
Baptismal Font of S. Giovanni — a work which 
owes its original design, as a whole, to his owm 

When the competition for the bronze doors 
of S. Giovanni in Florence took place, two of the 
competitors were Sienese — Jacopo della Querela 
and his pupil Francesco Valdambrini. Cino di Bar- 
tolo was another pupil, but nothing is now 
known of his work save that he aided his master 
on the doors of vS. Petronio at Bologna. Pietro 
del Mine II a was an assistant of more importance. 
He laboured with his master on the Font in 
vS. Giovanni, and in the Duomo executed his 
share of several works which will be mentioned 
later, among- them being one of the interesting 
graffito pavements of that church. Still another 
sculptor who w^orked on the Baptistery Font 
was Goro di Nej'occio. ]\Iore important than any 
of the above-named, however, as far as the number 
and value of their creations are concerned, are the ^ 
members of the Turini family — ^Turino di Sano, 
and his three sons, Barna, Lorenzo, and Giovanni 
— sculptors and bronze-casters deserving of far 
more notice than has hitherto been accorded 
them. Contemporaries of Querela, and to some 
extent influenced by his powerful genius, they 

— 171 — 

nevertheless display a considerable amount of 
originality in their work, which is, as a rule, 
purely Sienese in its feeling for grace and in its 
pleasing expression. Their combined talents 
may be judged in two of the bas-reliefs on the 
above-mentioned Font of vS. Giovanni. To Gio- 
vaniti himself are due several of the single figures 
on the same Font, the fine holy-water basin in 
the Palazzo Pubblico, and, in all probability, 
the bronze wolf on the column in front of the 
same building- (^). 

Whatever may have been Jacopo della Quer- 
cia's influence on his immediate followers, he 
can scarcely be said to have founded a real or 
lasting school in Siena (^). Of the artistic g'en- 
eration which came directly after his, only one 
sculptor can be rightly classed as showing any 
influence of his manner — Antonio Federighi (active 
1 444- 1 490). Far less gifted than was Querela, 
Federighi still shows at times something of his 
energy of expression, although more often his 
sculpture is marked by a certain over-developed 
softness that was conspicuously absent from 
the older master's g'rander style f ). One of 
Federighi's chief claims to attention lies in the 
fact that he was the first of Sienese artists 

(1) By two unknown, but much closer followers of Quercia, we pos- 
sess works in the churches ot S. ^Martino and Sta. ^Margherita. 

(-) In Lucca, Jacopo left behind him one of his best pupils, Matteo 
Civitali, of whose work there are many examples still in that city. 

(•') As in the statues on the Loggia dei Nobili. 

— 1/2 

after Ouercia's day, to become imbued with the 
" classic " spirit of Renaissance, although this, 
perhaps, is even more obvious, and certainly 
more purely expressed, in his architectural, than 
in his sculptural, work. 

Older and younger contemporaries of Fe- 
derighi were Lorenzo di Pietro, usually known 
as " Vecchietta ", Neroccio di Landi, and Gio- 
vanni di Stefano. Vecchietta (141 2-1480) shows 
no sign of Quercia's influence, but seems early 
to have fallen under that of Donatello, of whom 
he became at a later period a somewhat exag- 
gerated follower (^). Although his more mature 
work represents the very antithesis to that of 
Federighi, he is in no wise less important as 
a vSienese representative of the Renaissance. 
Dominated by utterly different ideals, and em- 
ploying a technique equally dissimilar, there 
exists between his minute naturalistic style and 
the broader and freer one of Federighi, a dif- 
ference somewhat similar to that which exists 
between Donatello and Jacopo della Querela. 
Neroccio di Landi (1447-1500), painter and sculptor 
— as was Vecchietta, — belongs to the foremost 
rank of Siena's artists, despite the extraordinary 
neglect with which he has hitherto been treated. 
Probably a pupil of Vecchietta, his work in 
sculpture is nevertheless far removed from that 

(') As an example of this exaggeration, note the striking bronze 
figure of the Risen Christ in the Hospital church. 

Lombardi photo. 

Charity (Rhea Sylvia) 
Jacopo della Quercia 

of his master both in style and spirit. That, as 
has recently been suggested, he was a follower 
of Federighi, whom, by the way, he far sur- 
passed in nobility and refined grace, is very 
difficult to believe ; and as far as he ma}^ be 
said to have chosen any model for imitation, 
Quercia's is the only work that we may name 
as such. Of his beautiful statues in the Duomo 
and the churches of ^lonagnese and of St. Cath- 
erine, particular mention will be made when 
speaking of those buildings. Giovanni di Stefano 
is another comparatively unknown sculptor of 
this period. His is the charming statue of 
Sant' Ansano in the Chapel of St. John in the 
Cathedral (^), and two of the bronze angels on 
the high-altar. Nor does the versatile Francesco 
di Giorgio deserve to be forgotten under this 
head. His two bronze angels, companions to 
those of Stefano, do not fall behind them in 
beauty or in g'race. With Giacomo CozzarcUi, 
Francesco's favourite pupil, the list of vSiena's 
Quattrocento sculptors comes to an end. Creations 
of his hand — he worked in terra-cotta, wood, 
and bronze — are not uncommon in his native 
town, the finest of them being, perhaps, the 
hitherto unknown statues in the church of Sta. 
Lucia — a Bishop and Sta. Lucia herself (the 
latter much "restored"). A better known workQ 

(1) The beautiful chapel itself was built on his designs. 

(2) Most certainlj- not by Neroccio to whom it has recently been 
ttributed by the Cicerone (vol. II, p. 463). 

— 174 — 

is the kneeling figure of the Apostle John in 
the Opera del Duomo. But above all is this 
sculptor famous for the fine torch and banner- 
holders on the Palazzo del ]\Iagnifico — superb 
examples of the decorative use of bronze. 

Lorenzo di Mariano, known as Marrina (1476- 
1534), flourished in Siena after her school of 
eclectics was well under way. Retaining the 
innate Sienese delicacy of touch, and having 
lost the nobility and simplicity of her older ar- 
tists, he often spent his efforts in carefully fin- 
ished and overburdened detail {^). But what- 
ever may have been his faults, lack of refinement 
and of decorative feeling were not among them, 
and, of its kind, his work can but rank very high. 
Marrina may virtually be said to have been the 
last of Siena's sculptors of any real importance. 
Of Beccafumi's bronze work no special mention 
need be made. 

As was the case with her architects and 
painters, Siena's stone-cutters never fell, during 
the centuries that followed, into the disorderly 
extravagance that marked the history of other 
schools, and such late sculpture as she turned 
out, although generally quite devoid of any in- 
terest, possesses at least the merit of a compara- 
tive sobriety not to be found in the mass of 
contemporary Italian work. 

v') The rercdos in the church of Fontegiusta shows him at his best. 

Alinari photo. 

The Risen Christ 



FEW schools of painting have met with such 
neg'lect as has that of Siena — a neglect which 
may in part be accounted for by the extreme 
conservatism of her art. For, although the work 
of the Sienese School, properly so called, may 
be said to have extended over a period of two 
full centuries — and those the most important in 
the history of Italian Painting — it virtually re- 
tained throughout that time the traditions and 
the technical practices of the Middle Ages. 
Aluch has been said and written as to the con- 
servative nature of the Sienese people, but to 
satisfactorily explain or analyze it would be an 
almost impossible task. It is sufficient for our 
present purpose to accentuate the importance of 
its influence on Siena's art. It has been fre- 
quently urged that all inhabitants of mountain 
towns or districts possess in common this same 
peculiarity of an excessive conservatism, as a 
natural result of their geographical situation ; 
but when regarding Siena in connection with 
her art history, her geographical position can 
count for but little. No more inaccessible than 
she is to-day, her artists must, notwithstanding 

- 176 - 
the bitter rivalry between the two cities, have 
frequently visited Florence, and have been well 
acquainted with the masterpieces of Florentine 
art, from those of Giotto to those of the Pol- 
lajuoli, Verocchio, and Ghirlandaio. However 
this may be, with but few and partial exceptions, 
they derived no direct benefit or inspiration 
from this acquaintance — even the powerful ex- 
ample of Giotto failing to leave more than a 
passing impress upon them. The Sienese State 
itself, far from encouraging any foreign influ- 
ences Avithin its w^alls, took good care, not only 
jealously to guard such great men as it happened 
to possess, but even to make difficult the estab- 
lishing of foreign artists within the city (^). The 
Sienese painter, even in the 15th century, thus 
retained to a greater or less degree the ideas 
and the methods of w^ork of his fore-father 
Duccio, and continued painting visions of ideally 
beautiful Madonnas and of unsubstantial Saints 
— often stiff-jointed and comparatively flat — long 
after his contemporaries had abandoned mere 
Story-telling and dreamy Sentiment, and were 
seeking to portray the new and sterner Natural- 
istic ideals of the Renaissance. But despite 
these evident defects — if, after all, we may 
term them such — the pictures which the Sienese 

(') A clause of the Breve delV Arte de' Pittori Senesi imposed a 
heavy fine, practicallj- prohibitive, on each painter coming to reside in 
Siena — a curious law, but one verj- characteristic of the citj-. 

painters produced are none the less great and 
delightful. It is only for those who seek solely 
the more material values of modelling and chiaro- 
scuro that they have no charm. The Sienese 
artists possessed a love of colour equalled only 
by that of the painters of Venice, and a peculiar 
feeling for line which entitles them to a place 
beside the Japanese. Having combined with 
these two gifts all the elemental delicacy of the 
Sienese temperament and the unspoilt simplicity 
of mediaeval sentiment, they painted pictures 
which have never been surpassed in pure love- 
liness and decorative effect. Surely, therefore, 
although they may have failed where the Flor- 
entine, the Veronese, and the Paduan, succeeded, 
the credit that is due to their success in their 
own chosen field need not thereby be either 
diminished or withheld. After all, have we not 
rather reason to be grateful than otherwise for 
those very limitations which alone made such 
an art a possibility ? It is difficult under all 
circumstances to grasp the ideals of another 
age, and particularly is it difficult for our modern 
mind to understand and appreciate such artists 
of the Middle Ages as were the Sienese — but 
the aesthetic value of their work must remain 
unchanged throughout all time. 

Many words have been spent over the 
question as to whether the Sienese school of 

- i;^ - 

Painting antedates the Florentine, or I'ice versa. 
Both Cimabue and Guido da Siena have had 
their partisans and supporters, claiming now for 
the one and now for the other precedence in 
the honour of having created a new school of 
art. But the misty personality of Cimabue, re- 
presentative more of a group of different painters 
and of an artistic movement than of an indi- 
viduality, and the unending discussion as to 
whether Guido painted his famous signed Ma- 
donna in 1 22 1 or 1 28 1 (^), have prevented both 
sides from arriving at a satisfactory conclusion. 
To many the much-vexed question continues to 
be of absorbing interest, to others, however, it 
has lost much of its earlier importance, at least 
as far as it concerns the formation of the two 
great schools in question. AVhatever may have 
been the relation of " Cimabue " and of Guido 
to their contemporaries, neither can be said to 
have had any direct connection with the forma- 
tion of a lasting school of art. Even granting 
that Cimabue may be entitled to all the merit 
that has been conferred upon him as a re- 
generator, it is certainly to Giotto that the credit 
of having founded the school of Florence, as we 
know it, is rightly due. The position of Giddo 
da Siena is scarcely dissimilar to that of Cima- 
bue, and it is sufficient praise to allow that 

(*) There are critical reasons for accepting the latter date. 

— 179 — 
among the various painters who in his day 
continued in the traditional and debased methods 
of the Italo-Byzantine craftsmen, he was pro- 
minent for the superior quality of his work and 
for a return to better models (^). Far rather 
than Guido, the real founder of the Sienese 
school was Diiccio di Bitoninsegna (active 1278- 
13 19). Although we know nothing of his early 
life, his style is so purely Byzantine as to lead 
us to suppose that he acquired his early train- 
ing from some unusually fine Byzantine master, 
possibly at Constantinople itself. The work 
produced by his Italian predecessors and most 
of his contemporaries appears rough and uncouth 
when compared to his compositions, glowing 
Avith colour and almost faultless in execution. 
Uninfluenced by the new methods of Giotto, he. 
was equally independent of the Pisani, not- 
withstanding- the fact that they were working in 
his very town, and he remained throughout his 
life true to the Byzantine style. Adopting the 
same types that had been in use for centuries, 
he imbued them with a life and beauty all his 
own, clothing them in colours so rich and varied 
that his panels produce the effect of sumptuous 
mosaics. His compositions surpassed those of 
his contemporaries not only in the balance of 

(') It must be recalled to mind that in Central Italj- the art of 
painting had at this period sunk to the production of works that were mere 
caricatures of the earlier Byzantine models. 

— i8o — 

their parts, but also because of his power to 
create effects of space and even of distance. 
In his " feeling for line " he displayed a charac- 
teristic which became one of the most marked 
and important features of the school of Sienese 
painting. Without any of the power of gen- 
eralization with which Giotto was endowed, he 
depicted his subjects with an expressiveness 
which places him at once in the ranks of the 
greatest Illustrators of the World. 

Such painting as Duccio's so appealed to 
the colour-loving Sienese, and his story-telling 
faculties so satisfied their not over critical intel- 
lectual demands, that the artists who followed 
were quite overpowered by the example he had 
set them. As was the case with Duccio himself, 
so it was to a less degree with the entire school. 
The naturalistic influences of Giotto and the 
Pisani could obtain but little hold on a people 
for whom there existed so entirely sympathetic 
a style, and are apparent only to a slight degree 
in the work of the greatest of Duccio's pupils, 
Sbnojie Mai'tini (1285?-! 344). Having" freed him- 
self from many of the more purely Byzantine 
elements of his master's style (^), Simone became 
even more graceful of line, more gay of colour, 
less stern and hieratic of type. In his painting 

('1 Segna di Bonaveyitura and Ugolino, Duccio's closest pupils, re- 
tained throughout their career the more strictly Byzantine spirit of his work. 

— i8i — 

a new element appears — a greater love of life 
and a more subtle depicting of its joys and pas- 
sions. But to him it was the brighter side of 
existence that most appealed— its darker trage- 
dies repelled rather than attracted him, and his 
paintings are peopled almost invariably with the 
most serene and unruffled of saintly beings. 
Simone's love of resplendent colour, and that 
passion for curving and flowing line which makes 
of his compositions such marvellous and unri- 
valled patterns, led him to pay far more attention 
to decorative effect than to the equally important 
problems of movement and of form. Yet he 
was not lacking in the possession of either 
of these last-named qualities, as the exquisite 
Annunciation in Florence, and the wonderful 
frescoes of the Life of St. Martin, in Assisi, 
respectively attest. Although Duccio was the 
founder of his school, JSimone was, far rather 
than he, the first of truly Sienese masters — 
masters who continued to repeat, each according 
to his ability and nature, what Simone first had 
said (^). 

Pietro Lorenzetti (active 1 305-1 348), Simone's 

(') Simone Martini and his assistant and imitator Lippo Memmi (died 
1357) were both miniature painters. A possible example of the former's 
work is an illustration in a manuscript Virgil, now in the Ambrosian Library 
at Milan. Another miniaturist of the same period, and one of the utmost 
delicacy, was Niccolo di Ser Sozzo Tegliacci. A beautiful Assumption of 
the Virgin, by his hand, is to be found on the first page of the Caleffo del- 
V Assuuta, in the Sienese Archives. 


— l82 — 

follower, and Ambrogio Lorenzetti (active 1323- 
1348), his younger brother and pupil, each felt 
more keenly the influences of Giovanni Pisano 
and Giotto. Their style combines something of 
these great masters' sense of plastic values with 
the intensity of feeling and decorative grace so 
characteristic of the Sienese. Both possessing* 
a passionate love for beauty, Pietro's types are 
more stern than those of Ambrogio. He re- 
turned rather to the models of Duccio than to 
those of Simone. The painting of both brothers 
can be fairl}^ well studied in vSiena, especially 
that of Ambrogio, the greater genius of the 
two. To know the finest of Pietro's works one 
must go to Arezzo, or to Assisi, where he painted 
that most exquisite fresco of the Madonna with 
her Babe between SS. Francis and Louis. It is 
in Assisi, also, that Pietro is seen at his worst, 
in the Scenes from the Passion — frescoes wherein 
all significant and lasting artistic qualities are 
subordinated to the expression of exagg*erated 
emotion. This falling away from the high ideals 
of much of his painting is paralleled in some of 
the works of his brother. Commissioned to paint 
for the Sienese Commune the histories of Good 
and Bad Government, Ambrogio, instead of 
concisely presenting, as would have Giotto, the 
essential idea of his subject in a few unmistak- 
able allegorical figures, covered vast wall-spaces 
with endless incident, complete in every detail. 

- iB3 - 

employing" as a final explanatory touch the use 
of inscriptions. Considering Ambrogio's im- 
mense gifts, it is the more to be regretted that 
he ever became a mere retailer of facts. What 
this great artist was really capable of when not 
carried away by the Sienese passion for Illus- 
tration, is well shown by such panels as that 
of the Annunciation in the Sienese Academy, 
and of the Virgin and Child in the vSacristy of 
S. Francesco, not to mention other examples of 
his genius. 

Doubtless the greatest of the Lorenzetti's 
followers was the nameless artist Avho painted 
the frescoes in the Campo Santo at Pisa, until 
recently attributed to Orcagna and to Pietro 
himself. The Last Judgment, the Triumph of 
Death, and the Thebaid, are all by the same hand, 
and are painted by one who not only possessed, 
in no small degree, the power to portray both 
form and movement, but also to clothe his me- 
diaeval thought in most realistic garments. 

After the Lorenzetti came the fall. Never 
again did Jhe Sienese artists quite attain to the 
greatness of the early school. Barna (flourishing 
in 1370), a follower of Simone and Lippo Memmii^), 

(') Of Lippo Memmi's work in Siena but a single example remains 
to us — the charming Madonna del Popolo in the church of the Servi. To 
know him at his best one must go to San Gimignano and to Orvieto. The 
cathedral of the latter town possesses one of the master's most important 
creations — the Virgin of Mercy in the Cappella del Corporale. 

_ i84 - 

Bartolo di Fredi (active 1353-dead 14 10) and An- 
drea Vanni (1332-14 14) who grew out of Simone 
and the Lorenzetti, carried on its traditions, and 
saved it from falling into absolute decadence. 
They were strong artists, each in his way, and 
not altogether lacking in originality. Taddeo di 
Bartolo (about 1 362-1422), a pupil of Bartolo di 
Fredi, is important not only for the high level 
of his work but also for the number of his pupils. 
His painting, now Gothic and now unconscious- 
ly Renaissance in sentiment, shows a natural 
feeling for structural significance and, to a lesser 
extent, for movement. At the time he flourished 
there were but fcAV artists of note in the field, 
which may account, in part at least, for his 
having been called to so many cities of Italy. 
He painted in Genoa, in Pisa, in Volterra and 
in San Gimingnano, in Montepulciano, in Peru- 
gia, and in Padua (^). His influence was wide- 
spread, and by no means confined to the painters 
of his own town. 

Stefano di Giovanni, called Sassetta, was born 
in 1392 and died in 1450. His precise artistic 
parentage is still an unsolved and most difficult 
problem, although it is evident that he derived 
some inspiration from Taddeo. In spirit and 
style, however, he returned rather to his earlier 

('' Both in Montepulciano and in Perugia some of his most importan- 
works yet remain. 

— 105 — 
predecessors. Little of his work can be seen in 
Siena itself, but one of his most important panels 
is preserved in the convent of the Osservanza, 
a short distance from the town. 

Among* the painters who came under Tad- 
deo's influence may be mentioned, as the most 
important, Domenico di Bartolo, Sano di Pietro, 
and I^orenzo Vecchietta. Domenico di Bartolo 
(1400-1449?) was one of the few Sienese who 
tried to keep abreast of their Florentine contem- 
poraries, but failing to comprehend the essential 
spirit of their ideals, his success was of the 
slightest. His frescoes in the Spedale di vSta. Ma- 
ria della Scala, although full of detailed interest, 
lack the touch of genius, and remain but the 
records, pleasing it is true, of a number of 
events in the history of the hospital. Like all 
his countrymen he was more at home when 
painting purely religious subjects, as can be seen 
in his fine polyptych at Asciano and in the large 
altar-piece at Perugia. Sano di Pietro (i 406-1 481) 
was not only a pupil of Taddeo but strongly 
influenced by Sassetta as well. Far from being 
" a dulled and heavy echo of Fra Angelico " (^), 
he is one of the most charming and winsome 
of artists ; his round-eyed Madonnas and angels 
are the very embodiment of religious sentiment. 
His colour is sometimes brilliant, but always 

(') Siena, Its Architecture and Art, by Gilbert Hastings. 

— i86 — 

delicate and lig'ht in tone ; and he clothes his 
beings in undulating draperies that remind us 
of Gentile da Fabriano and Lorenzo Monaco. 
Vecchietta (141 2-1480) already mentioned as hav- 
ing fallen as a sculptor under the influence of 
Donatello, appears likewise in his painting* to 
have been inspired by many of the new longings 
of the Renaissance. This influence was most 
powerfully felt toward the end of his life, when 
he painted the large, and unfortunately ruined, 
panel for the Hospital — now in the Academy. 
His earlier work, the best of which is to be 
found in some ruined frescoes in the same Hospital 
(Deposito delle Donne), shows him to be an 
artist possessed of fine ideas of composition, 
and a love of soft and delicate colouring. Nev- 
ertheless, in most of this early work, his figures 
tend to excessive dryness of form* and to ab- 
normal proportions. A somewhat later picture 
is the fine triptych at Pienza, which combines 
the new feeling with all the old Sienese love 
of gorgeous surface and decorative effect. 

The traditional and tenaciously beloved 
technique and sentiment of the Sienese school 
were thus gradually infused with a new life, 
which resulted in the production of some of the 
most charming painting the world has ever 
known. Out of Vecchietta came Fr-ancesco di 
Giorgio (1439-1502), Neroccio di Laudi [i^^"] -1^00), 
and Benvenitto di Gioz'a?i?ii {ij^t,6-i ^18?). The first 

- i87 - 

two mentioned worked together for a space, and 
for the unpractised eye it is somewhat difficult 
to distinguish between them, although France- 
sco's colour is apt to be of a chalkiness that is 
quite characteristic. Neroccio, however, was by 
far the greater painter of the tw^o — indeed he 
may justly be called one of the greatest Sienese 
masters of the 1 5th century. We have already 
mentioned his remarkably fine creations as a 
sculptor ; in regard to his work as a, painter we 
cannot do better than to quote Mr. Berenson's 

own words : "he was Simone come to life 

again. Simone's singing line, wSimone's endlessly 
refined feeling for beauty, Simone's charm and 
grace — you lose but little of them in Neroccio's 
panels, and you get what to most of us counts 
more, ideals and emotions more akin to our own, 
with quicker suggestions of freshness and joy " (^). 
Of Fra7icesco di Giorgio'^ paintings, which influ- 
enced to no small extent those of his con- 
temporaries, there is at least one panel w^hich 
deserves a special mention, embodying as it does 
much of the classical feeling so essentially a 
part of his nature — the Adoration of the Shep- 
herds in the church of S. Domenico. Benvemcto 
di Giovanni, although living w^ell into the i6th 
century, retained not only the brilliant colouring 
of his ancestors, but continued to finish his pic- 

(') The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. 

— i88 — 

tures with such care that the surfaces appear 
ahiiost to be of enameL The sentiment of much 
of his work, however, falls far beloAv that of 
Matteo or Neroccio. Sometimes a painter of 
idyllic charm — as in his panel of the Annuncia- 
tion at Volterra, — he became in later years one of 
great austerity and keener perceptions. Indeed, 
his peculiar development is a unique feature 
in Siena's artistic history. His son, Girolamo 
di Benvemito (1470-1524) hardly equalled him 
in merit, although his earlier work is some- 
times confounded with that of his father. He 
was virtually one of the last of the Sienese 
painters who retained unchanged the traditions 
of their school. 

Domenico di Bartolo's great pupil was Mat- 
teo di Giovanni (about 1435-1495), who, had he 
received a different artistic education, might 
have succeeded in portraying movement and 
passion as well as did his Florentine contem- 
poraries. Sienese in all his instincts, in his love 
of brilliant and rich colouring, in his appreci- 
ation of the lines of a composition, he was, in 
his adopted city, one of the greatest artists of 
his day. Nothing could be lovelier than such a 
head as that of St. Catherine in one of his 
pictures in S. Domenico — nothing could be more 
grotesque, and at the same time more splendid 
in colour and design, than his Massacre of the 
Innocents in Sant'Agostino. His greatest work, 

O H 


— iSg — 

the Assumption of the Virgin, now in the Na- 
tional Gallery, takes its place among the mas- 
terpieces of Sienese art. Guidoccio Cozzar-elli 
followed very closely in Matteo's footsteps, and 
although at times pleasing as a painter was far 
inferior to his master. 

The influence of Sassetta is clearly discern- 
ible in the work of Giovajuii di Paolo (1403 ?- 
1482), which is as easy to criticise as that of 
his master is difficult (^). Harsh' in types and 
often rough in execution, he nevertheless was 
able to produce such a charming work as the 
Assumption of the Virgin in the Saracini Palace. 
Bernardino Fimgat (1^60-1^ 1 6), a pupil of Giovanni, 
was one of the last of Siena's own artists, and 
even his painting owes in some ways a debt to 
the Umbrians. His chalky colour and lack of 
modelling are not redeemed by any great ap- 
preciation of beauty, although many of his in- 
dividual heads possess considerable charm. 

With such men as Pietj^o di Donienico (1457- 
1501) dci\& And7-ea di Niccolb (i 460-1 529), although 
of different generations, we close the list of more 
truly Sienese painters. The influence of the 
Umbrians was already paramount, and the Cin- 

{}) As a miniaturist his work is more pleasing. Several of the artists 
of the 15th century practised this minor branch of painting. Sano di Pietro 
was one of the most efficient. Specimens of his beautiful work, as well as 
that of his assistant Pellegrino di Mariano, of Benvenuto di Giovanni, and 
of Guidoccio Cozzarelli, are to be found among the choir books preserved 
in the Librcria of the Sienese Cathedral. 

— I go — 

quecento artists of Siena became purely eclectic, 
borrowing not only from the Perugian, but from 
the Florentine, and even Lombard artists. Gia- 
conio Pacchiarotto (i 474-1 540), a charming pupil of 
Fungai, and in his early days influenced by 
Matteo and Francesco di Giorgio, remained, 
perhaps, more truly vSienese than did his con- 
temporaries Matteo Balditcci (active first quarter 
of 1 6th century) and Girolamo del Pacchia (1477- 
after 1535). Both followers of Fungai, the former 
was carried off his feet by Pintoricchio, to whom 
he acted as an assistant, and the latter borrowed 
promiscuously from many of the great artists 
of his day. 

When Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini, af- 
terwards Pius III, wished to decorate his new 
Libreria in the Cathedral, he found the rather 
archaistic Sienese painters but little to his taste, 
and so called upon the Umbrian Pinturicchio to 
fulfil the task. Pandolfo Petrucci followed the 
cardinal's example, employing to decorate his 
palace not only the above-mentioned artist, but 
Signoj'elli and his pupil Genga as well. In 1501, 
a young follower of Leonardo da Vinci, Gian- 
antonio Bazzi, called " II Sodoma ", w^as induced 
by agents of the wSpannocchi, a wealthy family 
of bankers, to come to vSiena and settle there. 
The presence of these various foreign elements 
offered not only an opportunity to study the 
newer Renaissance methods, but stimulated in 

— igi — 

the younger of the vSienese artists a desire to 
draw and paint after the fashion of their more 
famous contemporaries. The ragged ends of the 
Sienese school, thus gathered together, resulted 
in the electicism already mentioned, very de- 
lightful at times, but retaining only the merest 
shreds of the ancient Sienese ideals. 

The painter who exercised by far the great- 
est influence over this class of workmen was 
Sodoma (147 7-1 549) — ^that most over-rated of all 
artists. Incomprehensible as it may seem, the 
work of few painters has received such extrav- 
agant praise, and that from the majority of 
otherwise intelligent critics. Highly endowed 
by Nature, Sodoma so wasted his talents that 
his compositions, almost invariably careless to 
a degree, are, more often than not, absolutely 
lacking in that dignity of feeling which is always 
present in the work of a truly great artist. The 
highest praise that can be bestowed on his un- 
satisfactory productious is that they are " Leo- 
nardo watered down ". His facility of execution, 
his " sweetness long drawn out ", his exag- 
gerated sentimentality, his effective colour, and 
the constant repetition of his effeminate types, 
could not fail, however, to obtain for his pro- 
ductions the wide-spread popularity which the 
possession of such qualities invariably brings. 
But as no man's work can be entirely con- 
demned, so does that of Sodoma appear of 

an excellent quality in such paintings as the 
Marriage of Roxana and Alexander, in the Villa 
Farnesina at Rome. His Portrait of a Lady, in 
the Stadel Institute at Frankfort, also bears 
witness to his great possibilities as an artist. 
Had Sodoma continued to produce such works 
as these, and such work as a part at least of 
the famous fresco of St. Catherine, in S. Dome- 
nico, the world might have been the richer by 
another truly great painter. 

To return to some of those who came under 
his influence. Domenico Beccafumi (i 485-1 551) — 
as unjustl^v condemned as Sodoma is praised — 
was a pupil of Pacchiarotto. He copied Sodoma 
to some extent, although much of his inspira- 
tion was undoubtedly derived from the works 
of Fra Bartolommeo, as is most apparent in the 
panel in the Academy — St. Catherine receiving 
the Stigmata. Baldassm-re Periizzi, already spoken 
of as one of the most renowned of Renaissance 
architects, was also a painter of some importance. 
Probably a pupil of Pacchiarotto in Siena, he 
afterwards assisted Pintoricchio in wSant'Onofrio 
at Rome, painting many of the frescoes himself 
from that master's designs. Others of his works 
in Rome show the influence of vSodoma, and 
again, that of Raphael (^); his later painting*, of 

(') A fine picture from his hand which is in the Borghese Gallcrj* 
-Venus leaving her Bath — is highlj- interesting for its intensely classic 

which there are examples in Siena, bears the 
stamp of the academic Roman school, and is of 
little comparative interest. With Andrea del 
Brescianino (active 1507-after 1525), we close this 
brief notice of Sienese Painting. An eclectic 
pai^ excellence, his style is a happy mingling of 
many elements, the predominating notes of w^hich 
are Florentine and Raphaelesque (^). 

Faint indeed, in the work of all these men, 
is the echo of vSiena's artistic traditions. Yet a 
certain delicacy still remains, if no longer that 
of Simone, at least the semblance of w^hat it was. 
The lovely gracefulness of Sienese workmanship 
is the one heritage left, the one attribute which 
never deserted her artists. Whether erecting 
their tower to rise like a great stone lily above 
their city, whether carving the statues for their 
marble fountain, whether painting the rush of 
the Announcing Angel — all was done with a love 
and an exquisite grace which must ever endear 
the Art of Siena to those w^ho seek what is 

feeling. Perhaps the best, and at the same time the most characteristic, of 
his works are to be found in the Villa Farnesina, Rome. For a criticism 
of Peruzzi as a painter, see Dr. Gustav Frizzoni's essay in his Arte Italiana 
nel Rinascimento . 

(1) An interesting essay by Mr. Berenson, entitled " The British 
Museum ' Raphael ' Cartoon ", is concerned with this artist's work. It has 
recently been republished in the second volume of that writer's Study and 
Criticism of Italian Art, London, George Bell and Sons, 1902. 


ALONG with the Architects, Sculptors and 
Painters of Siena, there flourished a large 
number of cunning* craftsmen who w^orked in 
precious metals and in painted glass, who were 
potters, carvers and inlayers of wood, and dex- 
terous workers in commesso in marmo or the inlay- 
ing of marble. 

As early as the 13th century the Sienese 
goldsmiths were famous; they made crowns for 
royal heads and costly vessels to be used in 
churches, not to mention humbler utensils for 
the e very-day demands of private life. Several 
of their names are known to us, but a mention 
of one or two of them must here suffice. Lando 
di Pietro, already spoken of as a great architect, 
began his career as a g-oldsmith, and it was 
he who was chosen to make for the Emperor 
Henry VH the crown used at his coronation. 
The most famous of Siena's gold-workers was 
Ugoliyio di Vieri, he who fashioned the splendid 
tabernacle which is still to be seen in the Cathe- 
dral of Orvieto, and the scarcely less beautiful 
reliquary in the church of S. Galgano in Siena. 

— 195 — 
The Tiiri?iiidim\\Y (working- during the first half of 
the 1 5th century) have already been mentioned as 
sculptors and bronze-casters (^). They and their 
contemporaries executed many statues of gold, 
silver and bronze for chapels and shrines, some- 
times adding colour to their work by the use 
of bright enamels. A small quantity only of 
this extensive output still remains intact. 

Among- the best workers in stained glass, 
at the end of the 14th century, was Giacomo di 
Castello, Avho designed the large window in the 
apse of the Duomo of Siena, as well as a window 
in S. Francesco at Pisa, and one in a chapel of 
Sta. Croce at Florence. During the following 
century, a large number of painted windows 
were executed in vSiena for the Duomo, the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico and the Hospital, the majority of 
which have long since been destroyed. Pastorino 
Pastori7ii, a fine medallist as Avell as a maker of 
painted glass, was the last of such artists in 
Siena. There is a good example of his glass 
work in the Duomo. To see what he accom- 
plished as a medallist, one must go to the British 

That the practice of the ceramic art was for 
many centuries of great importance among the 
Sienese, has recently been proved by Prof. Lang- 
ton Douglas (^), to whom is due the entire credit 

(') See pages 170-171 supra. 

("^) In the Nineteenth Century of September, 1900. 

— 196 — 

of having rehabilitated this craft as one of the 
foremost industries of old Siena. Except for 
some fine tiles in Sta. Caterina, Sant' Agostino, 
the Petrucci Palace, and in the cloister of S. Fran- 
cesco, few if any examples of this lost art are 
to be seen in the city. There still exists ^fab- 
brica of pottery, but it produces household uten- 
sils only, and those of the roughest description. 
It is interesting to know, however, that the site 
of this present fabbrica, near the church of Sta. 
Lucia, has for many centuries been the centre 
of this popular trade. 

Although mentioned as early as 1259, the 
art of wood-carving and inlaying, for which Siena 
is so justly famous, did not reach its full develop- 
ment until the 15th century. In the cathedrals 
of both Siena and Orvieto workmen had had 
ample opportunity to perfect their technique, and 
when Domenico di Niccolb commenced, early in 
the Ouatb'ocento , to decorate the choirs of the 
Sienese Duomo and the Palazzo Pubblico, he 
lavished upon them all the beauty possible to his 
craft. ]\Iany of his works have disappeared ; 
that in the Palazzo Pubblico, however, remains, 
and is one of the finest existing specimens of 
intarsia work. Pietro del Minella and his two 
brothers continued to execute choirstalls (for the 
Hospital church) and other furnishings. In Anto- 
nio Barili, the art of wood-carving and wood-inlay- 
ing reached its highest achievements. Indeed, 

- 197 — 
both he and his nephew Giovanni were among 
the greatest masters this art has ever produced. 
Much of their work has perished, although a 
part of the decorations for the Palazzo " del 
Magnifico ", now in the Sienese Academy, and 
the organ and cantoria above the sacristy door 
of the Duomo, still enable us to form a fair idea 
of their delicate and graceful work. 

Although the last to be mentioned, the art 
of inlaying in marble has not only been one of 
the most important of Siena's crafts, but has 
continued to be practised until the present day. 
The pavement of her Cathedral, which indeed 
gave rise to the industry in Siena, has been 
pieced together by artists of many centuries — 
sometimes producing- a beautiful and legitimate 
decorative design, sometimes an equally displeas- 
ing one. But, taken as a whole, their w^ork is 
effective and forms an integral part of the strik- 
ing- interior of the church they have helped to 
adorn. The pavement will be described in detail 
when speaking of the Duomo. 



XOTE. For those visitors who can spend 
but a da}^ or two in Siena, the following points 
of interest are the most important : Piazza del 
Campo and the Palazzo Pubblico, Cathedral and 
Baptistery, Opera del Duomo, Calleria delle Belle 
Arti ; the churches of S. Domenico, S. Francesco, 
Sta. Maria dei Servi and Sant' Agostino ; House 
of St. Catherine; Archivio. 


THE central and most characteristic part of 
Siena is the large Piazza del Campo (now 
called the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele). It is most 
easily reached by following the Via Cavour, the 
principal street of the town, as far as the Loggia di 
Mercanzia, which stands near the meeting of the 
Via Ricasoli and Via Cavour — a point called the 
Croce del Travaglio (^). Passing down the steps 
at the L of the Loggia, the sudden view of the 

\^i See page 8i note (') supra. 

beautiful Piazza is most strikingly impressive. 
Immediately in front, at the bottom of the slope, 
stands the great Palazzo Pubblico with its won- 
derful soaring bell-tower. On all sides are high 
palaces, but palaces that have lost much of the 
mediaeval aspect, their towers having been cut 
down and their facades almost entirely made 
over at various periods. Only the huge red 
Gothic building to the L, the Palazzo Sansedoni, 
remains almost as it was in the 14th century. 
The fan-shaped Piazza itself is very interesting. 
Its central area, enclosed by a broad pavement 
over which the famous Palio is run, is divided 
by stone ribs which meet in front of the Palazzo, 
the spaces between being paved, herring-bone 
fashion, w^ith brick. 

This unique and beautiful square has at all 
times been the heart and centre of wSiena. Here 
whether for pleasure or for war, for councils 
g'ood or evil, have her people always assembled. 
The scene of the many games so dear to the 
heart of Sienese (^), it yet awakes to life and 
gaiety when the Palio of August is run, and 
thousands of contadine in their flapping hats and 
gaily coloured garments crowd the Piazza to 
witness the time-honoured pageant. Until with- 
in the last twenty-five years the market was 
held here — now it is housed in an uninteresting 

{' ) See pages 145-147 supra. 


new structure, at the back of the Palazzo Pub- 
blico on the square below. When the Piazza 
itself was used for this purpose ('), each vendor 
was apportioned his particular stand, the divid- 
ing lines of the square much facilitating such 
an arrangement. And many were the ancient 
laws to regulate the buying and selling {-). End- 
less associations, historical, political and social, 
are connected with the Piazza del Campo. Dante 
has immortalized it by describing the scene of 
the proud Provenzano Salvani begging there 
of the people alms to ransom his friend impris- 
oned by Charles of Anjou(^). Here it Avas that 
S. Bernardino held captive his turbulent audience 
by means of his splendid eloquence. Here dur- 
ing the days of the city's own death struggle, 
her people held the most brilliant games, un- 

[^) After a market of cattle, as well as food of all kinds, the condi- 
tion of the Piazza must have been appalling, and the magistrates of the city 
evidently' appreciated the difEculty of cleaning it, for, in the 13th century, 
the individual charged with that duty was allowed to keep a sow and four 
sucking pigs to assist him in his endeavours. 

(■2) During the 14th century the fishmongers, who had their stands 
below what is now the Circolo degli Uniti, were evidently inclined to sell 
old, as well as fresh, fish. We read that on market days, at the first stroke 
of the evening bell, the officials charged with that dutj' proceeded to their 
counters and flung on the ground the unsold baskets of fresh fish ; these 
were immediately seized upon by those needy people who had eagerly await- 
ed the moment. Dishonesty, however, was not always on the side of the 
seller. It is related how once a man stole from the Piazza flour which had 
been left there over night bj* the owners ; he went on all fours with a bell, 
and the people taking him for one of St. Anthony's pigs, he got away with 
a goodly quantity, having succeeded in making three or four trips. 

(■■*) JDii'ina Co nniedia. Purg. XI, 133-136. 

— 20I 

daunted by the ghosts of death and famine that 
already stalked the streets. Nor has it been 
free from darker pictures of bloodshed, riot and 
rebellion. Almost in our own times it has been 
the scene of the utmost cruelty, as well as of 
the most unbridled mirth (^). Indeed, the very 
web of Siena's history has been spun about her 
Campo, and to recount even a small part of the 
many happenings which have here taken place 
would fill a goodly volume. To-day, however, 
except for the noisy crowd of the Palio, the 
Piazza basks quietly in the sun, resting sleepily 
after its varied scenes of wild gaiety and un- 
told terror; even the clamour and colour of the 
market is gone. Beautiful and more enduring 
monuments of former greatness remain, however, 
and their charm is the more enhanced by the 
present quiet and rest. 

Near the centre of the Campo is the far-famed 
Fonte Caia (141 2-1 4 19), once a splendid work of 
Jacopo della Querela, but now a lifeless copy 
which preserves only the composition of the 
original work, the ruined fragments of which 
have been placed in the Opera del Duomo for 
safer keeping. It is well, however, to examine 

(1) Little more than a century ago, when Napoleon had there erected 
his " Tree of Liberty ", some fanatic priests at the head of an Aretine mob, 
broke into Siena and into the Ghetto, and having cut down the " tree " to 
make a bonfire, they threw the Jews into it one by one, thrusting them 
back as they attempted to crawl out ! 


this modern reproduction, by Sarrocchi, in order 
to comprehend what the work must once have 
been in its entirety. 

As early as the 12th century, among the 
various houses situated on the site now occupied 
by the Palazzo Pubblico, there existed a dogaua, 
or custom-house, for oil and salt, many of the 
upper rooms of which were occupied by admin- 
istrators of the Commune. In 1282 the General 
Council of the city elected to adopt as a per- 
manent place of residence this building, already 
occupied as it was by some of their offices. In 
1288 they commenced to purchase the adjoin- 
ing houses, and from 1294 these underwent an 
entire rebuilding which ultimately resulted (by 
1309) in the '* Palazzo della Signoria " (^). It 
was not until the 15th century, however, when 
the third storey was added to the wings, that 
the palace reached its present dimensions; one 
can still see, above the windows of the second 
storey, the corbels which supported the former 
battlemented top. The rich colour of the brick 
walls is relieved by the white marble of the di- 
viding window-shafts and by the use of black 
and white shields above each window. In the 
centre of the facade are th^ arms of Duke Co- 
simo I, with those of Siena on either side — the 

(') See MiLAXESi, Commentary to the Life of Simone Memmi, Va- 
SARi, Ed. Sansoni, vol. I, p. 566. 

— 203 — 

Libertas {}) being very naturally omitted. Above 
is the splendid monogram of Christ (-) executed 
by the Turini family. Over the door at the R 
is a tiny statue of St. Ansanus, one of the 
patron saints of the city (') ; and below this, two 
Roman she-wolves, placed on either side of the 
Lion of the People — all works of the 14th century. 
At the R of this entrance stands a column bear- 
ing, still again, the Roman emblem of Siena. 
Column and wolf were placed there in 1459 by 
the Governors of the Republic, in order to dis- 
tinguish their entrance from that of the Potesta. 
The wolf is the work of Giovanni Turini. 

The exquisite bell-tower, commenced in 1338, 
and not yet finished in 1348, is known as the 
Torre del Mangia. Its name is probably derived 
from that of the chief of the bell-ringers em- 
ployed before public clocks were introduced. 
When the tower was built an automaton was 

(') The origin of the Balzana, and also that of the Lion shield, have 
already been described, pp. 30-31 and p. 44. That of the Libertas is as 
follows : When Charlemagne sent messengers to Siena to announce his 
coronation, the people of the city selected three gentlemen who should go 
to the Emperor as ambassadors with gifts, and with instructions to ask " a 
remission of all imperial imposts, old and new, for all time to come, agree- 
ing to provide on request of the Church a thousand men of battle ". They 
obtained all that they asked, and the three ambassadors were ennobled and 
made counts of the Empire. On their return it was ordered that in all public 
places should be painted an azure shield, with the word Libertas inscribed 
within it in letters of gold. 

(2) See page 98 supra. 

\^] See p. 20 supra. 

204 — 

placed on the summit to strike the bells, which 
being in its turn called the " ^lang'ia ", ultimate- 
ly gave its name to the tower itself. The ar- 
chitects of this wonderful shaft were several in 
number. Minuccio and Francesco di Rinaldo 
of Perugia, were the earliest of these, and were 
followed, in 1339, by Agostino di Giovanni. 
The design for the top of the tower is attributed 
to Lippo Alemmi on the strength of two docu- 
ments (^), the usual translation of which is, how- 
ever, open to criticism. 

At the base of the Torre del ]\Iangia is the 
Cappella della Piazza, a chapel commissioned by 
the Commune to fulfil a vow made during the 
terrible plague of 1348. It was begun in the 
year 1352, under the supervision of the operaio 
del Ditomo, and, after several unsuccessful at- 
tempts, was finally completed in 1376. Nearly 
a hundred years later Antonio Federighi raised 
the roof, and added the entire upper portion of 
the structure, with its spirited frieze of grifhns 
and the fine Renaissance wreaths encircling the 
arms of Siena. The twelve Gothic niches were 
probably intended for figures of the Apostles, 
but six only are filled. These statues, executed 
betAveen 1377 and 1381, by four different crafts- 
men — one only of whom was a sculptor by 
profession — Avell show into what a state of de- 

(ij Misc. Stor. Sen. vol. II, p. 148. 

— 205 — 

cadence Sienese sculpture had at that time fallen. 
The allegorical figures on the balustrade, in 
front, and part of the adjacent decoration, are 
modern copies, some of the original sculpture 
being in the Opera del Duomo. Over the altar 
is a much damaged and retouched fresco by 
Sodoma. The chapel as a whole is not unpleas- 
ing, but lacks unity and simplicity of line. 

Before visiting the interior of tlie Palazzo 
Pubblico, the visitor should notice a courtyard 
to the R of the Cappella della Piazza, which is 
interesting- both for its architecture and for the 
many coats-of-arms of various Potesta. The 
palace itself is a veritable treasure-house of early 
Sienese painting. In order to take the works 
of art which it contains as nearly as possible 
in chronological sequence, it is best to visit first 
the second floor (entrance by door at extreme 
R; knock at first landing; fee to custodian, who 
if not there is always to be found at entrance 
to ground floor). To the R, as we enter, is the 
spacious Sala del Mappamondo or Sala delle Bale- 
stre, now used as a court-room. The end wall 
is almost entirely covered with a vast fresco by 
Simone Martini. It represents the Virgin and 
Child enthroned beneath a splendid canopy up- 
held by SS. Peter and Paul, the Baptist and 
Evangelist, and attended by a numerous choir 
of Saints and Angels. In front of the Divine 
Protectress of Siena kneel the city's patron saints 

— 2o6 — 

— Ansanus, Victor, Crescentius and Savinus. 
Painted originally in 13 15, the fresco was in 
great part renewed within the following decade 
by Simone himself, owing to damage caused by 
the dampness generated by a magazine of salt 
on the floor below. Its present condition is 
none of the best, although portions of it are 
better preserved than others. Nevertheless, nei- 
ther the hand of time nor the brush of the 
restorer, whose work is in places most apparent, 
have been able to entirely destroy our pleasure 
in this celestial vision, as it may justly be called. 
The Virgin still sits in majesty with the g'entle 
yet digniiied Child erect upon her knee, and 
the surrounding figures still retain to a great 
extent their original loveliness of colour and of 
face — the whole spirit of the picture remains 
unchanged. This is in a way the earliest of 
Simone's works that are now left to us. The 
change from Duccio's types is in many cases 
but slight, yet they are already Simone's own. 
In the little rounds about the fresco are half 
figures of Christ and various Saints and Proph- 
ets, which, together with the intervening orna- 
ment, are all worthy of careful attention {^). 

High .up on the opposite wall is a later 
work of Simone — his splendid equestrian portrait 

(') For those who can read mediaeval Italian, there are, at the base 
of the fresco, two rhymed inscriptions of considerable poetic charm. 

— 207 — 

of Guidoriccio da Fogliano, Captain of War in 
Siena. It represents the warrior firmly seated 
on his richly caparisoned steed, riding out from 
the Sienese camp at the siege of Montemassi. 
This is probably the earliest of equestrian por- 
traits in Italian art, as well as one of the great- 
est. Considerably restored in parts, but by no 
means ruined, as some writers would lead us to 
believe, this fresco is strikingly decorative, with 
its imposing central figure thrown out against 
the effective background of dark sky — with its 
strange pattern of picket-fence and lances, and 
its little castellated towns rising up on either 
side ('). As to the horseman and his charger — 
follow the flow of the mantle and the gorgeous 
trappings, as they sweep away toward the right, 
and you will realize how Simone loved his run- 
ning line. For those who really appreciate 
wSienese art, this work remains among its most 
wonderful achievements. 

On the side wall are two battle-scenes in 
monochrome ; that to the L is the finer of the 

(') Since writing the above description, it has been pointed out to 
me that it is possible that one of the " little castellated towns " is not a 
town at all but a Battifolle. 

" The name of Battifolle was given to a fortress with towers and 
ramparts made almost entirely of wood. It was usual to construct such a 
fortress whenever it was necessary to maintain a long siege of some large 
town or village. In the Palazzo Comunale of Siena, Simone Martini painted 
an afFresco of Guido Riccio Fogliani at the siege of Montemassi. In that 
picture may be seen a Battifolle, complete in all its parts ". — Lisini and 
Mengozzi, Frammento di una Cronachetta Senese d' Anonimo del Secolo 
XIV. (Siena, Tip. Lazzeri, 1893) page 12, note (}). 

two, and represents the victory of the Sienese 
over the Compagnia del Cappello, in 1363, at 
Torrita(^); that to the R represents the battle of 
Poggio Imperiale near Poggibonsi, fought be- 
tween the Florentines and the Duke of Calabria 
in 1479 (")• The authorship of both frescoes is 
someAvhat doubtful. The first is perhaps by 
Lippo di Yanni, and the second by Giovanni di 
Cristofano and Francesco d' Andrea, two painters 
by whom we can cite no authenticated work. 
Both paintings, apart from their historical interest, 
contain much deserving of greater attention than 
is usually bestowed upon them. On the pilas- 
ters below, are figures of S. Bernardino, by Sano 
di Pietro, of St. Catherine— a fine ideal finely 
carried out — by Vecchietta, and of B. Ambrogio 
vSansedoni, by a later and inferior artist. 

Under the portrait of Guidoriccio hangs the 
famous Aladonna by Guido da Siena. The flesh 
parts of the two principal figures in this much- 
discussed picture — which was doubtless painted 
by Guido during the second half of the 13th 
century, and not in 1221 as the present inscrip- 
tion records(^) — were entirely renewed by a mem- 
ber of the school of Duccio in the early years 
of the century following. The limits of Guido's 
style may be gauged, however, by the figures 

(') See page 70 supra, and note ('). 
(') See page 104 supra. 
{^) See page 178 supra. 

— 2og — 

of the six adoring angels in the upper part of 
the main panel, that of Christ in the triangle 
above, and such parts of the Virgin's figure and 
drapery as have escaped alteration. On either 
side are frescoes by Sodoma — St. Ansanus bap- 
tizing the Sienese, and St. Victor. The fresco 
of the Beato Bernardo Tolomei is likewise from 
his hand. They rank among his more creditable 
works, the St. Victor, more especially, being, for 
its author, an exceptionally masculine conception. 
It is, however, difficult to appreciate the work 
of Sodoma in this room, surrounded as it is by 
masterpieces of so infinitely nobler and more 
refined an art. 

From this room we enter the Sala della Pace, 
or as it was once called, the Sala dei Nove — the 
room of the Magistracy of the Nine. Three of 
its walls are covered with Ambrogio Lorenzetti's 
world-famous alleg"ories of the causes and results 
of Good and Bad Government. The first, and 
least damaged, of the series is opposite the win- 
dows. On the L sits the noble figure of Justice, 
enthroned, with crowned AVisdom above to guide 
her. Wisdom holds a pair of scales from which, 
on her R, leans downward the Angel of Distrib- 
utive Justice, beheading one man and crowning 
another; from the left arm leans the Angel of 
Commutative Justice, giving money to one and 
weapons to another. Below Justice sits Concord 
— a most characteristic example of Ambrogio's 

work^holding two cords which proceed from 
the scales above her, and which unite the group 
of citizens who pass from her before the Com- 
mune of Siena(') — a majestic figure of a middle- 
aged man, clothed in rich garments of the Sienese 
colours. He holds in his right hand the sceptre 
of government to which is attached the end of the 
cord of Justice and Wisdom, and in his left a 
disk bearing an image of the Virgin — always 
the Protectress of Siena. Above him hover 
Faith, Hope and Charity. To his R and L are 
seated Prudence, Fortitude and Peace, Magna- 
nimity, Temperance and Legal Justice. Most 
beautiful of these is the exquisitely modelled 
figure of Peace, crowmed with olive and hold- 
ing in her hand a branch of the same. Below 

(<) The allegorj' is repeated in the Tavoletta di Biccherna of 1383; 
while, on the Tavoletta di Gabella of 1480, the Blessed Virgin is depicted 
as kneeling before a miniature Siena, raised upon three columns, around 
which she draws a rope, the ancient emblem of civic concord. 

The same symbolism is often to be met with in the elder writers. 
Thus Tirare a una fune or a una corda is a phrase which is constantlj- 
used to signify united and concordant effort. Compare, for example, the 
following lines from the Proem to the Tesoro of Brunetto Latini : 

Ond' io non so nessuno 
Ch' io volessi vedere 

La mia cittade avere 
Del tutto alia sua guisa, 

Ne che fosse divisa ; 
Ma tutti per comune 

Tirassero una fune 
Di pace e di ben fare. 

(The above note has been sent me by ^Ir. Heywood). 

2 11 

the Commune are the Wolf and Twins, and 
groups of fully armed warriors on horse and 
on foot. To the R come men offering tribute, 
while others are led before him in fetters. 

On the R wall are depicted the effects of 
Good Government. Within the city, scenes of 
prosperity and gaiety abound ; knights and 
ladies ride through the town; in a square a 
group of young girls join in a merry dance (^). 
Outside the town there stretches a smiling land- 
scape, and peasants safely bring their produce 
toward the city gate. Above the whole scene 
hovers Security, a winged woman w4th a scroll 
and gallows. On the opposite wall are seen the 
effects of Bad Government. At the R sits the 
horned and monstrous figure Tyranny, his left 
foot resting on a goat. Above him are Avarice, 
Pride and Vainglory. Horrible beings sit on 
either side — Fraud, Treason and Cruelty, Fury, 

(*) This seems to be the celebrated Rigoletto or Ridda, a sort of 
round dance (ballo tondoj in which the dancers moved in a circle, hand in 
hand, singing. It is alluded to by Boccaccio, and seems to have been a 
usual form of amusement with the Florentines on May Day. 

In the Rime of Franco Sacchetti, we read: 

Sempre danze, e rigoletti 
Con diletto, e gioia ciascuno ; 

Vecchi come giovenetti 
Non e difFerente alcuno. 

Sucn dances appear to have continued in Siena up to the fall of the 
Republic. On January 13th, 1555, we read that the youths, who were about 
to play at Pallone, " fecero un grandissimo ballo tondo che empiva piu di 
mezza la piazza " — Sozzini, Diario ad annum. 


Division and AVar. Below lies Justice, over- 
thrown and bound. Within the walls of the city 
murder and evil deeds prevail, anarchy and 
disorder reign supreme; without, the fields are 
devastated. Over the miserable town hovers the 
demon of Terror. 

Of the illustrative tendencies of these fres- 
coes, I have spoken in the Introductory chapter (^). 
Considered purely as a decoration, they do not 
form as successful a whole as might have been 
expected. The detail is too exacting and deters 
the spectator from receiving a comprehensive 
impression of the entire work. Again, the 
damaged condition of the frescoes — fortunately, 
they are but slightly restored — does not add to 
the decorative effect. Their wonderful deep and 
dull colour, reminding us as it does of some of 
the work of China and Japan, is, however, an 
everlasting source of pleasure. To thoroughly 
enjoy these paintings we must examine them in 
detail. Many of the individual figures and in- 
cidents are not only possessed of great charm, but 
are masterly as regards both form and action. 
The figure of Peace, already mentioned, is even 
classic in its pure simplicity and delicate model- 
ling. The episode of the dancing girls, in the 
fresco on the R, and that, on the L, of the mail- 
clad knight issuing from the city gate — to men- 

(') Pages 182-183 supra. 

2 I 

tion but two examples — show a power equal to 
that of the Florentines over modelling, splendid 
movement, and even foreshortening. 

From the Sala del ]\Iappamondo opens also 
the Chapel of the palace, the Avails and ceilings 
of which are covered with frescoes, begun in 
1407, by Taddeo Bartoli. Those in the corridor, 
outside the screen, represent Roman, and what 
might be called Biblical, heroes — curiously fore- 
shadowing Perugino's decorations of the vSala del 
Cambio at Perugia. The colossal figure of St. 
Christopher and the smaller one of Judas Mac- 
caboeus are particularly notew^orthy in their origi- 
nal brilliant colouring. Over the entrance to the 
corridor is painted an interesting mediaeval map 
of Rome. The beautiful holy-water basin, w4th 
its supporting figures of bronze, was designed 
and cast by Giovanni Turini. The frescoes 
within the chapel itself represent various Saints, 
and four closing scenes from the life of the 
Virgin — her Farewell to the Apostles, her Death, 
her Funeral and her Assumption. Although 
almost entirely repainted at a recent period, 
these frescoes retain much of their original 
simplicity and force, and are very characteristic 
works. The Assumption of the Virgin fairly 
glows with the reflected light of its golden sky, 
which throws out in bold outline the city on 
the hills, much as Siena can be seen to-day at 
the setting of the sun. One of the greatest 


— 214 — 

beauties of this remarkable work is, however, 
the sweeping downward movement of the group 
of Christ and His angels. Taddeo's powers of de- 
picting movement are also showm in the first of 
the frescoes — that in w^hich the Apostles are mak- 
ing their last earthly visit to the Virgin. Among 
the other objects of interest in this almost per- 
fectly furnished chapel, we would call especial 
attention to the handsome iron screen, finished 
in 1445 by Giacomo di Giovanni (^) — one of the 
finest existing example of its kind. The inlaid 
choir-stalls, which illustrate the Nicene Creed, 
were executed by Domenico di Xiccolo. The 
scenes begin at the L of the altar, and con- 
tinue at the further R corner. Beneath them 
are interesting carved and inlaid medallions 
containing various Gothic motifs. Over the altar 
is a picture by vSodoma, with a very fantastic 
background — rightly praised by Vasari as being 
one of the master's more carefully finished paint- 
ings. The handsome organ is another late piece 
of work. In the centre of the chapel hang"s 
a fine Gothic lantern. 

AVe pass into the next room, known as the 
Sala dei Cardinal!. On the L is a fresco of the 
Virgin and Child Avith Saints, which, although 
absolutely ruined, still remains a pleasing bit 

(') It has been thought that the design for this screen is due to 
Jacopo della Quercia. Doc. Borghesi c Banchi, p. 177. 

— 2 1,5 — 

of colour. Another ruined fresco, of St. Paul, 
was once the work of a follower of Taddeo 
Bartoli. On the R a repainted triptych is also 
of the school of Taddeo. The panel of the 
Virgin and Child with Angels, dated 1484, and 
attributed to Alatteo, is by his pupil Cozzarelli. 
This is a fine example of how near the pupil 
could at times come to his master, the difference 
here being- one of quality only. Two small and 
interesting panels which represent a sermon and 
a miracle of S. Bernardino, attributed to Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio, are by Vecchietta. 

The walls of the following Sala della Balla 
were decorated by one of the most famous of 
the later followers of Giotto, vSpinello Aretino, 
Avho was assisted in the work by his son Parri. 
This decoration is one of the very rare examples 
of painting by a foreign artist in Siena. The 
allegorical figures in the ceiling are by Martino 
di Bartolommeo, a pupil of Taddeo. They are 
graceful and pleasing in colour. The scenes 
painted by JSpinello and his son represent various 
episodes in the life of the great Sienese Pope 
Alexander III (Orlando Bandinelli), many of 
them bearing upon the heroic struggle of the 
Italians against the invader Frederic Barbarossa. 
Artistically speaking, the most interesting are 
those depicting the Pope giving a sword to the 
Doge Ziani of Venice as he kneels surrounded 
by his soldiers (opposite the first window) and, 

— 2l6 — 

on the wall opposite the entrance, the triumph- 
ant procession of the victorious Alexander, his 
bridle held by the Doge and the humbled Em- 
peror himself. Above the entrance is the con- 
fused but interesting" painting of a mediaeval 
naval fight — between the Venetians and Barba- 
rossa's son Otho, who w^as eventually taken pris- 
oner, as can be seen at the right of the fresco. In 
this room there are also three small coffers. 
The paintings on one of them, proudly shown 
by the custodian as genuine Fra Angelicos, are 
by a Sienese artist of the end of the 14th cent- 
ury. The chest of iron and wood, decorated 
by some artist of the school of Lippo jMemmi, 
is said to have been used to hold the money 
for the daily expenditures of the Republic. The 
wolf on the third coffer is generally attributed 
to Barili, the coffer itself being in great part 
modern. The room contains also a fine intarsia 
door (leading into the Chapel) and handsome 
Gothic seats decorated with the arms of Siena, 
the latter executed by Barna di Turino. At the 
end of the corridor beyond the Sala di Balia is 
the only known fresco by Neroccio — a Virgin 
and Child enthroned. Although not devoid of 
the inherent charm which that artist's work 
invariably possesses, this fresco does not make 
us regret the fact that he limited his attention 
to the painting of panels. The end room, known 
as the Sala Monumentale, has been adorned by 

— 217 — 

modern Sienese artists with scenes from the 
story of the unification of Italy. Considered as 
reminders of certain important historical events, 
these works may have some interest, but when 
looked at from an artistic standpoint the less 
said of them the better. 

Before leaving this part of the palace, the 
visitor is conducted into the Sala del Concistoro. 
The fine marble doorway is attributed, with no 
reason, to Jacopo della Querela. Executed in 
1446, it is in all probability the work of the 
Florentine Bernardo Rossellino. It is an excel- 
lent piece of carvHng, and the delicate touches of 
gold and colour only enhance its effect. The in- 
tarsia doors are by a Sienese artist. The ceiling 
paintings, by Beccafumi, representing scenes from 
ancient history, can hardly be classed among* 
his more successful works, overcrowded as they 
are in composition. The present somewhat 
garish colour is probably in no small part due 
to restoration. The effects of light and shade 
are, as is usual with this master, very interest- 

On the top floor of the palace is a loggia 
(admission granted by the door-keeper) from 
which a splendid view is to be had — a view of 
unending distances with the misty and beautiful 
outline of Monte Amiata far off against the sky. 
The grand but ruined fresco of the Virgin and 
Child, on the end wall, is by Ambrogio Loren- 

— 2lb — 

zetti. The timbered ceiling of the log-gia is 
also worthy of note. 

The entrance to the ground floor is by the 
second door from the R (custodian necessary ; 
fee). Just inside the door are the remnants of 
some Trecento frescoes. On the ceiling is a fine 
figure of Christ with Cherubim and four Evan- 
g'elists, and on either wall two saints — orig'inally 
all works from the hand of Bartolo di Fredi. 
The visitor is conducted through various small 
rooms now used as municipal offices. The Sala 
del Sindaco contains a fresco of the Resurrection 
of Christ by Sodoma, which although fine in 
action, is unpleasant in colour and coarse in 
execution. In the Sala di Blccherna (^) Sano has 
expended his greatest efforts on his ever fa- 
vourite subject — ^the Coronation of the Virgin. 
This beautiful fresco (1445), filling so perfectly 
its apportioned space, is one of the most splendid 
examples of the decorative tendencies of the 
Sienese school. Strange to say, several of the 
principal figures — e. g. the foremost saints in the 
group to the left — are by another painter of the 
Quattrocento (') whose style is easily distinguish- 
able from that of Sano. The entire work was 
painted over an earlier fresco by Lippo Vanni, 
whose signature still remains. The S. Bernar- 

(') As to the Magistracy rfj ^zccA^^wa. Seepage 56 note (') supra. 
C^) According to ilr. Perkins, by Domenico di Bartolo. 

— 219 — 

dino is likewise by Sano. Another and very 
poor Sodoma is to be seen in the Sala del Ma- 
trimoni. In the Secretary's room is a fresco of 
St. Catherine — the head entirely repainted — by 
vSano. Outside the Sala di Biccherna is a large 
fresco of three saints (^), an interesting but da- 
maged work, also by Sano — fine in colour. In a 
room called the Ufficio di Anagrafe (in constant 
use by officials, who courteously allow visitors 
to enter) is the finest of Vecchietta's existing 
works in Siena. In the centre of the fresco is 
the Virgin of Mercy, her mantle spread out to 
shield the suppliants about her feet ; above 
her are choirs of exquisite angels — beautiful 
alike in drapery and movement; to the right a 
splendid figure of St. Martin leans from his 
horse to divide his cloak with the beggar. By 
no means the least pleasing quality of this fresco 
is its subdued and dignified colouring". On the 
side wall is a really fine work by Sodoma. It 
represents the arms of the city with the imperial 
Ghibelline eagle above them. 

Leaving the Piazza, we return to the Cro- 
ce del Travaglio. The Loggia di Mercanzia C). 
Early in the 14th century the wealthy Guild of 

(1) S. Pietro Alessandrino, the B. Ambrogio Sansedoni and the B. 
Andrea Gallerani. 

(^) Now known as the I^OS'S;-in (Ic^li Ulliti, and occupied 
as a club-house. Sometimes also called the LosS^S'iil. *lei Xol>ili. 


]\Ierchants (^) determined to possess a residence 
of its own, and to that end bought several 
houses, (in 1309) (-), on the site of the present 
Loggia. The buildings satisfied the needs of 
the Guild for nearly a century, and were re- 
constructed only in 141 7, by Sano di ]\Iatteo. 
His loggia, with the later addition of a storey, 
still exists as one of the pleasing monuments 
of vSiena— that part of the building which faces 
on the Piazza del Campo having been entirely 
remodelled in the i8th century. The Loggia 
as a whole, although not ineffective, is somewhat 
heavy in its parts. The upper storey, notwith- 
standing- its much later date, is quite in harmony 
with the older portion of the building. Of the 
statues which adorn the piers those of SS. Peter 
and Paul are by Vecchietta (1458-60) — 'those of 
SS. Victor, Ansanus and Savinus are by Fe- 
derighi. The ascetic fig'ures of Vecchietta, with 
their minute and detailed execution, contrast 
strongly with the somewhat pompous and heav- 
ily draped statues of his rival. At either side 
of the Loggia is a carved marble seat ; that to 
the R, by Federighi (1464), is decorated with 
figures of Roman heroes, and on the back bears 

{') As to the important position held by the A fie dei Meicanti, sec 
p. 46 supra ; and more fully in the Mercante Senese nel Dtigento of Prof. 
L. Zdekauer. 

(-) Misc. Stor. Sen. vol. Ill, p. 27. 


the various coats-of-arms of the city ; the L 
bench, by Urbano da Cortona (^), is ornamented 
with figures of the Cardinal Virtues, and on the 
back with wreaths enclosing the Lion andBalzana 
shields, and two of the devices used by the 
Consoli di Mercanzia in their seal— a pair of scales 
and a bale (■). The ceiling of the Loggia was 
to have been entirely decorated (in 1549) by 
Pastorino, but as he finished in two years only 
a single compartment, the remainder of the work 
was carried on by a later artist. It has not 
been definitely established which is Pastorino's 
ceiling; all three bays seem to have been dec- 
orated by different hands, the one to the L 
being the best. 

Continuing up the Via Cavour, which shortly 
becomes the Via di Citta (now re-christened 
Via Umberto I), we pass on the R the Via di 
Beccheria. Half way up this street is a fine 
emblem of the Guild of Butchers. Nearly op- 
posite, on the L, is the Costarella dei Barbieri, 
with an imposing view of the Piazza. The high 
stone tower on the corner is a clever modern 

(») This work has lately been given to Marrina on the strength of a 
document which contains an order of 1331 for a bench by Pietro Compa- 
gnini, Lorenzo Marrina, and Michele Cioli da Settignano. (Doc. Ill, 136). 
Despite the document, however, the present work is obviously by Urbano 
da Cortona, who died in 1504. 

("-) Toward the 14th century, the Guild of Merchants had on their 
shield the effigy of Brutus, consul of the Romans, together with scales and 
a bale. Misc. Stor. Sen. vol. II, p. 124. 

reconstruction. Opposite, at the entrance to the 
Via dei Pellegrini, stands a very interesting 
Gothic palace, comparatively unrestored, in the 
early days once the residence of the Potesta. 
We follow the Via di Citta. The Palazzo Elci, 
No. II, on the L, contains a finely modelled 
little statue of Bacchus, by Federighi, long con- 
sidered an antique. Over No. 12 is a delicately 
carved coat-of-arms. Another fine stone tower 
is on the L. Directly ahead of us stands the 
great Gothic Palazzo Saracini {^), dating in large 
part from the 14th century with later restora- 
tions. It contains an extensive gallery of pict- 
ures, which can be visited by applying to the 
custodian (ring at bottom of stairs beyond en- 
trance court ; fee). Not having" yet been system- 
atically hung, there is some difficulty in finding 
those that are of interest. The gallery is, I 
believe, soon to be carefully re-arranged and 
the pictures re-numbered. 

On entering, the visitor is conducted through 
a hall into a square room. Among the many 
pictures it contains, two by Neroccio are of 
especial interest — -No. 8, a Virgin and Child 

(') It was from the tower of the older palace on this site — then 
belonging to the Marescotti — that the drummer Cerreto Ceccolini reported 
the changeful progress of the Battle of Montaperti. Tradition has it that 
Ceccolini was gifted with so good a pair of eyes that he could see the 
moving Florentine and Sienese hosts, three or four miles distant, as they 
swayed backward and forward, up and down the slope of Montesclvoli. 

with Bk^ -xol and Alagdalen, and No. 14, Virgin 
with Child standing in front, and SS. Catherine 
and Bernardino — both charming specimens of 
that master's work. A large and grandiose al- 
tar-piece representing the Marriage of the wSt. 
Catherine of Siena is by Beccafumi. It is well 
composed and one of the most ambitious at- 
tempts of this gifted, but at times somewhat 
academic, master. No. 6g, an interesting marble 
relief with a fine patina — Virgin and Child — is 
by some vSienese follower of Donatello. Various 
remnants of Gothic and other sculpture of more 
or less interest are scattered through the room. 
The adjacent dining-hall contains good Renais- 
sance doorways and a similar fire-place, decorated 
with various coats-of-arms including that of the 
Saracini — a Saracen's head. Two round pictures, 
Nos. 135 and 133, are pleasing and character- 
istic works of Brescianino. No. 131, Portrait of 
a bearded Man, if not by Sebastiano del Piombo 
himself, is certainly by a very close imitator of 
that master's later manner. In the following 
narrow room, a portable altar-piece, No. 244, is 
by Brescianino. The crucifix itself is of a some- 
what later period. No. 205 is a hard but quaint- 
ly interesting portrait of a young" woman with 
the attributes of St. Catherine, ascribed to Bot- 
ticelli (!) but evidently by jMainardi, the little- 
known pupil of Ghirlandaio. 

The next two rooms contain no objects of 

particular interest save a hastily executed St. 
Sebastian by Brescianino, a large Virgin en- 
throned with Saints, probably by a vSienese 
eclectic much influenced by Genga and Signo- 
relli, and a collection of porcelain. We pass 
into a square room with two high windows. 
A delicate little triptych, Xo. 1275, is by Sas- 
setta, the left wing entirely repainted. Xos. 1278 
and 1277 are fragments of Saints by Sano di 
Pietro. There are some good majolica plates, 
in frames, hanging about the room. The ad- 
joining badly lighted closet contains several 
pictures of interest by earlier Sienese masters. 
No. 1268, Virgin and Child, is a curious example 
of the most degraded period of Italo-Byzantine 
art. Xo. 1263, a large panel of the Virgin and 
Child surrounded by Cherubim, although some- 
what damaged, is one of the finest and most 
charming examples of Giovanni di Paolo's paint- 
ing — exquisite in decorative feeling; it is sig'ned, 
and dated 1427. Xos. 1257, 58, 59, 60, four 
small scenes from the life of Christ, are later 
works by the same artist. On either side of the 
large panel are two pinnacles, Xo. 1266 — the 
Announcing Angel and the Virgin— pleasing 
works of Andrea Vanni. Xo. 1264 is a Virgin 
and Child with Saints, coarse in quality, of the 
school of Matteo. Xo. 1265, Christ and the 
Executioners, is by Sano. Xo. 1273 (low down) 
is a remarkably fine little panel by Vecchietta 

— St. Martin dividing his cloak with the Beggar. 
The small and shivering figure of the latter 
is particularly worthy of notice. The arms of a 
Crucifix, on the R, No. 1256, are also by Vec- 
chietta. Nos. 1237 and 38 are more fragments 
of Saints by Sano. The small half figure of an 
Angel, No. 1236, is a genuine work of Duccio. 
No. 1274 (high up), Virgin and Child in glory 
with wSaints, is an interesting late Giottesque 
bit of painting. And No. 1269, a curious pict- 
ure of the Virgin and Child with Saints, Angels, 
and Eve lying before the Virgin's throne, is 
probably by Paolo di Giovanni Fei. 

We pass throug'h a small room into another 
somewhat larger. In the L corner is a quaint 
picture of a Vestal Virgin by some artist influ- 
enced by Sodoma and the Umbrians. Nos. 1423, 
1432^^% mythological figures, show the influence 
of Beccafumi and, more obviously, that of Pe- 
ruzzi. No. 1424 is a charmingly naive panel by 
Balducci and represents the Dream of Hercules. 
Above, No. 1422, the Rape of the Sabines, 
shows Beccafumi in his early Florentine period. 
Nos. 1359, 1362, 63, 64, figures in landscape, 
are interesting panels, pleasing* in colour and 
very near to Brescianino. On the L wall before 
leaving the room is a pleasant little jMadonna 
by an Umbro-Sienese artist. Returning to the 
square room, we go out at L and pass into a 
long gallery. In the corner room ahead are 

— 226 — 

various objects in bronze, etc., and a good pict- 
ure by Pacchia, Xo. 752, the Virgin and Child 
with St. John and SS. Bernardino and Catherine. 

Ahiiost the last room to be shown contains 
the gem of the collection — a beautiful little 
predella picture, much prized as a g'enuine Fra 
Angelico, representing the Adoration of the ]\Iagi 
(No. 933). This delicately executed panel is ob- 
viously by the still little-known Sassetta. Xo. 
934, Virgin adoring the Child, with Ang-els, is 
an interesting Flemish painting', minute in execu- 
tion and finish, and containing much that is most 
enjoyable. Xo. 973, St. Jerome, is by a German 
artist. Another St. Jerome, Xo. 965, is of the 
school of Beccafumi. By that master himself 
is a IMadonna and Child, Xo. 1029 — an early 
work, fresh in colour and execution. Xo. 918, 
a pleasing round of the Virgin and Child, is by 
some Umbro-Sienese eclectic. 

The custodian then shows a few of the pri- 
vate dwelling rooms which contain various 
cabinets, some good ivory carving, and a fine 
collection of majolica. There are two Giottesque 
pictures of the Florentine school — an Annuncia- 
tion ; and a Virgin and Child with two Saints 
and two Angels. The charming Madonna sur- 
rounded by little angels, with SS. Jerome and 
Bernardino, is by Sano. The private chapel of 
the palace, beyond the entrance court, contains 
a fresco of the school of Sodoma. 

Opposite the Palazzo Saracini stands a late 
Renaissance palace, No. i8, with a boldly rus- 
ticated door. Farther along is the Palazzo 
Nerucci or Piccolomini (now occupied by the 
Banca d' Italia). It was built by Catherine, the 
sister of Pius II, and was known as the " Palazzo 
delle Papesse ". The original design by Rossel- 
lino evidently underwent considerable change 
at the hands of the actual architects, Federighi 
and Urbano da Cortona, but the effect is never- 
theless both imposing and refined. Beyond, 
past the Via del Castoro which leads up to the 
ruins of the unfinished Cathedral, is the Palazzo 
de' Marsili, rebuilt in the Gothic style in 1459. 
This palace is a curious and characteristic ex- 
ample of the tenacity with which the Sienese 
clung to what had for so long been their fa- 
vourite style of architecture. Over No. 22 are 
interesting arms of the Piccolomini, probably 
the work of Urbano da Cortona. The Via di 
Citta ends at the Piazza di Postierla. On the 
rig-ht-hand corner stands the tower of the For- 
teguerri de' Grandi, one of the oldest families 
of Siena. It was originally joined by a bridge 
with a palace opposite which belonged to the 
same family. Remains of the connecting arch 
are still to be seen embedded in the side of the 
tower (^). 

(*! Many houses were connected by bridges not only to insure as- 
sistance when needed, but in order to evade the laws which forbade being 
out after curfew. 

— 228 — 

In the square is one of the several similar 
columns to be found throughout the city, sup- 
porting* the emblem of the she-wolf and twins. 
Beside the " Lupa ", the column bears a fine 
iron banner-holder, also of the 15th century. 
Turning into the Via del Capitano we pass, on 
the corner, the handsome Palazzo Chig-i, built 
toward the end of the i6th century. Xo. 3 is 
a simple Gothic palace with fine coats-of-arms. 
Further on is the Palazzo Grottanelli— once inhab- 
ited by the Captain of AVar — one of the most 
striking of Sienese palaces. Erected about 1300, 
it passed through various vicissitudes until, in 
in 1854, it Avas restored to its original form. 
Although richly decorative, it lacks that har- 
mony of proportion so characteristic of other 
Sienese buildings. The modern courtyard and 
staircase are worthy of notice. At the corner 
of the street, to the R, is the large Palazzo 
Reale, designed for the Grand Dukes of Tuscany 
by Bernardo Buontalenti. The Gothic palace 
opposite bears the scala — the emblem of the Hos- 

Few cathedral squares possess, at the pres- 
ent day, a charm surpassing* that of the Piazza 
del Duomo of Siena, with its splendid Cathedral, 
its tall pinnacled Campanile, and the magnificent 
ruins of what was once intended to be the most im- 
posing church in Christendom ('). For centuries 

See page 6i supra. 

— 229 — 

the centre of Siena's spiritual life, it has wit- 
nessed many varied scenes of fervour and devo- 
tion, enacted at different times, and under vastly 
differing conditions, by a people who, despite 
their many contrary failings, were always at heart 
distinctly fervent and religious (^). The Cathe- 
dral itself, had the people been enabled to carry 
out their great intentions, would have resulted 
in a symbolic summing up of all their religious 
pride and glory, even as the splendid Palazzo 
Pubblico represented the strength and pride of 
the State. Taken as it is, however, the present 
Duomo remains an unique and not unworthy 
monument of their nobler aspirations. As is the 
case with the Piazza del Campo, many an in- 
teresting page could be w^ritten on the historic 
associations of this beautiful old square, but, 
great as is the temptation to enter into such 
details here, the limited space and the fixed 
intention of this Guide prevent my doing so, 
and the reader must look elsewhere for this sat- 

The site of the Cathedral has, even from 
Roman times, been occupied by some edifice 
of worship, although the earliest place of central 
worship for the Sienese was probably in Castel 

(') Compare J. A. Symonds, Renaissance in Italy, The Fine Arts 
(London 1877) pages 220-221, and W. Heywood, The " Ensamples " of 
Fra Filippo, (jfc , op. cit. pages 89 et seq. 

— 230 — 

Vecchio. Both the name of the architect and 
the exact date of the foundation of the present 
cathedral are unknown. Begun during- the sec- 
ond quarter of the 14th centur3% the building" was 
practically completed by 1267. The then exist- 
ing church was not only shorter than the present 
Duomo by one or two bays, but did not include 
the present choir or the Baptistery of S. Giovanni 
beneath. This addition of choir and baptister}^ 
was commenced by 13 17. Partly because of 
defects soon discovered in the new work, which 
rendered the building unsafe, and partly because 
of the desire of the city to outshine her rival 
Florence, there arose the idea of building a new 
and more magnificent cathedral. Although en- 
couraged in this proposition by the architects 
of the Duomo, among whom was no less a master 
than Lorenzo di Maitano, it was not until 1339 
that the citizens finally adopted this plan. It 
was then decided to add to the old Duomo a 
huge nave toward the Via di Citta, the Duomo 
itself to be retained as transepts. The famous 
Sienese architect Lando di Pietro was placed 
in charge of this work, and for some years it 
progressed rapidly. But the g-reat plague of 
1348, and the constant strife raging within Siena, 
sapped the city's energy and resources. Defects 
in construction also became apparent. The 
Sienese authorities turned for advice to several 
Florentine architects, who suggested the taking- 

down and rebuilding of the weaker parts ; but, 
appalled not only at the necessary expense of 
such an undertaking-, but at the length of time 
the proposed labour seemed to require, the people 
finally abandoned the idea of their wonderful 
new cathedral, and turned to beautifying the 
older building. S. Giovanni was presently 
completed (1370) — its fagade from a design by 
Mino di Pellicciaio. Within the next ten years 
the Duomo itself was lengthened toward the 
Hospital and much of the sculptural work of 
the present fagade was then carved and put into 
place (^). The handsome Romanesque Campanile 
had already been built during the first half of 
the century. Compared with its splendid rival, 
the fapade of Orvieto Cathedral, that of vSiena's 
Duomo falls in many ways behind, especially 
in architectonic feeling. The three portals of 
equal size and height, and the absence of any 
accentuating perpendicular or horizontal lines, 
emphasize this fact. In a word, the Siena facade 
lacks the unity of conception and the harmony 

(ij The tradition, still generally accepted, that the present fa9ade Wcis 
the work of Giovanni Pisano and his followers, was first attacked bj^ Nardini- 
Despotti. Further proof that it was posterior to 1370 was given b}- Lisixi. 
^Irs. RiCHTER also combats the tradition in her Siena, and lastlj- Prof. Lang- 
ton Douglas, in his new History of Siena, . which has reached us while the 
present Guide was going to the press, gives a length)' and detailed exposi- 
tion of the truth. It is to be hoped that contemporary and future writers 
on the architecture of Siena will at last be persuaded to take some heed 
of what has been written on this important subject. 

of style which is found at Orvieto — this being 
of course in great part due to the fact that its 
construction has been spread over many cent- 
uries. The lavish use of ornament, also, is not 
so well applied as at Orvieto, and its detail is 
not only overburdened but frequently out of 
scale. Yet, w4th all that can be said against it, 
the impression of the present facade is one of 
a certain opulent magnificence (^). Of the sculpt- 
ures which at present adorn it, those about 
the great central window, together with a few 
of the remaining* figures and certain other de- 
tails, are modern reproductions, the orig-inals 
having been transferred to the Opera del Duomo. 
The full-length statues in the different tiers to 
either side, and the fig'ures on the pinnacles, are, 
in almost every case, genuine works of the end 
of the Trecento and the earlier years of the cent- 
ury following, by Sienese sculptors who still 
distinctly show a direct descent from the Pisani. 
Among these statues some are of no small merit ; 
that of the prophetess in the first tier above the 
portal to the left, and a somewhat similar female 
figure on the southern corner of the facade, are 
especially noticeable for their dignity and g-race, 
forcibly reminding us as they do of the Gothic 

(*) If possible, visitors should see the Cathedral by moonlight, when 
disagreeable details are unapparent and the great mass of black and white 
marble becomes a gleaming vision. 

— 233 — 
sculpture of the North. The relief over the cen- 
tral portal, representing scenes from the life of 
the Virgin, is of a far earlier date, and may 
possibly have once formed a part of the original 
facade. Certain it is, whether this be the case 
or not, that this much damaged piece of carving 
dates, at the very latest, from the commence- 
ment of the 14th century, and is the work of a 
direct follower of the Pisani. The unfinished 
appearance of this central portal is a sufficient 
proof, to those who will use their eyes, that 
this relief was not intended for its present posi- 
tion. The fine carved columns of this central 
doorway date, again, from the end of the 14th 
century, or the early years of that following". 
The half-figures of saints, and the surrounding 
ornament in the lunettes of the side portals, are 
works of the full Renaissance, by a sculptor of 
the 15th century who nearly approaches Urbano 
da Cortona in style. The three busts (^) in the 
triangular spaces above the three portals are of 
a still later date, having been excuted by Tom- 
maso Redi. The effect of the fagade as a whole, 
as is also the case at Orvieto, is greatly marred 
by the inharmonious modern mosaics. 

The interior of the Cathedral is at once im- 
pressive and unusual. The continued additions 

(') B. Ambrogio Sansedoni, B. Giovanni Colorabini and B. Andrea 

— -234 — 
of succeeding centuries have not gone to in- 
crease an effect of unity, in its decorative feat- 
ures at least, althoug'h when seen under any other 
condition save that of glaring sunlight, there is 
a certain harmony in the whole. The use of al- 
ternate bands of black and white marble may 
strike the visitor as a particularly disag'reeable 
feature, but after the first impression of a striped 
surface has worn off, the sensation is rather pleas- 
ing than otherwise. The interior as a whole, 
with its many Romanesque details — the heavy 
piers, the arcades within and without the dome, 
the carving* of the capitals, the predominating 
horizontal lines, etc. — is but slig'htly Gothic in 
feeling, notwithstanding the fact that the ground 
plan of the church is doubtless to a great extent 
inspired by that of San Galgano. Moreover, the 
sensation of spaciousness here present is es- 
sentially a Romanesque feature, seldom to be 
found among the soaring Gothic churches of the 
North (i). The fittings and decoration of the 
interior are almost entirely of Renaissance work- 
manship, and only serve to add to the irregular 
effect of the whole. A characteristic and pro- 
nounced feature of this period is the row of 
terra-cotta busts of the Popes which form the 
supports of the corbel table dividing the nave 
from the clerestory. Commencing with that of 

(') See p. 158 siipt 

— 235 — 

Christ, above the centre of the apse, and continu- 
ing, to His left, with St. Peter, they form a con- 
tinuous and chronological line around the church, 
and end with Lucius III, the successor to the 
famous Sienese Alexander III (Bandinelli). Be- 
low them, in the spandrels of the arches, are 
similar busts of Roman Emperors. Xeedless to 
say, few if any of these heads make any attempt 
at authentic portraiture; they are individualized, 
however, to a remarkable extent. 

On the inner side of the main portal, at its 
base, are some low reliefs representing scenes 
from the life of the Virg-in, by Urbano da Cor- 
tona. Above them, on the R, is cut the date 
1483, probably that of the two heavily carved 
columns which support the tribune. Along the 
base of the tribune itself are reliefs of the late 
Quattrocento, representing scenes from the life of 
vSant' Ansano. The holy-water basins, on either 
side of the nave, are very beautiful works by 
Federighi. The base of that to the R, the finer 
of the two, has long* been erroneously considered 
a Roman antique. The large window in the 
fagade, representing the Last Supper, was exe- 
cuted in 1549 by Pastorino, from a design by 
Pierino del Vaga. Near the side portals are 
statues of two Sienese popes (^), Paul II (Camillo 
Borghesi), 1605-162 1, and Marcellus II (Alarcello 
Cervini), 1555. 

(1) Interesting from an historical standpoint only. 

In the R aisle, next to the entrance beneath 
the Campanile, is the tomb of Bishop Tommaso 
Piccolomini, who died in 1483, a refined work 
by Neroccio, worthy of the closest study. Be- 
low it are more bas-reliefs by Urbano da Cor- 
tona, representing scenes from the life of the 
Virgin, several of them being very charming in 
detail. The addition of the adjoining Cappella 
del Voto, in 1661, necessitated the blocking up 
of the famous Porta del Perdono, remains of 
which can still be traced on the outside of the 
church. The chapel was built to enshrine the 
still miraculous (^) " Madonna del Voto ", also 
known as the " Madonna degli Occhi Grossi " 
— the picture before which Siena begged for 
divine intervention when sorely oppressed by 
the foe. This " Madonna ", an Italo-Byzantine 
picture, is seldom exposed to the public view 
save on the occasion of some great festa ("-). 
The highly emotional statues of St. Jerome and 
of the Magdalen are characteristic productions 

(1) See Heywood's A Pictorial chronicle of Siena, page 64. 

(*) On five different occasions, with solemn pomp and great humilitj-. 
did the Sienese place before this picture the keys of their threatened citj', 
thus throwing themselves upon the special mercy of their Divine Protectress 
— once before the never-to-be-forgotten \-ictorj' of Montaperti in 1260 ; again, 
in 1483, when the Signoria was terrified by the threatening attitude of po- 
litical exiles ; in 1526, before the Battle of Camollia ; in 1550, while the 
Spaniards were constructing their fortress ; and still again in 1555, during 
the doughty little Republic's death struggle with her foes. For interesting 
accounts of these ceremonies of dedication, see ^Mr. Heywood's Our Lady 
of Augjist and the Falio of Siena, chapter I. 

— 237 — 

of Bernini, remarkable, as is all that master's 
work, for the soft modelling of the flesh. 

In the right transept are monuments of two 
other Sienese popes — Alexander III, and Alex- 
ander VII (Fabio Chigi), who built the Cappella 
del Voto. There is also a graffito tomb (re- 
stored) of some slight artistic interest, designed 
by Pietro del Minella, in 1444, who was assisted 
in his work by Giuliano da Como and Federighi. 
In the Cappella del Sagramento (corner of tran- 
sept) are reliefs (1423) of the four Evangelists 
and of St. Paul, by Giovanni da Imola and Gio- 
vanni Turini. 

The present high-altar replaces an older one 
which, until early in the i6th century, stood 
beneath the cupola (^) and was glorified by Duc- 
cio's great " Majestas ", now in the Opera del 
Duomo. The design for the new altar is said to 
have been made by Peruzzi. This may originally 
have been, but the work now shows constructive 
faults, and defects in proportion, of which that 
master could never have been guilty. Upon the 
altar rests the magnificent bronze tabernacle by 
Vecchietta. On either side of it are Giovanni 
di Stefano's light-bearing angels, below which 
stand the even more beautiful statues of Fran- 

(') The monochrome irescoes of Saints which adorn the base of the 
cupola are the work of Benvenuto di Giovanni, Guidoccio Cozzarelli, and 
possibly other masters of the end of the 15th century. 

- 238 - 

cesco di Giorgio, worthy in every way of Va- 
sari's enthusiastic praise. The small lateral half- 
figures are also by Francesco (^). Against the 
columns to either side are specimens of Becca- 
fumi's work in bronze, the consols supporting 
the figures being from the design of Giacomo 
Cozzarelli. The six angels on the columns lead- 
ing toward the nave are also by Beccafumi. 

The richly carved seat at the R of the altar, 
and a large part of the choir-stalls, together with 
the reading-desk, were designed, and in great part 
executed, by Bartolommeo Neroni, called II Ric- 
cio. Despite the germs of Baroque which these 
works (begun in 1567) contain, they are temper- 
ate and splendid examples of Cinqiiecento carv- 
ing — magnificent in colour. The choir-stalls of 
intarsia were made by Fra Giovanni da Verona, 
in 1503, for the monastery of Monte Oliveto. 
They are surmounted by interesting little painted 
wooden figures of Prophets and Saints — all that 
remains of the older choir — -dating from the last 
years of the 14th century. The frescoes in the 
apse were once by Beccafumi, but have been 

(1) It is hardly necessary to dilate upon the artistic merits of this 
superb group of master-pieces in bronze, and it is as well to leave the vis- 
itor to his or her own appreciation of their manifold and varied beauties. 
Even in the later and in many ways inferior work of Beccafumi, who was 
pre-eminently a painter, we find the same astonishing and facile mastery in 
the handling of bronze which seems to have been inborn in the Sienese, 
and which made of the Turini, of Vecchietta, of Francesco di Giorgio and 
Giovanni di Stefano. such consummate masters of that art. 

Lombardi photo. 

The Pulpit of the Duomo 

ruined by restoration. The organ and cantoria 
above the sacristy door were designed by the 
Barili in 151 1. The large circular window above 
the choir was executed by Giacomo di Castello 
in 1369, although in style appearing to be of an 
earlier period. Pleasing' in colour, it is, owing 
to its peculiar division into squares, too unsym- 
metrical to be effective as a whole. In the en- 
trance to the sacristy is a fine little holy-water 
stoop by Giovanni Turini. The chapels of the 
sacristy itself contain fragmentary remnants of 
14th century frescoes. An old wooden Crucifix 
hangs above the entrance door In the Chapter- 
house beyond are two interesting panels by Sano, 
one representing S. Bernardino preaching from 
an extemporized pulpit before the Palazzo Pub- 
blico, the fagade of which is here seen in its 
original condition ; the other a similar scene 
taking place in front of S. Francesco. The fine 
large panel of S. Bernardino is also by Sano. 
The only other picture of interest in this room 
is a Madonna by Pacchiarotto. 

Of all the objects of artistic interest in the 
Cathedral, the great marble pulpit of Niccolo 
Pisano (i) (begun 1266) is undoubtedly the most 
celebrated. In more ways than one this work 
is rightly to be considered as the first important 

(1) Niccolo was aided in this work by his son Giovanni, and by his 
pupil Arnolfo and other assistants. 

— 24U — 

creation of Modern Italian art — as distinguished 
from that of classic times, and of the earlier 
Middle-Ages. Here, for the first time in Italy, 
the spirit of what is known as Gothic sculpture 
makes itself clearly and logically felt, and Xic- 
colo shows himself no longer a limited imitator 
of late Roman models— as in his earlier pulpit 
at Pisa — but an artist thoroughly alive to the 
possibilities of embodying in his work both a 
freer selection of natural forms and a truer 
expression of the emotions and ideals of his 
own age. The gap which separates this pulpit 
from its predecessor is one which separates two 
different epochs in Italian art ('). 

In form the pulpit is octagonal, and is sup- 
ported by columns which rest upon the backs 
of lions and lionesses. The base of the central 
supporting column is encircled by allegorical 
figures. Above the capitals, beautifully carved 
with birds and foliage, are statues of the Virtues. 
Above these again are figures separating the 
bas-reliefs. Commencing to the R of the steps, 
they represent: a Sybil, Prophets, the Virgin and 
Child — one of the most exquisite works of its 
kind and strongly reminiscent of the Gothic 
sculpture of the North — Angels, the Redeemer 
of the World, and symbols of the Evangelists. 

(') For a more detailed notice of this change in Niccolo's style, see 
IMr. Perkins' Giotto, Geo. Bell & Sons, London. 

— 241 — 

The first relief represents several of the scenes 
connected with the birth of Christ — the Visitation, 
Birth of the Baptist, the Nativity, Adoration of 
Shepherds. The second represents the Adora- 
tion of the Magi. Next comes the Presentation 
in the Temple, Joseph's Dream and the Flight 
into Egypt. Then the Massacre of Innocents, 
the Crucifixion, and, last of all, the Final Judg*- 
ment, with Christ in the centre dividing the saved 
from the lost. The inappropriate but handsome 
steps leading* to the pulpit were added by Ric- 
cio toward the end of the i6th century. 

Opposite the pulpit is the Cappella di S. An- 
sano, containing the simple bronze tomb of 
Bishop Pecci, executed by Donatello in 1426, 
and some crude bas-reliefs of the 13th century 
— Adoration of the Magi etc. — which once served 
as an altar frontal in the Pieve del Ponte alio 
wSpino. In the L transept is a sacred wooden 
Crucifix once said to have been carried by the 
vSienese at Montaperti (^). It is, however, a work 
of the early Oitatt7'ocento. Here are also statues 
of Pius II and Pius III, both Piccolomini popes. 
The Cappella di S. Giovanni, next to the tran- 
sept, contains what is said to be one of the arms 
of the Baptist himself, presented to Siena by 

(') In the cathedral are two authentic relics of that famous battle — 
the antenne which once decorated the Sienese carroccio, now standing next 
the first piers of the nave, and the tomb-stones of Andrea Beccarini aud 
Giovanni Ugurgieri (in the pavement close to the main portal , two of the 
noblest victims of Siena's greatest triumph. 

242 — 

Pius II in 1464. The architect of the chapel 
was Giovanni di Stefano ; the external sculpt- 
ures are bv ]\Iarrina, the pedestal of either 
column being* by Federighi. Within the chapeh 
above Donatello's superb bronze figure of the 
Baptist, is the reliquary containing the sacred 
arm. On either side are statues of St. Ansanus 
and wSt. Catherine of Alexandria. The one is the 
not over intellectual but dignified and pleasant 
work of Giovanni di Stefano ; the other is by 
Neroccio — an unfinished statue of great and clas- 
sic beauty. The low reliefs on the Font are 
fine works by Federighi, and represent the Crea- 
tion of Adam, of Eve, Temptation of the Serpent, 
Eve tempting Adam, Denial of their vSin, Ex- 
pulsion from Paradise, and two scenes of the 
labours of Hercules, alludinar to the strenuous- 
ness of Christian life. Below these reliefs is an 
allegorical and decorative frieze, some of the 
groups of which possess great charm. All of the 
frescoes of the chapel were originally by Pinto- 
ricchio and his pupils. Three of these have been 
replaced by later works of no artistic value. 
Those by the master himself represent Alberto 
Aringhieri (the donor of the frescoes) as a ^^oung 
knight keeping his vigil, and, on the other side 
of the entrance, the same at middle-age dressed 
as a knight of Rhodes — this latter an authentic 
portrait. The fresco of the Birth of the Baptist, 
opposite, is also by Pintoricchio. There is a 
great difference, both in colour and spirit, be- 

— 243 — 

tween these works and the two frescoes above 
the entrance — representing the Baptist alone, and 
preaching, in the Wilderness — early works of 
Peruzzi while still strongly under the influence 
of Pintoricchio. Outside the chapel, high up to 
the R, is the Gothic tomb of Cardinal Petroni 
(died 13 1 3) probably by Gano, the pupil of Tino 
di Camaino. 

The fourth altar in the L aisle belong's the 
famous Piccolomini family. It was commis- 
sioned by Cardinal Francesco di Nanni Tode- 
schini, a nephew of Pius II, some years previous 
to his own unexpected election to the papal 
chair, and was originally intended to serve as 
his tomb. A great part of the architectural 
framework was executed by Andrea Bregno 
(1481-85). Of the statues which adorn it, four 
(those of SS. Peter, Paul, Pius and Gregory) are 
generally attributed, on the strength of docu- 
ments, to Michelangelo Buonarroti, who is said 
also to have finished the statue of St. Francis 
begun by Torrigiani. Despite the documentary 
evidence, I cannot bring myself to believe that 
Michelangelo had more than a small share in the 
direct execution of these works, which, though 
showing- unmistakable traces of his manner, were 
probably in great part cut by pupils under his 
supervision (^). Next to this altar is the small 

(*) Above the altar itself is a verj- charming ^Madonna of the late 
Trecento (covered) . 

— 244 — 
figure of a Risen Christ, with two Angels, a 
work far too w^eak to be from the hand of 
^lichelangelo, to whom it, also, is ascribed. 

The famous adjoining Libreria was built by 
the above-mentioned Cardinal Francesco to con- 
tain the valuable library bequeathed to him by 
his uncle Pius II, and to honour the memory 
of that great pope. Above the entrance, in the 
L aisle, is a fresco of the Coronation of Pius III, 
painted after that prelate's death by Pintoricchio. 
It contains many interesting details as to types, 
and is more pleasing and subdued in colour than 
the frescoes of the interior. The figure of the 
Pope himself is executed in partial relief. The 
marble work about the door is by ]\Iarrina. The 
altar to the R, with the seated figure of St. John 
is by some Sienese follower of Donatello. The 
splendid bronze doors (opened by custodian; fee) 
are by Antoniolo Ormanni (1497). The walls 
of the interior are covered with frescoes, executed 
by Pintoricchio and his pupils (i 503-1 508), rep- 
resenting various events in the life of Pius 11. 
Despite all local protests to the contrary, these 
frescoes have undergone thorough and energetic 
cleanings, nor are they entirely free from a con- 
siderable amount of restoration. Nevertheless, 
their present fine condition is in great part due 
to the excessive care bestoAved upon them, and 
to favourable atmospheric conditions ('). Com- 

('; The comparison between these well-groomed paintings, and their 
equally important companion outside the door, is interesting. 

— ^45 — 

mencing at the spectator's R, as he faces the 
windows, the subjects are as follows : i. Enea 
Silvio (Piccolomini) starting with Cardinal Ca- 
pranica for the Council of Basle. 2. He is at 
the court of James I of vScotland as ambassador 
of the Cardinal of vSta. Croce (1435). 3. He is 
crowned poet-laureate by the Emperor Fred- 
erick III (1442). 4. He is before Pope Euge- 
nius IV as the envoy of the Emperor. 5. Hav- 
ing abandoned a worldly life for the Church, 
we see him as Bishop of Siena present at the 
meeting of the Emperor and his betrothed Eleo- 
nora of Portugal outside the Porta Camollia 
(1452). 6. He is made Cardinal by Calixtus III 
(1456). 7. He is made Pope under the name of 
Pius II (1458). 8. He holds a congress at Mantua 
to promote a crusade against the Turks. 9. He 
canonizes the great saint of his native town — 
Catherine of Siena. 10. Although in a dying 
condition (^) he goes to Ancona to hasten the 
crusade (1464). 

Critically speaking, these works show both 
the limit and the possibilities of Pintoricchio's 
later style. Their colour is gaudy and over- 
laden (^), the fig'ures are painted with no care 

1') In the fresco, Pius II is being carried down to meet the Doge 
in command of the Venetian fleet, while in reality the Pope was dead be- 
fore the latter arrived. 

{-) This may in part be due to a clause in the contract for the work 
which expressly required the use of much gold and many varied colours. 
See Vasari, Ed. Sansoni, vol. Ill, p. 519. 


— 246 • — 

for structural form, the compositions are usuall}^ 
poor and burdened with many unnecessary fig- 
ures. But, on the other hand, the spacious 
and arch-framed landscapes produce an effect 
of Umbrian airiness which is most delightful. 
Many charming details, also, are found through- 
out the frescoes, and some of the heads are 
authentic portraits of various historical charac- 
ters. The architectonic arrang*ement of the 
whole — of the ten pictures, divided by pilasters 
worked in delicate arabesques, and covered by 
a ceiling of the most refined and harmonious 
pattern (^) — ^could not be more complete, and 
w^hatever may be urged against the frescoes 
in themselves, the Piccolomini Library remains 
one of the gTeatest decorative triumphs of the 

In the windows are the arms of the Picco- 
lomini in fine old painted glass. On the wooden 
shelves carved by Antonio Barili are the famous 
choir-books, beautiful without and Avithin. They 
are filled with many lovely miniatures by various 
Sienese artists — Sano, Pellegrino di ]\Iariano, 
Benvenuto di Giovanni, Cozzarelli — and by two 
great Northern masters, Liberale da Verona and 
Girolamo da Cremona (^). The marble group of 

('; The ceiling, the pilasters with the charming piitti, and the shields 
and angels above the windows were executed by Balducci and other assist- 
ants of the master. 

(*) Permission to examine those of the illuminations not exposed, is 
obtained with the greatest difficult}- from the Rector of the Opera del Duomo. 

— 247 — 
the Three Graces is a Roman work brought to 
vSiena by the Cardinal Francesco. Over the door 
is a plaster cast of a work of the school of 
Jacopo della Querela, often quoted as an original. 
The execution of the famous pavement of 
the Duomo represents the labour of many cent- 
uries, commencing as it did directly after work 
on the original church had been resumed, and 
continuing to the present day. Constant, ex- 
cessive, and ofttimes unnecessary, restoration has 
deprived many of the earlier designs of much 
of their original subtlety and refinement of line ; 
others have even been entirely renewed or re- 
placed by later works (^). Following the an- 
nexed plan, we commence with the R aisle (^) 

(1) The limits of this Guide prevent me from entering into a detailed 
discussion of this unique feature of Siena's Duomo. Except in one or two 
instances, I give only the subject of the work, its probable designer — the 
execution was frequently carried out by another artist — and the date. I can- 
not do better than recommend to the reader Mr. R. H. Hobart Gust's 
little book on The Pavement Masters of Siena, which, although modestly 
disclaiming all critical pretentions, is an admirable example of a handbook, 
quite indispensable to those interested in the history of the pavement. 

(■i) The earliest method adopted in the piecing together of the various 
figures or scenes was to incise the necessary lines for draper}', face, etc., in 
slabs of white marble, filling in the cuts with black cement. Later, an at- 
tempt was made to give relief to the figures by placing them on a dark 
background. Still later again it was thought that, to depict a complicated 
subject, the simple black and white would not suffice, and coloured marbles 
were introduced in architectural accessories, or occasionally in some of the 
garments. The next and least successful method consisted in attempting a 
would-be realistic effect by adopting dark marble for the shadows and 7'ice 
versa, and the last and modern method consists in misapplying the beautiful 
material by using it as one would a piece of drawing-paper — scratching lines 
on it for effects of modelling and perspective. 




I 21 

24 22 23 











/ 44 































16 14 15 

13 12 


— 249 — 
A. I. The Delphic Sybil, 1482. 2. The Cumean 
Sybil, 1482. 3. The Cuman Sybil (Giovanni di 
Stefano), 1482. 4. The Erythrean Sybil (Federi- 
ghi), 1482. 5. The Persian Sybil (Urbano da 
Cortona), 1482. B. 6. A modern reproduction of 
the Seven Ag^es of Man, executed by Federighi 
in 1475. It is best to study this charming work 
in the original now preserved in the Opera del 
Duomo. 7. 8. 9. 10. Hope, Faith, Charity and 
Religion; modern reproductions of works orig- 
inally designed in 1780. li. The Sacrifice of 
Jephthah (Bastiano di Francesco), 1483. 12. The 
Story of Absalom (Pietro del Minella), 1447 — 
a work remarkable for its decorative quality. 
13. The Emperor Sigismund Enthroned (Dome- 
nico di Bartoli), 1434 — a most interesting work 
by this Sienese exponent of the Renaissance, 
well composed, and noteworthy for its architect- 
ural details. 14. Samson slaying the Philistines 
with the Jawbone of an Ass (Paolo di Martino?), 
1426. 15. Judas Maccabaeus (Domenico di Nic- 
colo), 1424. 16. Moses (Paolo di Martino), 1426. 
C. 17. IB. Temperance and Prudence, 1380? 
19. 20. Christian Piety and Justice, 1406? 21. For- 
titude, executed in 1406 by Marchesse d'Adamo 
and his companions the Comacene workmen. 
Despite all restoration, these five figures are 
among the noblest of the pavement. D. 22. Joshua 
and the king of the Ammonites (Paolo di Mar- 
tino ?), 1426. 23. Joshua, 1426. 24. Solomon, 

— 250 — 

1447 •■' 25. The Relief of Bethulia (authorship un- 
certain — Francesco di Giorgio? — much restored), 
1473 ? — interesting for its architecture as well 
as for its figures. 26. The Massacre of the In- 
nocents (Matteo di Giovanni), i48i^on the whole 
the most successful representation of movement 
which Matteo has left us ; even more interesting 
than the main picture, in this respect, is the 
pseudo-classic frieze (^). 27. The Expulsion of 
Herod (Benvenuto di Giovanni), 1485 — a splendid 
and spirited composition. E. 28. The Albunean 
or Tiburtine Sybil (Benvenuto di Giovanni), 1483. 

29. The Samian Sybil (Matteo di Giovanni), 1483. 

30. The Phrygian Sybil, 1483? 31. The Helles- 
pontine Sybil (Xeroccio), 1483. 32. The Lybian 
Sybil (Guidoccio Cozzarelli), 1483. F. 33. Hermes 
Trismegistus (authorship doubtful), 1488? 34. Em- 
blems of Siena and her allies (a modern copy 
of the only real mosaic pavement in the Duomo), 
1373. 35. A AVheel with the Imperial Eagle in 
the Centre, 1373? 36. An Allegory of Fortune 
(Pintoricchio), 1504. 37. The AVheel of Fortune 
(modern copy), 1372. C. The scenes beneath the 
cupola represent the Story of Elijah. 41. Elijah's 
vSacrifice, 42. The Compact of Elijah and Ahab, 
43. The Slaughter of the Prophets of Baal, 44. 

(') This subject seems to have been a favourite one with the master. 
Xo less than three examples of its treatment are in Siena, a fourth is in the 
Gallery at Xaples, and a fifth is in Aix-en-Provence. 

— 2 SI 

Ahab's Sacrifice, 45. Elijah sends Obadiah for 
Ahab, 46. The Meeting of Ahab and Elijah- 
all works designed by Beccafumi, 1518-1531. 
47. Elijah fed by the Ravens, 48. Elijah anoints 
Jehu, 49. Elijah asks bread of the Widow, 50. 
Elijah raising the AVidow's Son — free modern 
copies by Franchi of older works probably de- 
signed by Sozzini or Beccafumi. 39. Elijah pre- 
dicts Ahab's Death, 38. Elijah carried to Heaven, 
40. Ahab mortally wounded — original composi- 
tions by Eranchi which replace older works now 
in the Opera del Duomo ('). H. 51. Moses strik- 
ing the Rock (Beccafumi), 1525. 52. Moses receiv- 
ing- the Tables of the Law on Mount Sinai, with 
five other scenes relating to the same (Becca- 
fumi), 1 53 1. 53. King David, 54. Goliath, 55. The 
young David — all three designed by Domenico 
di Xiccolo in 1423. 1. 56. The story of Abraham's 
Sacrifice and fourteen other smaller scenes from 
Old Testament history (Beccafumi), 1544-46. 
Outside the main entrances, 57. The Publican 
and the vSinner, 1448. 58. A Jar labelled Fel 
(Gall), 1448. 59. A Jar labelled J/^'/ (Honey), 1448. 
In the spaces in the three doorways are scenes 
representing- the " Ceremonies of Ordination " 
(Nastagio di Guasparre), 1450. 

(1) The subjects of the earlier works were: 38. The Parable of the 
^Slote and the Beam, 1374-75. 39. A ilan giving alms to a Woman (Dome- 
nico di Xiccolo :-), 1433? 40. Two Blind ^len (Federighi), 1459. 

Over the southern entrance to the Duomo 
is a fine relief of the Virgin and Child by a pupil 
of Donatello, often attributed to that master 
himself. The buttresses of the main and clere- 
story walls are crowned, on the south side, with 
a number of statues which once stood against 
the pillars of the nave. With the exception of 
the upper one to the R, which is of the school 
of Federighi, they are all works of the end of 
the 14th, or beginning of the 15th, century. 

When Lando di Pietro's plans for the new 
Duomo were abandoned, a part of the structure 
which had been already begun remained stand- 
ing, and constitutes to-day the mass of unfinished 
work stretching away to the R of the church. 
What would have been the facade of this vast 
edifice faces toward the Via di Citta. The two 
central round-arched windows with their Renais- 
sance adornments seem to indicate that work on 
it was recommenced, for a time at least, during 
the 15th century (1). Part of this structure has 
been converted into the Cathedral Museum — the 
Opera del Duomo, and contains many objects of 
the greatest artistic interest. (If not at the Opera, 
the custodian is to be found in the Duomo; fee). 
Ground Floor. The larg-e hall contains many 
fragments of original sculptures once on the 
facade of the Duomo, together Avith remains of 

(^) See Cicerone, vol. II, p. 67. 

■ — 253 — 

other beautiful works which have been replaced 
by modern copies. Among the more interesting 
are six life-size statues from the faQade, and, to 
the R : (2nd bay) fragments of the only portion 
of the Duomo pavement executed in mosaic, 
and samples of marbles which are found in 
Sienese territory ; (3rd bay) a ruined stone wolf ; 
(4th bay) reliefs of allegorical figures, originally 
a part of the balustrade of the Cappella della 
Piazza ; above these, a vigorous statue of Aloses, 
by Federighi, which once stood on the fountain 
of the Jews in the Ghetto ; a fragment of a 
horse ; (6th bay) an interesting terra-cotta bust 
of an old man ; (7th bay) two of the worn and 
weather-stained reliefs from Fonte Gaia. These 
reliefs, tog'ether with others of the six remaining 
Virtues, that of the Virgin and Child (on the L 
of the room), those representing the Creation of 
Adam and the Expulsion from Paradise, and the 
two beautiful statues of Charity, once formed 
part of Jacopo della Quercia's famous fountain 
in the Campo. Although many are but mere 
fragments, at times almost undecipherable, these 
fine sculptures, instinct with life and movement, 
still show in every line the hand of the great 
master (^) — particularly in such a relief as that 
of the Creation of Adam, and in the splendid 
figure of Charity opposite. At the end of the 

(') See pp. 169-170. 

— ^54 — 
room are other parts of the Duomo pavement 
— Federighi's delightful Seven Ages of Man, and 
the design of a Renaissance candlestick by the 
same master. Against the wall is a large paint- 
ing of the Transfiguration, once an organ-screen, 
by Girolamo Genga. Returning, the following 
objects on the R are noteworthy : an interesting 
gargoyle of the vSienese wolf ; (4th bay) two 
marble panels {98), probably by Urbano da Cor- 
tona, and half figures from the Duomo facade 
with strongly individualized heads ; part of a 
marble bull ; above this a relief of the Emblems 
of the Evangelists, of the school of the Pisani 
— once used face downward as part of the Cathe- 
dral pavement ; (5th bay) Virgin and Child with 
two adoring Angels; other parts of the pavement; 
(6th bay) the painted Avooden figure of a Bishop, 
of the end of the 14th century; a kneeling 
St. John, in terra-cotta, bv Giacomo Cozzarelli ; 
(7th bay) the side of a Roman sarcophagus; and, 
to the R and L of the entrance, two weather- 
beaten wooden doors, formerly in the Palazzo 

On the second floor is a large room filled 
with modern models and plans connected with 
the Duomo (^). The small adjoining room con- 

(1) The accurate coloured drawing of the entire pavement will greatlj' 
assist the visitor who may not find himself in Siena during the month of 
August, when only the pavement is entirely uncovered. 

— ^00 — 
tains various drawings, the more interesting 
being : (20) the design for the facade of S. Gio- 
vanni, by Mino del Pellicciaio ; (33) a drawing 
for a portico which, early in the i6th century, 
was suggested as an addition to the Piazza del 
Campo; (34) what may possibly have been Giot- 
to's design for the Campanile of the Florentine 

Third floor. Ascending- the stairs, we notice 
the carefully carved capitals of the pillars of 
the New Duomo. At the last landing is a 
small predella of great charm, and peculiarly 
fine in colour, by Matteo di Giovanni, represent- 
ing the Martyrdom of St. John ; St. Nicholas 
giving purses to the three poor maidens ; the 
Resurrection ; Scene from the life of St. Gregory ; 
and St. Jerome removing the thorn from the 
lion's paw. On the R wall of the Gallery itself 
hang the dismembered panels of Duccio's world- 
famous " Majestas ", not only the most important 
work in the annals of Sienese painting, but one 
of the most remarkable in the history of Italian 
art (^). This wonderful altar-piece has been so 

(') When finished in 131 1, the picture was destined to stand on the 
high-altar of the Duomo, exposed to view both from the nave and from the 
choir, and was therefore painted on either side. It was sawed apart in later 
years when removed from its original position. The large panel of the Virgin 
and Child with Angels and Saints once faced the nave ; below it was a pre- 
della, and above, various smaller panels refering to the life of the Virgin — 
all placed in a Gothic frame. On the reverse were the twenty-six scenes 
connected with the Passion of Christ, and above and below this other small 
panels depicting scenes from His life. 

- 256 - 

adequately and admirably criticised by 'Mr. Ber- 
enson, in his Central Italian Painters — which 
book I take for granted, here as elsewhere, to 
be in the hands of every serious student of 
Siena's art— ;that I cannot do better than to refer 
the reader to his pages (^), as well as to suggest 
repeated visits to the painting itself, which, in 
all its glory of molten gold and brilliant colour, 
represents the very apotheosis of Byzantine art 
as well as the foundation of that of Siena. In 
the large panel, to the R, the Virgin and Child 
are enthroned, in hieratic splendour, amidst a 
glorious company of Angels and of Saints. To 
her R are SS. John the Evangelist, Paul and 
Catherine, to her L, the Baptist, Peter and Agnes. 
In the foreground kneel, to either side, the 
patron saints of Siena, Savinus and Ansanus, 
Crescentius and Victor. Above, half figures of 
the Apostles look out from within their niches. 
Among the smaller panels, of which there are 
forty-four in all, mention can be made but of a 
few. Particularly noteworthy among those sep- 
arately numbered are : the Presentation in the 
Temple; the Journey into Egypt; the Doubting 
Thomas ; and, on what was once the back of the 
principal panel; the Entry into Jerusalem; Christ 
washing the Disciples' Feet; the Betrayal; Peter 
denying Christ; the Crucifixion; and the three 

(') See also pp. 179-180 sup/a. 

^ / 

Marys at the Tomb. These scenes represent a 
few only of the more striking of these superb 
compositions, but, indeed, to give the preference 
to any one above the others is unfair to Duccio ; 
each and every one of them is worthy of long 
and careful study (^). 

Turning to other pictures in the room, we 
find, near at hand, nine panels illustrative of the 
Creed, by Taddeo Bartoli — careful in execution 
and imaginative in quality. Below is a panel 
of the Crucifixion by the same master. Xo. 59 
is a Madonna, Child, and Saints, by the favourite 
pupil of Taddeo, ]\I." Gregorio, a charming re- 
tardaire. Above, a large panel of the Virgin 
and Child with Angels and SS. Bernardino and 
Anthony is somewhat doubtfully attributed to 
Pietro degli Oriuoli, a painter who enjoyed a 
considerable reputation during the latter half of 
the 15th century. Xo. 62, St. Francis appearing 
to St. Anthony, is, curious to relate, a direct 
copy of Giotto's frescoes of the same subject at 
Assisi and at Florence, by Giovanni di Paolo. 
The Birth of the Virgin (63), by Pietro Loren- 
zetti, painted in 1342, although much damaged, 
is beautiful in colour and composition, and is a 

^}) Sufficient blame cannot be attached to the present authorities of 
the Opera del Duomo for allowing the discordant modern paintings which 
hang upon the wall above these sacred masterpieces, to remain where they 
now are — an offence to the good taste of the visitor, and a reproach to that 
of the Sienese themselves. 

- 258 - 

fine example of the realistic tendencies of that 
master. Above is a large panel of the Virgin 
and Child surrounded by dignified Saints — a 
work of ^latteo, to which once belonged the 
predella now in the entrance. On the L wall 
are five panels relating to the story of the True 
Cross, by a pupil of Pietro Lorenzetti— generally 
attributed to the master himself. On the reverse 
of each panel are pleasing head of angels. In 
the centre of the wall are four damaged, but 
very fine, panels of Saints — early and beautiful 
works of Ambrogio Lorenzetti, still showing 
the direct influence of his brother. Above are 
two parts of a predella by Taddeo. On the 
end wall is a characteristic St. Jerome by Gio- 
vanni di Paolo. The St. Paul is by Beccafumi. 
In this room are also several embroidered altar 
frontals, that placed next to Duccio's work being 
perhaps the finest. In the centre of the adjoin- 
ing room are two cases containing handsome 
vestments, and a third filled with various objects 
of interest — three early pastoral staves (^) of 
ivory (the Annunciation in one of them is a 
Seicento addition); another gilt bronze staff with 
figures in niello and a gilded figure of S. An- 
sano ; three rings, one of which belonged to 
Pius II ; and fine examples of early niello cutlery. 
Still another case contains : a beautiful silver 

(') One of these belonged to the Abbots of S. Galgano. 

— 259 — 

gilt relief of the Trecento — Christ in a mandorla 
of cherubs with figures of the Evangelists and 
the arms of Siena in niello; an Italo-Byzantine 
Crucifix of the Dugento; an enamelled figure from 
a Crucifix of the same period; a fine enamelled 
plate; two chalices — one worked in niello; and 
a handsome helmet of the Cinqtiecento. The door 
at the end of this room admits the visitor to the 
stairs which lead to the top of the unfinished 
fagade, Avhence a magnificent view of the city 
and the surrounding country is obtained. 

On leaving- the Museum, we pass to the R 
through a handsome Gothic portal (with a sculpt- 
ured gToup of Christ and two Angels) which 
would have formed a side-entrance to the New 
Duomo. Before descending the steps to S. Gio- 
vanni, we may visit the church of Monagnese, 
at the entrance to the Via del Poggio, to the 
R, (custodian at the Scuole Regie near by ; 
fee). In this church is one of the little-known 
treasures of Siena, a painted wooden statue of 
St. Nicholas by Neroccio — one of the finest 
works of its kind, splendid in colour, untouched 
by restoration, and possessed of a beauty and 
dignity quite Neroccio's own. On the way to 
S. Giovanni, we notice, on the R, the mass of 
the Palazzo del Magnifico, built for Pandolfo Pe- 
trucci by Giacomo Cozzarelli. Near the bottom 
of the marble steps are seen, embedded in its 
Avail, remains of Roman brick work. The lower 

— 26o — 

facade, on the Via dei Pellegrini, is adorned 
with Cozzarelli's fine bronze torch-holders. AVith- 
in the courtyard are still to be seen several Re- 
naissance doors and windows. The edifice has, 
however, been so mutilated that but a poor idea 
of its original appearance can be had. In the 
attic of one of the upper rooms are remnants 
of ceiling frescoes by Pintoricchio^medallions 
with classic subjects, etc. — very charniing, but 
to be seen only with difficulty. The Palazzo 
Bindi-Sergardi, on the opposite side of Via dei 
Pellegrini, contains a remarkable ceiling by 
Beccafumi, far surpassing his later work in the 
Palazzo Pubblico. 

As has already been stated, the construction 
of S. Giovanni, which replaced an earlier Bap- 
tistery situated on the Piazza del Duomo, was 
commenced early in the 14th century. Its un- 
finished facade, designed by Mino del Pellicciaio, 
with its simple yet effective lines, is far more 
pleasing than that of the Cathedral above. Before 
the three doors are interesting scenes in gy-affito 
of the Birth, the Baptism, and the Confirmation, 
of a Child (i 450-1 451), the middle one having 
been designed by Federighi. 

The interior (^), despite modern restorations, 
is harmonious in effect, the chief centre of at- 

^l) A word of praise is due to the keepers of this church for the 
care taken to preserve order and cleanliness within it. 

— 26l — 

traction being' Jacopo della Quercia's celebrated 
Baptismal Font. This work, although designed 
by the master himself, was in great part executed 
by his pupils (141 7-1432). The six gilt bronze 
reliefs which adorn the sides are the work of 
some of the most famous sculptors of the Quat- 
trocento. By Jacopo himself is the relief of the 
Vision of Zacharias (facing the apse) — a vigorous 
work, although somewhat poor in composition. 
The figures of Justice and Prudence, on either 
side, are by Giovanni di Turino. The next relief, 
the Birth of the Baptist, is a joint production 
of the Turini family, and the figure of Fortitude 
is by Goro di Neroccio. The Preaching of the 
Baptist is another creditable, but somewhat 
unequal, work of the Turini, and the following 
figure of Charity is ag-ain by Giovanni. The 
Baptism of Christ, and John before Herod, are 
both celebrated works of the Florentine Lorenzo 
Ghiberti, the latter being one of the most dram- 
atic creations which we have from that mas- 
ter's hand. Even more strikingly dramatic is 
Donatello's Feast of Herod, which follows, a 
very naturalistic work, surpassing all the preced- 
ing reliefs in energy of expression. The sculp- 
tor's treatment of the architectural background 
is here particularly noticeable. The beautiful 
figures of Faith and Hope, to the R and L, are 
also by Donatello, the latter, especially, being a 
most exquisite conception. The five noble 

— 262 — - 

marble bas-reliefs of Prophets (^) are by Jacopo 
della Querela, as is probably the statuette of the 
Baptist which surmounts the whole Avork. Three 
of the charming bronze piif^i are due to Dona- 
tello, and the fourth (probably the one to the 
extreme L), to Giovanni di Turino, by whom is 
also the Madonna in bronze on the door of the 

The greater part of the frescoes on the walls 
and vaulting are by Vecchietta and his assist- 
ants ( 1 450-1 453). The master's hand shows it- 
self most distinctly in those of the Evangelists 
in the vaulting next the entrance, in the scenes 
illustrative of four of the Articles of the Creed (-), 
above the Font, and in the finely decorative 
Assumption of the Virgin, on the face of the 
great arch. ]\Iany of the angels' heads in this 
last work are particularly noticeable for their 
dignity and charm. The bays to the R and L 
of the entrance were probably painted by a con- 
temporary of Vecchietta, in whose work lingers 
more markedly the influence of Taddeo Bartoli. 
The frescoes to the R of the Font are by Vec- 
chietta and his pupils. Those to the L show. 

(') The authorship of these dignified and classic figures has recently 
been questioned, but a comparison of them with the reliefs of S. Petronio 
at Bologna will confirm my opinion that their traditional attribution to 
Jacopo himself is correct. 

(*) On the arches of this and the preceding vault are various al- 
legorical and symbolic figures by Vecchietta's own hand, which are par- 
ticularly charming in feature and in colour. 

- 263 - 

to a less degree, the master's hand, but are cer- 
tainly by a follower of his manner, and not by 
the Bolognese Michele Lambertini, to whom they 
have heretofore been ascribed on the strength 
of documentary evidence. The paintings on the 
wall to the L of the apse, representing two 
miracles of St. Anthony of Padua, are also by 
Vecchietta, who, judging by their style, was 
here probably assisted by Benvenuto di Gio- 
vanni. The architectural backgrounds in these 
works are especially interesting-. The corres- 
ponding fresco on the R — Christ in the House 
of the Pharisee — is probably by the little-known 
Pietro degli Oriuoli (1489?). In the apse are a 
Flagellation and a Procession to Calvary, by 
Vecchietta. The Annunciation is more the work 
of a pupil. The recess between the Angel and 
the Virgin is decorated with busts of Saints by 
Vecchietta himself. Above are three scenes 
from the Passion, the Agony in the Garden, the 
Crucifixion and the Entombment, by a con- 
temporary of Vecchietta, generally ascribed, on 
documentary grounds, to a certain Guasparre 
d' Agostino, a painter concerning whom little or 
nothing is known. The small and almost oblit- 
erated medallions below these works are also 
worthy of attention. The greater part of these 
frescoes have been so damaged and restored that 
much of their original character has been lost, 
and it is not always easy to distinguish Vec- 

- 264 - 

chietta's own handiwork from that of his assist- 
ants. Nevertheless, looked at in detail, they 
still contain much to reward a careful examina- 

From the Piazza di S. Giovanni, the Via 
Franciosa leads to the former convent of the 
Gesuate, now^ a hospital for foundling's, and 
to the small church of S. Sebastiano in Valle 
Piatta (^), erected in 1507 (?) by Domenico Ponsi. 
It is built on the plan of a Greek cross sur- 
mounted by a cupola, and for elegance and 
simplicity of proportions, and interior space ef- 
fects, ranks among the best Sienese buildings 
of the Renaissance. The interior decorations, 
by various Sienese artists of the Cinquecento, are 
exceptionally effective. The sacristy contains : 
a Madonna with SS. Jerome and John the Bap- 
tist, by Matteo di Giovanni, in his peculiar grey 
manner (much damaged) ; a smaller Madonna 
between SS. James and Jerome, by Benvenuto 
di Giovanni ; and a sadly repainted picture by 
Guidoccio Cozzarelli. From the Via di Valle 
Piatta, a steep causeway, the Via del Costone, 
leads down the hill to Fontebranda. The shrine 
half w^ay down the slope commemorates a fam- 
ous vision of St. Catherine. The view of the 
massive apse and foundations of S. Domenico 

(') Generally known as the church of the Innocenti, and now used 
as the oratory of the Contrada della Selva. 

- 265 - 
from this picturesque point is a fine one. The 
pleasant Via del Fosso di S. Ansano (^) leads from 
the church of S. Scbastiano to the Via Baldas- 
sarre Peruzzi, past the back of the Hospital. 

We may return to the Piazza del Duomo 
by the steps going up beneath the arch opposite 
S. Sebastiano. To the L is the Bishop's Palace, 
rebuilt in the Gothic style early in the i8th 
century. In the wall to the R of the entrance 
is a marble slab traditionally pointed out as the 
tomb-stone of Giovanni Pisano {'^). The entire 
south-west side of the Piazza is occupied by the 
Spedale di Sta. Maria della Scala (^). The former 

(1) At the beginning of the street is a tablet recording the tradition 
that St. Ansanus was here boiled in pitch and oil and escaped uninjured. 

(2) This stone bears the following inscription : Hoc est sepidcriim 
magistri loannis quondam magistri Nicolai et de ejus eredibus, and may 
originally have been intended to mark what was to be the master's last 
resting place. There seems, however, little doubt that he was actually 
buried with his father in Pisa. 

(^) The legend which ascribed the foundation of this famous institu- 
tion to the Blessed Sorore has been set aside by modern authorities, and 
it is now generally accepted that the hospital owed its origin to the nth 
centur}-. It was established by the Canons of the Duomo, who then lived 
together like monks and were obliged to devote a part of their revenue to 
the assistance of the poor. In time the governing power passed from their 
hands into those of the laity. 

Like the Duomo and the Palazzo Pubblico, the Spedale can boast a 
long history of its own. For centuries it served as a lodging house for 
pilgrims, as well as an asylum for the sick and the poor. The names of 
two of Siena's greatest saints are intimately connected with its history — 
St. Catherine, who here made her daily and nightly rounds among the ill 
and dying, and S. Bernardino, who, together with his companions, distin- 
guished himself by his heroic care of the plague-stricken during the ter- 
rible pestilence of 1400. Nor were these the only heroes that the Hospital 
has known— many another lesser saint has added his or her share to the 
record of self-sacrifice and devotion which makes the storj' of the Spedale 
what it is. 

— 266 — 

Gothic facade has undergone many changes, and 
has lost a masterpiece which once adorned it — 
a large fresco by the Lorenzetti. 

Within the entrance, at the L, is the marble 
tomb of Jacopo Tondi, by Giacomo Cozzarelli. 
In a room to the R is a fresco of the Vis- 
itation, by Beccafumi. Beyond, is the great hall 
known as the Pellegrinaio, decorated with famous 
frescoes concerning the history of the Hospital. 
That over the door on the R, the subject of 
which is somewhat doubtful, is by Domenico di 
Bartolo, and has been hitherto unnoticed by 
writers on Siena. The next three frescoes are 
by the same master, and represent the Mar- 
riage of Foundlings; the Giving of Alms ; the Care 
of the Sick and Injured. The fresco opposite 
this last is again by Domenico di Bartolo, and 
depicts the granting by Celestine III of the priv- 
ilege which transferred the governing power 
from the Canons to the laity. To the L is a 
work chiefly interesting as having been painted 
by Priamo, the brother of Jacopo della Querela 
— the entry into the Hospital and the taking 
of the robe by a woman about to enter its ser- 
vice. Then another fresco by Domenico di Bar- 
tolo represents the enlarging of the Hospital 
with alms given by the Bishop. It is evident 
that, throughout these paintings (1440- 1443), Do- 
menico was attempting what was beyond his 
powers — a realization of the Renaissance ideals 

— 267 — 

which, in Florence, had resulted in the decora- 
tions of the Brancacci Chapel. But although he 
failed in the greater issues of his art, he has 
given us a picturesque and realistic idea of the 
life of the Hospital, and of the costumes and 
manners of his day. As a portrait-painter, also, 
he is not incapable, and his architectural back- 
grounds show a keen appreciation of Renais- 
sance detail. Artistically more interesting than 
any of its companions is the adjoining fresco 
by Vecchietta, representing the dream of a devout 
woman, who saw a ladder reaching down from 
Heaven and little children passing up it — tradi- 
tionally the reason for the institution of the 
foundling asylum attached to the Hospital. 

The most important of the other frescoes in 
the building are those which cover the walls and 
ceilings of Avhat is now the Deposito delle Donne 
— early works of Vecchietta, painted in 1448. 
Although hopelessly damaged, several scenes, 
such as the Annunciation and Nativity on the L 
wall, and the Last Judgment on the R, retain much 
of their original interest and charm. At the 
end of the room, below the tabernacle, is a little- 
known Virgin of Mercy (covered) — ^once an im- 
portant work, and still a delightful piece of colour 
— by Domenico di Bartolo. The Infermeria di 
S. Pio contains a monochrome fresco, the Prayer 
of the Beato Sorore, also by Domenico ; and the 
Infermeria di S. Calgano a Crucifixion by Tad- 
deo Bartoli. 

— 268 — 

The adjoining' church was rebuilt in the 
15th century. Over the high-altar is a bronze 
figure of the Risen Christ by Vecchietta, pre- 
sented by him to the Hospital in 1477. Despite 
its excessive naturalism and study of detail, this 
work remains one of the superlative achievements 
of the Renaissance in the technical handling of 
bronze. High up on the R of the church is the 
splendid organ designed by Peruzzi (^) (covered). 
To obtain a view of its fine detail, one must 
ascend into the organ-loft opposite. The small 
side chapel contains a good iron screen, an old 
Sienese Crucifix, and, over the altar, a repainted 
Madonna by an artist of the late Trecento. 

Below the Hospital are the chapels of cer- 
tain Confraternities (entrance by door furthest 
to L ; open until two o' clock). In that of the 
Compagnia di S. Caterina della Notte (custodian 
in Via dei Pellegrini) is a Virgin and Child 
with Saints, by Taddeo Bartoli. In the cell 
adjacent to this chapel, St. Catherine was wont 
to pray and sometimes to rest during the inter- 
vals of caring for the sick in the Hospital. Con- 
tinuing down the stairs, we pass into a vestibule, 
to the R of w^hich, in a room of the Confrater- 

(') " The design is one which deserves most minute and careful stud}-. 
It is more imaginative and capricious than anj-thing else he produced, and 
suggestions of previous and future architectural work appear in many of its 
parts ". W. J. Anderson, The Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy, 
p. 118. 


nita della Madonna, is a small collection of pict- 
ures, many of which have been mercilessly 
restored of recent years. On the end wall is a 
large Madonna, with Saints and Angels, by a 
pupil of Pietro I>orenzetti. The accompanying* 
figures of SS. Peter and Paul were possibly 
once by the same hand. Four bier-heads, rep- 
resenting the Virgin of Mercy and the Adora- 
tion of the Cross, are by Guidoccio Cozzarelli. 
The central Crucifixion in a small triptych is a 
genuine work of Duccio, as are also the sides 
of a similar triptych, above, representing the 
Flagellation and the Entombment. Still another 
equally repainted triptych, the Virgin Avith the 
two vSt. Catherines and other Saints, is by Fungai. 
On the L wall is a Madonna by Sano, the Christ 
above it dating from the end of the T7'ece7ito. 
The chief treasure of the collection is a fine 
painting by Benvenuto di Giovanni {1501), rep- 
resenting vSt. Catherine bringing Pope Gregory 
back from Avignon — remarkable alike for its 
fig'ures and its landscape. Near by is a taber- 
nacle in niello work. To the L is a gaily coloured 
St. Eustace, by a pupil of Bartolo di Fredi. A 
Holy Family by Sodoma contains an exception- 
ally dignified Madonna and a pleasant landscape. 
The Dead Christ beneath is perhaps by Ben- 
venuto. In the sacristy of the Chapel opposite 
(opened by custodian ; fee) are ruined but im- 
portant monochrome frescoes of the Last Judg- 

ment, by an unknown follower of the Loren- 
zetti (^). The figure of Christ is scarcely visible, 
but the groups of the Dead rising from out their 
tombs and sweeping through the air toward the 
Judgment Seat, are still left to us as truly 
wonderful examples, both in technique and con- 
ception, of the early vSienese school. The strik- 
ing fresco of the Sybil appearing to the Em- 
peror Octavius is by a painter closely resembling 
the dramatic Barna in style. An almost effaced 
John the Baptist is by Giovanni di Paolo. 

Returning to the Piazza di Postierla we 
follow, straight ahead, the Via di S. Pietro. On 
the L are three interesting Gothic palaces in brick, 
of which the graceful and elegantly proportioned 
Palazzo Tegliacci or Buonsignorif)(well restored) 
ranks among the most pleasing of later Gothic 
buildings in Siena. At the turn of the street 
is S. Pietro alle Scale. The large canvas over 
;he high-altar, by Rutilio IManetti (162 1), is one 
of the more creditable works of the Sienese 
seicentisti. Above the 2nd altar to the R is the 
fragment of a picture by Sano di Pietro (covered). 
In the sacristy are two small tondi, also by Sano, 
St. Lucy and the Angel of the Annunciation — 
the latter a veritable gem in colour, line, and 
movement. Here are likewise three coarsely 

(') Possiblj' Paolo di Maestro Xeri. 
r^) See p. 160 supra. 

— 271 — 

repainted panels by some contemporary of Duc- 
cio, and a press with figures in medallions by 
a pupil of Benvenuto di Giovanni. In a room 
of the priest's house is a half-figure of Christ 
blessing by Giovanni di Paolo, and a Virgin 
and Child by a close follower of the Lorenzetti 
— both much damaged and repainted (^). 

Retracing- our steps to the Postierla, Ave 
follow the Via di Stalloreggi, the continuation of 
the Via di Citta. In this street are the remains 
of some of the oldest Gothic palaces in the city — 
Nos. 4, 12 and 1 1 (^). At the corner of the Via di 
Castelvecchio is a frescoed Pieta by Sodoma — 
one of that master's better works (^). To the L 
of the Arco delle due Porte stands the house in 
which Duccio painted his masterpiece, now bear- 
ing a tablet to that effect (^). From the Via Bal- 
dassarre Peruzzi the quiet Via del Nuovo Asilo 
leads down to the Porta Laterina, and to the new 
Via delle Scuole, which commands a charming* 
view. In the Via Baldassarre Peruzzi (No. 24) 

(') It is perhaps needless to say that for the unveiling of pictures, 
the unlocking of sacristy doors, and similar services, a small fee is invariably 
expected. Churches are usually open until noon, and from three or four 
o' clock until sundown, but are always opened at other times by the cus- 
todian upon request. 

(2) See p. 160 supra. 

The last-named possibly occupies the site of a once celebrated palace 
of the Longobard counts. 

(■') This fresco has perhaps been saved from the fate of other equally 
important works, in similarly exposed positions, by the timely initiative of an 
English admirer of Sodoma, Mr. R. H. Hobart Cust. 

I*) On the R, in a covered shrine, is a fresco by Peruzzi. 

— 272 — 

is an unfinished facade which has close affinities 
with Peruzzi's style. The present church of the 
Carmine, with its well proportioned campanile(^), 
dates from the early i6th century. The convent 
(now used as barracks) is said to have been 
founded as early as the 8th century. It contains, 
in the further cloister, the famous Pozzo della 
Diana (^). AVithin the church itself, over the 2nd 
altar R, is an early and crudely executed Ma- 
donna, let into the centre of an uninteresting 
canvas by Francesco Vanni. Over the 4th 
altar is an Ascension of Christ, a well-com- 
posed work by Girolamo Pacchiarotto, showing 
the influence both of Perugino and Pintoricchio, 
although the master's own marked individuality 
is recognizable in many of the heads. Above 
the entrance to the adjacent chapel is a pleas- 
ing Madonna, in fresco, of the 14th century. 
Over the altar within hangs a Nativity of the 
Virgin, by Sodoma, particularly poor in com- 
position and disagreeable in colour. The head 
of the woman in the foreground is, however, one 
of Sodoma's most pleasing types. A small Italo- 
Byzantine Madonna (covered) stands upon the 
high-altar. To the L is Beccafumi's celebrated 
St. Michael. Despite all that has been brought 
against it by the modern and fashionable de- 

(1) Certainly not by Peruzzi. 

(2) The Diana was a river supposed to have existed beneath the city, 
and for which the Sienese often searched in their need of water. Purga- 
torio XIII. 153. 

tractors of Beccafumi, this work is certainly 
possessed of true dramatic feeling, and in its 
composition, its masterly handling of light and 
shade, its treatment of form, and even its pe- 
culiar colour, is not unworthy of much of the 
lavish praise bestowed upon it by Vasari and 
Peruzzi. The strangely beautiful angels are 
particularly characteristic of this master. In the 
finely proportioned sacristy is a statue of St. Si- 
gismund — a poor work by Cozzarelli. 

Opposite the church stands the Palazzo Celsi 
(PoUini), one of the most perfect buildings of 
its time, an authentic and highly interesting 
work of Peruzzi, especially noticeable for its 
refined proportions and its handsome cornice. 
It contains three much restored ceiling paint- 
ings, also by Peruzzi. Beyond the palace, the 
Via della Diana and the Via di S. Marco lead 
to the Porta S. Marco, where there is a shady 
little park with splendid views. On the way, 
at Via di S. Marco Nos. 46, 48, is the convent 
of Sta. Marta (now an orphan asylum), whose 
simple facade is due to II Tozzo (1535). The 
cloister contains remains of monochrome frescoes 
by a pupil of the Lorenzetti, and the church 
a fine though damaged fresco of the Funeral 
of the Virgin, by a near pupil of Simone 
Martini (^). We may return from the Porta 

(1) The lace-work made by the orphans of this institution may be of 
interest to lady visitors. 

— 274 — 

wS. ]\Iarco by the quiet and pleasant Via delle 
vSperandie ('). At the end of that street is the 
church of Sta. Lucia, which claims to contain 
the original of Simone Alartini's fresco over the 
outer gate of Camollia — the fresco of the Virgin 
before which S. Bernardino paid daily homage. 
The work here shown (over altar to R) appears 
to be executed on paper or parchment, and to 
have been originally b}', or an old copy of, Lippo 
Memmi. In its present condition, rendered the 
more questionable by retouching, it defies con- 
clusive criticism. Looked at from a distance, it 
is, however, wonderfully effective and expres- 
sive. Above the high-altar stands a fine statue of 
vSt. Lucy, ruined by the restorations of recent 
years, and in the sacristy a companion piece, a 
Bishop, which is far more pleasing in its origi- 
nal colour — both by Giacomo Cozzarelli. 

Returning to the Palazzo Celsi, we ascend 
the Via S. Quirico, which, together with the Via 
di Castelveccliio, leads over the highest and 
most ancient part of Siena ('). The tower next the 
ancient and picturesque church of Sant' Ansano 
in Castel Veccliio served, according to tradition, 
as the prison of St. Ansanus before his execution. 
To enter the church, one must pass through the 

(') The road passes beneath the entrance to the Renaissance church 
of S. Paolo. 

("-) This district contains many old and picturesque buildings. 

— 275 — 

neighbouring convent — a school for girls. On 
the L wall is a fresco of the Qicattrocejito, rep- 
resenting the Epiphany, and a charming figure 
of St. Ansanus with a kneeling donor — an earlier 
work. Above the door is an interesting old 
glass window. In a chapel to the R is a Sei- 
cento copy of Sodoma's vSt. Sebastian, possibly 
by a Bolognese master. Further on in the Via 
S. Quirico stands the church of that saint, with 
the remains of a Romanesque portal (^). There 
is a fine view from the priest's garden. On 
the R of the Via delle Murella (Tommaso Pen- 
dola) is the former Convent of Sta. Margherita, 
now occupied by an Institute for Deaf-AIutes. 
The old refectory contains interesting frescoes 
by Fungai — the Last Supper, Gethsemane, the 
Betrayal, the Crucifixion — all of which shoAv 
decided Umbrian influences. In the church of 
Sta. Margherita is a modernized, but still beau- 
tiful, statue of the Virgin and Child, by a fol- 
lower of Quercia. At the end of the street, on 
the L, remain vestiges of Roman brick con- 
struction. Turning into the Via di S. Pietro, we 
pass, on the R, the Via de' Maestri (Tito Sar- 
rocchi), in which (No. 13) is a house once occupied 

(') It maj- be of interest to note that the name of S. Quirico (al- 
though perhaps referring rather to a castello which included the church of 
that name than to the church itself) occurs in a deed of gift of 1079, when 
Count Raineri and his spouse Berta gave to the Sienese church, for the 
good of their souls, half of the curtis (corte) of S. Quirico. 

- 276 - 

by Beccafumi. In the Palazzo Bargagli, to the 
L of the arch, is a passage-way with remarkable 
arabesque decorations, possibly by Giovanni da 
Udine — attributed to Peruzzi. Beyond the arch, 
in the Via delle Cerchia, Xo. 3, is the Renais- 
sance Palazzo Finetti. 

In the square (^) stands the church of S. Ago- 
stino, entirely rebuilt in the i8th century, al- 
though the apse still bears traces of earlier 15th 
century reconstruction. Over the 2nd altar R 
is a large Crucifixion (covered), a late work of 
Perugino. Despite heavy restorations the paint- 
ing preserves much of its original beauty ; the 
quiet airy landscape, with a view of Lake Tra- 
simene, is particularly lovely. The Chapel of the 
Sacrament contains a Massacre of the Innocents 
by Matteo di Giovanni, on the w^hole the most 
successful of his representations of this subject. 
One can forget the realistic horror of the picture 
in the enjoyment of the beautiful colour, the fine 
flow of line, and the decorative effect of the 
whole. To turn from such a tonic work of art 
to Sodoma's ambitious altar-piece of the Adora- 
tion of the Magi (*) (covered) requires a sensible 
effort. How^ever, the picture is not altogether 

(') Not content with changing the name of the Piazza, the municipal 
authorities have lately taken to " improving " it as the\- have other parts 
of the city, and with similar results. 

(*) Originally painted for the Arduini family, it later became the 
property of the Piccolomini, to whom the chapel belongs. 

— 277 — 
unpleasing, although the inharmonious colour of 
the foreground, the visible defects in draughts- 
manship, the coarse figure of St. Joseph, and the 
sentimental young king, detract from the pleas- 
ure we might otherwise receive from the fan- 
tastic and carefully painted landscape. In the 
choir hangs a fine picture representing the Bless- 
ed Agostino Novello, by Simone Martini, gen- 
erally attributed to Lippo Memmi. The ac- 
companying scenes of his miracles are full of 
movement and vivacity. The coloured statue of 
the Virgin and Child, in the apse, belongs to the 
early years of the Quattrocento. In the L tran- 
sept is a statue of St. Nicholas of Tolentino by 
Cozzarelli. The picture of the Temptation of 
St. Anthony, in the adjoining chapel, shown as 
a vSpagnoletto, is probably by the Sienese Ru- 
tilio Manetti (^). Outside the church, within the 
door to the R of the main entrance of the present 
Collegio Tolomei, are fragments of ceiling fres- 
coes by Pietro Lorenzetti, among which is a 
noble half-figure of St. Catherine. 

Opposite S. Agostino stands the small church 
of S. Mustiola, with a picturesque belfry, and 
containing a quaint picture by Andrea di Nic- 
colo (1510) of the Madonna between the saints 
of the Shoemakers' Guild — Crispin and Crispin- 

(1) The last chapel of the R transept contains some beautiful tiles 
of the i6th century. See p. 195 supra. 

ian. The Via dei Tufi leads to the gate of that 
name, designed by Angelo di Ventura in 1325. 
Descending the Via S. Agata from S. Agostino, 
we obtain a fine view of the Torre del Alangia 
through the arch. The Via Giovanni Dupre leads 
down to the Piazza del Mercato. The church 
of S. Giuseppe offers nothing beyond its archi- 
tecture, and an interesting arched ceiling in the 
basement. The Via di Fontanella is a pleasant 
road leading to the Porta Tufi. In the suppress- 
ed chapel of Sta. Croce, beneath S. Agostino 
(now used as a gymnasium), are remains of fres- 
coes by Sodoma. 

Retracing our steps through the Arco di 
S. Agostino, we may reach the Piazza del Campo 
bv the narrow and quiet, but once fashionable (^), 
Via del Casato, with its steep and picturesque 
side-streets. It still contains several buildings 
of interest, such as: 51, a small Gothic palace; 
34, atypical private dwelling (restored); on the 
corner of the Costa Larga, a Renaissance palace 
with graffito decorations of the Labours of Her- 
cules ; 19, the Renaissance Palazzo Ugurgieri. 
In the courtyard of Xo. 9 is a fine hidden stair- 
case of the Diigento, and, at the back of the 
palace, a loggia by some provincial imitator of 

') See Bargagli, Xovella V. 


AT the eastern corner of the Piazza del Campo 
commences the Via S. Martino, which opens 
almost immediately before the church of the 
same name, rebuilt over an older edifice, in the 
middle of the Cinqiiecento, from the designs of 
Peruzzi's pupil, G. B. Pelori. The fagade dates 
from the beginning* of the century following, 
and, for the period, is exceptionally dignified 
and sober. Within the entrance, to the R, is a 
picture by Lorenzo Cini, painted in commemora- 
tion of the victory of Camollia (^). Over the ist 
altar is a tabernacle containing a small T?'ece7ifo 
Madonna (covered), probably by Bartolommeo 
di Nutino (?). Above the next altar is a large 
picture of the Circumcision, by Guido Reni. The 
3rd altar supports a ruined picture by Guercino, 
in a marble frame of the Seicento erroneously 
attributed to Marrina. By that master himself, 
however, is the handsome marble frame opposite, 
enclosing one of Beccafumi's best pictures — the 
Nativity of Christ — highly imaginative in con- 
ception but unfortunately much darkened. The 

(') For some account of this battle see Lan-gtox Dol'GLAS, History 
of Siena, p. 217 ; E. G. Gardner, The Story of Siena etc., pp. 213-215 ; 
W. Heywood, a Pictorial chronicle of Siena, pp. 82-86. 

— 28o — 

composition of this work, apart from the weird, 
ring of circling angels, seems a free transcription 
of Francesco di Giorgio's painting of the same 
subject in S. Domenico. Above the choir is a 
fine glass window of the 1 5th century — St. Martin 
dividing his cloak with the beggar. The wooden 
statues of the Madonna, the Baptist, and three 
Apostles, are remarkable works by a close but 
unknown follower of Querela. The beautiful 
statue of the Virgin, more especially, comes par- 
ticularly near to Jacopo in style. In the old 
campanile are remnants of Trecento frescoes, re- 
cently uncovered. 

The adjoining church of the Misericordia, 
Xo. 2^ formerly part of a hospital for pilgrims, 
contains : a restored statue of its patron, S. An- 
tonio Abate, possibly by Cozzarelli ; two Quat- 
trocento statues of the Virgin and the Angel 
Gabriel ; and a pleasing picture of the Virgin 
and Child (covered ; by Pacchia. In the meet- 
ing-room of the society are two panels by Pac- 
chiarotto — St. Anthony Abbot and St. Paul; four 
bier-heads by Beccafumi, interesting work show- 
ing the influence of Sodoma; and two other dam- 
aged bier-heads by Cozzarelli. At the bottom 
of the stairs is a view of the adjoining cloisters 
and the brick campanile of S. ^lartino. 

Nearly opposite the ]\Iisericordia, under the 
entrance arch to the former quarter of the Jews 
(the Via del Rialto), hangs a fine old iron lamp. 

— 2bl — 

We follow the Via S. Martino. Over No. 7 are 
the arms of the Piccolomini ; No. 9 is another 
of Siena's most ancient palaces, still adorned 
with lions' heads ; within No. 1 1 is a typical 
Trecento staircase, and next to the well still 
remains the stone on which the waterpot was 
placed ; No. 33, once a Gothic palace, has later 
Renaissance additions; No. 42 is a well restored 
Gothic palace. On the way we pass the Piazza 
S. Giusto, with a column (1428) bearing an iron 
cage which was used to hold torches or fuel for 
illumination (^). The church of 5. Giusto contains 
a repainted picture by Sano di Pietro. In the 
picturesque Via di Salicotto, now one of the 
poorer parts of wSiena, is S. Ciacomo, the contrada- 
church of the Torre, built in 1531 and contain- 
ing, in the sacrist3^ a picture of Christ bearing 
the Cross, wrongly attributed to Sodoma. In the 
end of the street, facing the Palazzo Pubblico, 
are remains of fine early Gothic palaces. 

The Via S. Martino leads to the church and 
convent of S. Girolamo (ring at door to L; fee). 
Within a niche in the cloister is Fungai's master- 
piece — a panel of the Assumption of the Virgin, 
damaged, but particularly pleasing in colour. The 

(') There exists a tradition that the lantern served to hold exposed 
the heads of those decapitated. Another belief of the people is that the 
column was the pedestal for an image venerated by the Romans, and that 
the Sienese when converted turned the column up side down and buried 
the idol beneath it. Misc. Stor. Sen. vol. I, p. 219. 


lateral frescoes are by a follower of Ghirlandaio. 
In the church, to the L, 2nd altar, is an interest- 
ing St. Jerome in his Study, by Pacchia, the 
side saints being also by that master. The next 
altar supports a fresco by the same artist who 
painted the sides of the niche in the cloister (^), 
enclosed in a marble frame by Marrina. In the 
aisle is the marble tomb of a bishop. The 
sacristy contains a Coronation of the Virgin 
by Sano (1465). The Via del Sole is another 
picturesque street, leading down to the Piazza 
del Mercato (^). 

The Via dei Servi leads to the splendidly 
situated church of the Servi di Maria (SS. Con- 
cezione) rebuilt, in part, from 147 1 to 1528. The 
pierced campanile is very effective, as is also 
the spacious Gothic-Renaissance interior. At 
the base of the tower is a quaint fresco of the 
Virgin rescuing souls from the flames of Pur- 
gatory. Over the ist altar R is the majestic 
" Madonna del Bordone ", by the little-known 
Coppo di Marcovaldo (1261) — a work which, 
despite later changes f), certainly entitles its 

(') This charming fresco, now shown as a ^Matteo, is attributed bj' 
the Giiida Artistica — upon uncertain grounds — to a Fra Giuliano da Firenze. 

{'^) It was here, back of the Palazzo Pubblico, that state executions 
took place until the end of the 14th centurj-. The governors of the Republic 
then finding the cries of the tortured too insistent fer their happiness, ordered 
that from henceforth the condemned should suffer death elsewhere. 

(■•) The heads and flesh parts of both figures were renewed by a 
painter of the school of Duccio. 

- 283 - 

author to a place beside " Cimabue " and Guido 
da Siena. Above the last altar is a late version 
by Matteo di Giovanni of his favoured subject 
of the Massacre of the Innocents, painted, ac- 
cording to the inscription, in 1491. Although 
containing details of great beauty, this work is 
less satisfactory as a composition, and less suc- 
cessful in its presentation of movement, than is 
the picture in S. Agostino. The Madonna with 
donors, in the lunette, is also by Matteo. High 
up above is a small Nativity by Taddeo Bartoli. 
Over the entrance to the sacristy, R transept, 
is the " Madonna del Popolo ", by Lippo Memmi 
— a work exquisite alike in sentiment and ex- 
ecution. The beautiful old frame, with its reliefs 
of singing and playing angels, is worthy of the 
picture it encloses. Still another much vener- 
ated picture is within the sacristy — the " Ma- 
donna del Manto ", by Giovanni di Paolo, with 
a repainted signature changed to Giovanni di 
Pietro. Here is also a Virgin and Child of the 
school of Duccio. In a chapel to the R of the 
choir, Pietro Lorenzetti painted a large fresco 
(under whitewash until recent years) of the Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents — a magnificent composi- 
tion, showing to the fullest extent the master's 
power over movement and modelling. The cor- 
responding chapel to the L contains two frescoes 
of the school of Pietro (possibly by the master 
himself), representing Salome before Herod and 

— 2b4 — 

the Assumption of St. John — free copies of Giot- 
to's frescoes in Sta. Croce at Florence — both 
utterly ruined by time and restoration. Opposite 
this chapel hangs a large and carefully mod- 
elled Ducciesque Crucifix, wrongly attributed to 
Sassetta. On the high-altar stands a Coronation 
of the Virgin by Fungai, which, although well 
composed, is hard in colour, and has suffered 
by regilding and restoration. Above the 2nd 
altar in the L aisle is the lovely " ^ladonna del 
Belvedere ", by ^lino del Pellicciaio, and, on 
either side of it, figures of the IMagdalen and 
St. Joseph by Fungai (^). 

Behind the wServi is the small church of the 
Confraternity of the SS. Trinita (^), whose walls 
are entirely covered with paintings by late Sien- 
ese artists. The building contains, however, two 
pictures of artistic interest — a ^ladonna with 
Saints, by Sano (in the side chapel, covered), 
and a Madonna with St. Michael and the Bap- 
tist, by Xeroccio (in the sacristy above). The 
latter, althoug-h hardly one of the best of Xe- 
roccio's works, is a picture of great charm, and 
its effect is enhanced by the fine old frame, with 
its predella of delightful pidti. Descending the 
steps and turning to the R, we follow the Via 
Romana which leads to the gate, past the former 

(*) The handsome holy-water basin is worth}- of notice. 
\^) Custodian at Via delle Can tine 5. 

— 2b5 — 

monastery of S. Niccold, now rebuilt as an In- 
sane Asylum. The church contains four medal- 
lions of the della Robbia school, a very fine 
Italo-Byzantine Crucifix of the 13th century, and 
one of the loveliest of vSano's early Madonnas. 
Above the Porta Romana (^) — a splendid example 
of a double fortified gate — is the wreck of a 
large fresco which has been the work of several 
hands. Commenced by Taddeo Bartoli, continu- 
ed by Sassetta (who is said to have caught his 
death by cold while working here), it was fin- 
ished by Sano — and modern restorers have done 
the rest. A short distance beyond the gate is 
the former convent and church of Sta. Maria 
degli Angeli f), rebuilt in the 15th century. The 
interesting portal shows a combination of Gothic 
and Renaissance motifs. Inside is a signed and 
dated picture (1502) of the Virgin and Child with 
Saints, by the Florentine Raffaello di Carlo, en- 
closed in a frame carved by Antonio Barili. 
The Chiesa di Valle contains a picture by Sano 
(in the priest's house). Some distance further, 
on the Roman road, is the Lombard church of 
Sta. Maria di Betlem ("'), containing an impressive 
Italo-Byzantine Madonna. 

(') As to its construction, see p. 162 supra. A description of the 
Roman tablet on the wall is given at p. 150. 

(■-) Sacristan at blacksmith's shop at bend of road, a quarter of a 
mile further on. 

(3) See pp. 156-157 supra. 

2bD — 

We return by the Via Romana to the church 
of S. Galgano (^), attached to the brick convent 
of the Santuccio, still occupied by Augustinian 
nuns. The church contains an interesting Na- 
tivity by a Flemish painter under the influence 
of Piero di Cosimo, two beautiful statues— the 
Angel Gabriel and the Virgin Annunciate — by a 
follower of Jacopo della Querela, and a superb 
Gothic reliquary containing the head of S. Gal- 
gano — one of the most splendid works of its kind. 
Continuing up the Via Romana, we pass the 
garden of the Bianchi palace, on the wall of 
which is a fine marble tabernacle (1477), possibly 
by Giovanni di Stefano. The street opposite 
leads to the Ritiro del Refugio (") (Via di Fiera 
Vecchia 11). The church contains one of the 
loveliest pictures in Siena— the half figure of a 
life-size Madonna praying. This mysterious and 
deeply impressive work is ascribed by Mr. Ber- 
enson, and with good reason, to Pier Fran- 
cesco Fiorentino. In the rooms of the school 
are a Virgin and Child by Fungai and a 
Madonna and a repainted Crucifixion by Sano ; 
and in the director's room, in the Palazzo di 

(' ) Custodian at Via Romana 20, fee. In order to see the reliquary 
— shown through a grating — permission must be asked, by the custodian, of 
the Mother Superior. The most convenient hours are 8-10, 12-2, 3-5. The 
sisters expect a franc or more as a donation to charity. 

(2) Permission to visit the church is sometimes courteously granted 
on the presentation of a visiting card ; fee to serv'ant. 

- 287 - 

S. Galgano, another and delightful Sano, in its 
original frame. This Palazzo di S. Calgano, 

which faces on the main street, if not by Giu- 
liano di Maiano, the architect of the Palazzo 
Spannocchi, certainly shows the influence of that 
master. At the end of the Via Romana, which 
leads into the Via Ricasoli, stands another of 
the columns bearing a wolf, placed there in 1470. 
To the L are portions of the older wall of the 
city with picturesque hanging gardens. The Via 
deir Oliviera, on the R, leads past the Lombard 
church of Sta. Chiara (') to the Porta Pispini — 
a gate rivalling the Porta Romana, and above 
which are the remains of a fresco by Sodoma, 
in great part recently repainted. At an angle 
of the city wall, to the L, stands the only re- 
maining bastion of the seven designed by Pe- 
ruzzi f ). A quarter of a mile beyond the gate, 
on the upper road, is the church of S. Eugenia, 
containing a charming picture by Matteo di 
Giovanni (covered). 

Passing beneath the ancient Porta S. Mauri- 
zio, we notice, in an opening to the R of the Via 
Ricasoli, a fine coat-of-arms of the Piccolomini, 
still retaining its original colour. No. 47 was 
once a Gothic palace with an ornate brick fa9ade. 

(1) See p. 157 supra. 

(■^) Permission to view the interior of this much restored work may 
sometimes be obtained of the chief of the Military Magazines of Sta. Chiara, 
who courteously allows visitors to enter. 


The Via dei Pispini leads to the church of S. Spi- 
rito, whose cupola was probably designed by 
Cozzarelli. The main portal may possibly have 
been erected from a design of Peruzzi. Within 
the I St chapel L is the masterpiece of Matteo 
Balducci — the Virgin in glory worshipped by 
Saints — clearly showing his derivation from Pac- 
chiarotto, despite its general outward Umbrian 
feeling. The 2nd chapel and that opposite con- 
tain statues by Cozzarelli, of St. Vincenzo Fer- 
reri and St. Catherine of vSiena. Over the 3rd 
altar is an early work of Pacchia, the Coronation 
of the Virgin, far more interesting than many 
of his later efforts. On the side wall of the last 
chapel hangs a damaged but pleasing Virgin 
and Child with kneeling donor, by an artist of 
the Trecento. The sacristy contains a frescoed 
Crucifixion with a view of Pistoia in the back- 
ground, by Fra Paolino, the somewhat heavy 
follower of Fra Bartolommeo, and a Coronation 
of the Virgin by Beccafumi. In the Cappella 
degli Spagnuoli, to the R of the entrance, are 
frescoes by Sodoma (1530): SS. Anthony and 
Sebastian — careless in execution ; and St. James 
of Campostello riding down the Saracens— coarse 
in conception. The poor figures of St. Nicholas 
of Tolentino and St. ]\Iichael may possibly be 
by vSodoma himself. The figure of St. Lucy 
redeems the lunette of the Virgin investing 
St. Alphonso. The Nativity in terra-cotta is 

— 289 — 

attributed to Ambrogio della Robbia (1504^ 
Above the door is a large Crucifix by Sano di 

We return to the Via Ricasoli. On the 
corner of the Via di Follonica is a cleverly re- 
stored stone tower. The road itself leads down 
through the fields to the poetic Fonte di Follonica. 
The not entirely successful facade of the church 
of S. Giovanni della Staffa (in Pantaneto) (^) was 
designed (1563) by Pelori. In the atrium is a 
good terra-cotta statue of the Precursor, by Fe- 
derighi. The walls of the church are covered 
with pictures by late Sienese artists. Over the 
hig-h-altar (covered) is a small and repainted 
Madonna of the 14th century. On the ceiling 
of the sacristy is an interesting* little fresco by 
Beccafumi. In the Via Ricasoli are several 
coats-of-arms on different palaces, including one 
of Julius II (Rovere) and one of Paul II (Barbo). 
The Loggia del Papa, designed by Federighi for 
Pius II, in 1462, is a veritable summing* up of 
Sienese grace and refinement. Delicacy and 
lightness, however, have been purchased at a sac- 

(1) The name " Pantaueto — the slough ", may perhaps help us to an 
idea of the normal condition of even the principal Sienese thoroughfares 
before the citizens resolved to fare mattonare le strade, that is to say, to 
cause them to be " paued with bricks set vp edgeway ", as our old friend 
Richard Lessels describes the operation. In the 13th century there were 
plenty of other streets besides the Pantaneto with equally ill-boding titles ; 
for example : Malfango, Malborghetio, MalCucinato — Compare Zdekauer, 
La vita pubblica &c., op. cit. pp. 33-37. 

— ■ 290 — 

rifice of the appearance of solidity and strength. 
The carved stone work and the elegant capitals, 
very worthy of attention, are by Federighi and 
his pupils. Beyond the Loggia, on the R, is 
the Palazzo Piccolomini-Clementini, with a row 
of monochrome heads of the 15th century be- 
tween the corbels of the parapet. Obliquely 
across the way stands the imposing Palazzo Pic- 
colomini (del Governo) with its grandly simple 
facade and massive cornice. Commenced in 1469 
by Porrina and others, from the designs of Ber- 
nardo Rossellino, it is not only the most magnif- 
icent Renaissance building of Siena, but one of 
the most important in all Tuscany — a worthy 
rival of its sisters in Florence and Pienza. The 
beautiful capitals of the columns within the 
courtyard, and other parts of the stone work, 
were carved by Alarrina. The interior of the 
palace is now used, in part, as the repository 
of the R. Archivio di Stato — -one of the best kept 
collections of Archives in existence. To visit 
them we ascend by the further stairs on the L. 
The custodian (fee) conducts the visitor through 
many rooms, containing shelves on shelves of 
volumes, commencing with the simple roll of 
parchment (the earliest document is of 736) which 
later gave place to the bound leaves of the same 
material, for which paper was in part substitut- 
ed as early as 1248. Many curious and rare 
bindings are here to be seen, from those of 

— 291 — 

simple wooden boards to those of. richly tooled 
leather, among them being the unique book- 
covers known as the Tavolette dipmte della Bic- 
cherna e della Gabella — that is, the painted covers 
of the books of the Biccherna (in which office 
were received and disbursed the revenues of the 
Republic), and those of the Gabella (the oflfi.ce 
charged with the collection of taxes). The books 
of these important magistracies were at first 
bound in boards, fastened with leather thongs, 
whose plain surfaces soon gave place to a series 
of painted decorations, the earliest of which 
consisted merely of the coats-of-arms of the mem- 
bers of Biccherna or of Gabella (^), or a portrait 
of either chief officer. Succeeding centuries 
added scenes of allegorical significance or those 
connected with the history of the the city. It 
Avill thus be seen that the Tavolette possess 
not only an artistic interest but one of great 
historical importance as well. Space forbids 
more than a mention of those of particular 
artistic value, and I recommend the visitor to 
Mr. Heywood's Pictoi'ial Chro7iicle of Siena for 
a highly interesting account of their historical 
and political significance and of the oflfices for 
which these books were adorned. The Tavo- 

(M The officers of Biccherna consisted of a Camarlingo and four 
Provveditori, while those of Gabella were a Camarlingo and three, later 
four, Esecutori. 

letta of 1258, painted by Gilio di Pietro (?), is 
earliest in date, and represents Frate Ugo seated 
at his desk as Camarlingo. This and others 
that follow, by predecessors and contemporaries 
of Duccio, rank among the earliest attempts at 
individual portraiture in the history of Italian 
art, properly so called. A Tavoletta of 1320, 
S. Galgano plunging his sword into the rock, 
shows the influence of the real Sienese school 
— of Simone. Another of 1334, the Nativity, 
goes back to earlier models. The panel of the 
seated figure of Good Government, 1344, is by 
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, and that of the Circumsion, 
1357, of his school. Pope Eugenius IV crown- 
ing Sigismond as emperor, 1433, and the St. 
Jerome in the Desert, 1436, are by Giovanni 
di Paolo^the latter a realistically delightful 
composition, evidently influenced by vSassetta. 
A Tavoletta of 1440, S. Pietro Alessandrino 
between two Angels, is by another follower of 
Sassetta, as is also the decorative St. ]\Iichael 
fighting the Dragon, 1444. The portrait of 
Ghino di Pietro Bellanti, Camarlingo in 1451, is 
by Sano, the two Beati following being likewise 
from his hand, 1457. Pope Pius II being crown- 
ed, with the Virgin above, is an interesting work 
of Vecchietta, 1460, and is probably an authentic 
portrait. Francesco di Giorgio, in the same year, 
painted the Pope as bestowing the Cardinal's 
hat upon his nephew, Francesco Todeschini ; and 

by the same master is the panel representing" 
Siena as under the protection of the Madonna 
during an earthquake, 1467. A characteristic 
Tavoletta by Benvenuto di Giovanni, 1468, re- 
presents Peace and War — on one side a group 
of citizens receive money and Peace hovers over- 
head, on the other, soldiers of fortune receive 
their pay from the Camarlingo, while above them 
hovers War. An allegorical panel, 147 1, the 
"Wisdom which emanates from God", is by Sano, 
as is also the charming picture, of 1473, portray- 
ing the Marriage of Lucrezia d' Agnolo Mala- 
volti and Robert of Sanseverino, the famous 
condottiere. Another allegory of the Govern- 
ment of Siena, 1474, is by Benvenuto. A Ta- 
voletta of 1479 records the entrance into CoUe 
di Val d' Elsa of the allied vSienese, Papal and 
Neapolitan troops.(^) — an interesting composition, 
delicate in colour. The quaint and beautiful 
picture of the Virgin recommending to God her 
favoured Siena, is by Neroccio di Landi, 1480^). 
On the opposite wall is a panel showing the 
interior of the Cathedral, with statues against 
the columns of the nave and Duccio's "Majestas" 
still above the high-altar — the scene represents 
a dedication of the city to the Virgin in 1483. 
A Tavoletta of the following year, by Cozza- 

(^) See p. 104 sKpra. 

('■) See p. 210, note, supra. 


— 294 — 

relli, depicts the Presentation of the A'irgin. The 
panel of the Madonna guiding into port the ship 
of the Sienese Commune, 1487, is by Fungai. 
One of 1489, the Esecutori, garbed as penitents, 
entreating the Aladonna to enter Siena, is by 
Cozzarelli. In the following room are a few 
covers of books of various offices. A Biccherna 
of 1 42 1, the figure of a Avoman in blue, is a de- 
licate work of the school of Taddeo. ^The cover 
of a book which contained notices of Sienese 
ambassadors from 1429 to 1439 bears a represen- 
tation of two ambassadors on horseback, by 
Sano di Pietro. On the cover of an inventory 
of 1458,. of the Opera di Sta. Maria (the Duo- 
mo), are the arms of that body, supported by 
two angels — a work of Vecchietta. The further 
rooms contain books of the Hospital with painted 
covers (one of them showing the Duomo as it 
was before the lengthening of the nave), and 
books with miniatures : by Xiccolo di ser vSozzo 
Tegliacci (1334); by another follower of Simone 
and the Lorenzetti (1361); by Sano di Pietro 
(1472); and, in another room, an outline portrait 
of Gregory XII, of the school of Taddeo, and a 
parchment with a miniature by Cozzarelli (^). In 

(') Among these miniatures, the most beautiful of all is that of the 
Assumption of the Virgin, in the celebrated Caleflfo dell' Assunta (See page 
181, note, stipta). This Caleffo, the second of the five Instrtimentarii of 
the Republic (See pages lo and 136 supia), is a magnificent parchment 
codex, written throughout bj- one hand, in very beautiful characters, and was 
compiled between 1334 and 1336. 

the Sala della Mostra are exposed all manner of 
interesting- documents, each bearing an explana- 
tory label. They include Diplomas of many of 
the Holy Roman Emperors, Papal Bulls, docu- 
ments — often bearing an autograph signature — 
connected with reigning princes, illustrious men 
and women (including saints, artists, famous 
condottieri) ; and others bearing on the Divina 
Coinniedia. In this room is also preserved the 
Testamento of Giovanni Boccaccio. 

Opposite the Palazzo Piccolomini is the 
University, in the courtyard of which is an in- 
teresting tomb of the 14th century — of the cel- 
ebrated professor Niccolo Arringhieri ('). We 
return to the Croce del Travaglio by the Via 
Ricasoli, noticing on the way the splendid stone 
tower on the corner of the Via delle Donzelle, 
and, again, that on the L, at the end of the street. 

(') See p. 168 supra. This bas-relief forms a remarkable illustration 
to the method pursued bj- the humanists in the instruction of their classes, as 
described by J. A. Symonds, Renaissance in Italy. The Revival of Learn- 
iyig (London, 1877), pp. 124-126. 

— 296 — 

FROM the Croce del Travaglio the Via Cavour 
soon leads to the Piazza Tolomei (^). The 
severely splendid Palazzo Tolomei, with its lion- 
guarded doors, is all that stands intact of the 
great houses of that ancient family, which for- 
merly surrounded the entire square, including 
the church of S. Cristoforo. It once constituted 
what Avas known as the Rocchetta, or that por- 
tion of the Casa Tolomei which served as the 
principal point of defence. In the Via del Re 
and the Via Calzoleria are yet standing, however, 
remains of massive Gothic structures which pos- 
sibly formed a part of the family dwellings of 
the Tolomei. The column and wolf in the 
Piazza are modern reproductions, still bearing 
the arms of the family to whom they formerly 
belonged. The church of S. Cristoforo (entirely 
rebuilt) contains a large altar-piece — the Virgin 
and Child enthroned, with St. Luke and the Bless- 

(1) The Piazza Tolomei is full of memories. In the old days, before 
the building of the Palazzo Pubblico, the Magistrates of the Republic 
were wont to hold their sessions in S. Cristoforo ; while the parliament as- 
sembled in the square without. It was in S. Cristoforo that the Tiuenly- 
four were sitting when they received the Florentine ambassadors before the 
Battle of Montaperto, and it was thither that Salimbene de' Salimbeni 
brought from his palace the hundred and eighteen thousand florins of gold 
which he lent to the Commune to pay the German mercenaries. In this 
piazza, too, at a later date, Charles IV made his last stand (See p. 81 supra). 

— 297 — 

ed Raimondo — by Girolamo Pacchia (altar to 
L, covered), which narrowly escapes being' that 
painter's masterpiece. It shows the direct influ- 
ence of Fra Bartolommeo and is remarkable for 
its warm colouring. A small St. Christopher in 
the R transept, is by an artist of the early 15th 
century. Above the sacristy door stands a terra- 
cotta figure of S. Galgano, by a follower of 
Federighi. Within hangs a dimmed but finely 
decorative panel of St. George and the Dragon, 
belonging to the early Quattrocento. 

In the Via del Re, opposite the Albergo To- 
scana, stands a tower which formerly belonged 
to the Angiolieri, bearing an inscription to that 
effect (^). An alley further on to the L, the 
Vicolo del Castellare, admits us to a group of 
buildings w^hich once formed the stronghold of 
the powerful Ugurgieri family— the only remain- 
ing castellare in Siena i^^). Straight ahead, on the 
Via Sallustio Bandini, stands the Casa Sallustio 
Bandini, a pleasing and refined example of a 
Renaissance dwelling house, very doubtfully at- 
tributed to Francesco di Giorgio. Near by, op- 

(*) Hanc donium cepit hedificare Angeleiius Solafiche quando erat 
campsor domini pp. Gregorii Vllllin a. d. MCCXXXIII. The inscription 
is extremely interesting as carrying us back to the period when the Sienese 
bankers had almost a complete monopoly of the papal business jSee pp. 40- 
41 supra). The Angiolieri of the inscription was either the father, or more 
probably the grandfather, of the poet. (See p. 130 supra). 

C^) For account of how the Potesta was here besieged for two days 
by the Salimbeni, see pp. 43-44. 

— 298 — 

posite the large Palazzo Bandini Piccolomini, 
is the remnant of an old wall Avith projecting" 
Romanesque lions' heads (^). Turning to the L, 
we notice the partly rebuilt exteriors of the 
Ugurgieri palaces (-). The Baroque church of 
Sta. Maria di Provenzano {"■), erected in 1594, by 
Flaminio del Turco, on the desig-ns of Dom. 
Schifardini, has a spacious and well proportion- 
ed interior. The street to the L of the church 
leads to the Via dei Rossi, which in turn leads 
through an arch to the Piazza di S.Francesco, with 
a fine view of the Chianti hills. Over the arch 
itself are three statuettes — the Madonna and the 
great Franciscan Saints, Francis and Clara— fine 
works of the school of the Pisani. 

The site of the church and convent of 
S. Francesco was occupied by the Franciscan 
friars as early as 1236, and the present church 
was erected early in the 14th century. The 
building has passed through many vicissitudes, 
the disastrous fire of 1655 having destroyed 
most of the famous monuments which once ren- 
dered it a second Sta. Croce, and the subsequent 

(1) To the L, over an entrance to the Casa degli Esercizi, is a fresco 
of the Madonna wiih Saints, of the late Trecento. The chapel of that in- 
stitution contains a St. Catherine, by Girolamo di Benvenuto, and a ^Ma- 
donna of the school of Francesco di Giorgio. 

(2) By climbing the staircase of No. 2 a good view of the castellare 
may be obtained. 

(^; For some account of the district of Provenzano, and of the ISIa- 
donna for whom the church was built, see Mr. Heywood's Our Lady of 
Aui^nst. chapter V. 

— 299 — 
Baroque reparations having completed the ruin. 
Some twenty years ago restorations were under- 
taken on the original lines, and, owing to the 
generosity of Siena's citizens, have been carried 
out, on the whole, not unsuccessfully. Although 
the bad modern glass does not add to the beauty 
of the interior, the visitor may form an excel- 
lent idea of the original appearance of the great 
churches of the preaching orders^ — with their 
grandly simple proportions and spacious in- 
teriors (^). The facade of the church was, as 
usual, left uncompleted. Over the Renaissance 
doorway is a statue of St. Francis, attributed 
to Ramo di Paganello, but certainly a work of 
much later date. On the entrance wall are frag- 
ments of Gothic sculptures. On the R wall is 
a repainted fresco of the Visitation, by a con- 
temporary of Taddeo Bartoli ; further on is an 
altar niche with frescoes by a late Trecento art- 
ist, entirely renewed. On the opposite wall are 
fragments of charming bas-reliefs of the 1 5th cen- 
tury — St. Francis preaching to the Birds ('), and 
the Vision of the Pope. The ist chapel to the 
R of the choir contains a mysterious and hierat- 
ic Virgin (unfortunately much darkened) of the 
school of the Lorenzetti, wrongly attributed to 

(1) The broad wall surface were, of course, originally covered with 

(•2) See / Fiorettl di San Francesco cap. XVI. 

— 300 — 

Pietro himself. In the adjoining chapel is Ur- 
bano da Cortona's masterpiece — the handsome 
tomb of Cristoforo Felici (i486) — clearly showing 
the influence of his master Donatello. On the 
L wall of the choir are marble busts of Silvio 
Piccolomini and Yittoria Forteguerri — all that 
remain of the monument erected to his parents 
by Pius 11. The ist chapel to the L contains 
a fine but damaged fresco of the Crucifixion, by 
Pietro Lorenzetti, showing markedly the influ- 
ence of Giotto ; and the 2nd chapel two frescoes 
by his brother — the Martyrdom of the Francis- 
cans sent to convert the Sultan, and St. Francis 
before Honorius III. The last-named splendid 
work shows remarkable powers of individualiza- 
tion which restorations have by no means des- 
troyed. In the last chapel is an entirely repaint- 
ed Virgin enthroned, of the latter half of the 
14th century. A chapel opposite contains a much 
restored graffito pavement, originally by Marrina. 
The handsome furniture of the sacristy (R tran- 
sept) is noteworthy. Here is also the fragment 
of a fresco by Sodoma. 

Above the altar of the adjoining oratory 
of the Seminario (opened by sacristan) is a very 
beautiful Aladonna nursing the Christ-Child, one 
of the loveliest panels of Ambrogio Lorenzetti. 
The heavily repainted fresco in the form of a 
polyptych was probably once a work of Pietro 
Lorenzetti. In the corridor beyond is a noble 

Alinari photo. 

Madonna and Child 


— 30I — 

relief of the Madonna, of the school of Federi- 
ghi, erroneouly attributed to Cozzarelli. The 
refectory (opened by doorkeeper) contains rem- 
nants of frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti — the 
Risen Christ being a work of singular impres- 
siveness. In the reception room is an interest- 
ing Virgin and Child by Segna di Bonaventura (^). 
We leave the church by the graceful cloister, 
rebuilt in 1518. On the R stands a Gothic portal 
of 1336, which once g'ave access to the tomb of 
the Petroni. Here are also, embedded in the 
walls, various fragments of sculptures and some 
very fine tiles, saved from the wreck of the 
former church. 

To the L of S. Francesco stands the chapel 
of the Confraternity of S. Cherardo (custodian, 
Via delle Vergini i). Within the cloister is a 
repainted frescoed Crucifixion of the end of the 
1 5th century, and in the meeting room an attrac- 
tive small half-figure of St. Louis, by Taddeo 
Bartoli — a fragment of an altar-piece— very pleas- 
ing in colour. On the landing of the stairs are 
some fine old tiles, bearing the crescents of 
the Piccolomini. The Oratorio di S. Bernardino 

(M The Rector's private room contains : a Madonna with St. Jerome 
and the Baptist, bj- a follower of Francesco di Giorgio ; an entirely repainted 
predella of Judith, Delilah, and Esther, of the school of Sassetta ; Christ 
bearing the Cross, by Beccafumi, enclosed in a handsome frame carved by 
the Barili (?), and small remnants of frescoes by Paolo di Neri (?) from the 
monaster)' of Lecceto. 


(custodian at Xo. 6) contains a number of works 
by Sodoma and by the Sienese eclectics. The 
panel of the Virgin and ^Saints, above the altar 
opposite the entrance, is a poor work of Bre- 
scianino. In a small room at the top of the stairs 
is a marble relief by Giovanni d' Agostino, and, 
on the altar, a Madonna by Sano. The over-rated 
paintings of the oratory itself are far from satis- 
factory as decorations, the compositions in many 
of them being too crowded and the scale of the 
figures too large. The scenes illustrate the life of 
the Virgin. They commence on the L wall with 
her Nativity, by Girolamo del Pacchia, a work 
clearly showing the influence of Andrea del Sar- 
to. Then follow the Presentation in the Temple, 
by Sodoma; the Marriag-e of the Virgin, by Bec- 
cafumi ; and a S. Bernardino, by Pacchia. On 
either side of the altar is the Annunciation — a 
fine work of the same master. The St. Anthony 
of Padua is also by him. The next fresco, of 
the Visitation, is a poor production of Sodoma. 
The Death of the Virgin, by Beccafumi, also, 
adds little to that master's credit. The Assump- 
tion, on the other hand, is one of the best paint- 
ings that Sodoma has left us in Siena, the com- 
position, remarkable to say, being here an excel- 
lent one, and the technical execution equal, and 
even conscientious, throughout. On the end Avail 
is the same master's Coronation of the Virgin. 
The figure of the Virgin herself is here pleasing. 

but the fresco as a whole is far inferior to its 
predecessor. SS. Francis and Louis, on either 
side, are likewise by Sodoma. The painting 
above the altar is by Beccafumi. The hand- 
some ceiling was ordered of Giuliano Turapilli 
in 1496. 

From the Via del Rossi, the Via del Comune 
leads down to the Porta Ovile. The contrada 
church of the Bi'uco, half way down the slope, 
contains a picture of the Trecento. In a hollow 
just outside the gate is the picturesque Fonte 
Ovile. Over the gate itself hangs an old painted 
Crucifix, and to the L (covered) is an attractive 
fresco, by Sano di Pietro, of the Madonna with 
vSS. Bernardino and Ansano — the fragment of a 
once much larger work. On the Via di Valle- 
rozzi, opposite the church of S. Rocco, is a tab- 
ernacle containing a Madonna by Fungai (?). 
The church itself, used as the oratory of the 
contrada delta Liipa, contains late Sienese paint- 
ings and a colossal statue of its patron saint. 
Near by is the large Gothic Fonte Nuova. 

From the Via dei Rossi, the Via S. Pietro 
Ovile opens before the church of S. Pietro Ovile. 
Within, on the R, is a beautiful early copy of 
Simone Martini's Annunciation, now in the Uf- 
fizi, by an artist of the latter half of the Trecento. 
The pinnacles above are by Matteo di Giovanni, 
as are also the two side saints of the picture 
opposite — S. Bernardino and the Baptist. The 

— 304 — 
central panel of this latter work, representing- 
the Virgin enthroned, is a genuine work of Pietro 
Lorenzetti. Above the door hangs a Crucifix 
by Giovanni di Paolo. The pedestals of the two 
holy-water basins are worthy of notice. In the 
sacristy is a panel of St. Peter, of the 14th cen- 
tury; and, in a room of the priest's house, a pleas- 
ing Madonna by an early contemporary of Tad- 
deo Bartoli. 

Returning to the Via dei Rossi, we notice 
No. 20, with interesting terra-cotta work about 
the Gothic arches, and another square-set me- 
diaeval staircase within. 

The Via dell' Abbadia leads to the piazza 
of that name and to the church of S. Donato, once 
the property of the Salimbeni. It contains a 
picture by Pacchia (over an altar to the L), and, 
in the adjoining chapel of the SS. Chiodi, a dig- 
nified Virgin and Child, by Andrea Vanni. In a 
corridor of the priest's house is a damaged Ma- 
donna of the Trecento. The piazza affords us 
the best view of the fortress-like Palazzo Salim- 
beni. We return to the Via Cavour, passing 
beneath what was once an interesting Renais- 
sance loggia. 

To the L is the Palazzo Bichi, enlarged in 
1520. Obliquely opposite stands the small I^e- 
naissance Palazzo Donati. No. 14 is a fine large 
Gothic palace. The handsome Palazzo Spannoc- 
chi, which is now occupied by the Post and Tele- 

— 305 — 
graph offices, was built for Ambrogio Spannoc- 
chi, the treasurer of Pius II, from the plans of 
Giuliano da Maiano, in 1470. The old facade 
faces the Via Cavour, whereas that on the piazza 
is a modern restoration. The adjoining* Palazzo 
Salimbeni has been virtually rebuilt, on the old 
lines, and, together with the later Palazzo Tan- 
tucci, is now occupied by the Alonte dei Paschi. 
In a room on the upper floor of the latter is a 
beautiful fresco of the Virgin of Mercy, in fine 
preservation, by Benvenuto di Giovanni, painted 
in 1 48 1. The saints to either side are mediocre 
works of a later and unknown artist, and the 
wolf and twins at each end, with the Lion and 
Balzana above, are evidently by Balducci. 

Passing between two ancient towers, in the 
sides of which are remnants of what once formed 
the Northern Gate of Roman Siena (^), we reach, 
on the L, the little church of Sta. Maria della Neve, 
whose graceful facade, commenced in 1471, may 
possibly have been due to Francesco di Giorgio, 
to whom it is generally attributed, but is more 
probably a work of Antonio Federighi. Over 
the altar (key at barber's shop opposite) (^) is one 
of Matteo di Giovanni's masterpieces — the Ma- 

(') See pp. 135-156. 

(2) On the other side of the road, to the right of the shoe-maker's 
shop, may be seen one of the old bolts which were used to support the 
chains with which the streets were formerly barricaded in times of tumult 
— see page 65 supra, and note. 

— 3o6 — 

donna of the Snows (1477). The scenes of the 
beautiful predella illustrate the legend of the 
foundation of Sta. Maria Maggiore in Rome. 
Nearly opposite the church is another sturdy 
tower. We follow the Via Cavour. The Pa- 
lazzo Costantini with its simple fagade and hand- 
some portal, has been attributed to Francesco 
di Giorgio, but is probably due to one of that 
master's followers. The iron torch-holders are 
noticeable. The church of Sant'Andrea contains, 
in the sacristy, a dismembered altar-piece by 
Giovanni di Paolo. At the end of the Via Ga- 
ribaldi a few steps to the L of the Barriera 
vS. Lorenzo, stands the famous Cas^a della Con- 
suma, now quite prosaic in appearance, but 
during the 13th century the scene of the wildest 
extravagance, when it was the meeting place of 
twelve youths who, in three months, succeeded 
in spending over four million lire ('). The church 
of the Confraternity of St. Sebastian, with an 
interesting Renaissance facade, once contained 
a famous banner painted by Sodoma — now in 
the Uffizi. 

The Via Cavour becomes the Via di Camol- 
lia. The Via Campansi leads to the ex-convent 
of the Campansi, now occupied as a poor-house. 
It still contains several frescoes (shown by at- 

(1) See Inferno XXIX. 125-132 and W. Heywood. The " Ensai 
pies" of Fia Filippo, op. cit., pages 59-63. 

— 307 — 
tendant ; fee). In the first cloister is a large 
and interesting Assumption of the Virgin, the 
choirs of Prophets and of Angels having been 
painted by Pietro di Domenico, and the remain- 
der of the fresco by Balducci. On the second 
floor is a repainted work of Beccafumi — the 
Virgin and Child with St. Anna, St. Ursula and 
the Magdalen. In the adjoining dormitory is 
shown an Annunciation by Sano di Pietro, and 
a room of the officials contains a striking " Noli 
me Tang'ere " — preserved in its original brilliant 
colouring — by Girolamo di Benvenuto. On the 
R of the Via Cavour are two houses with ef- 
fective, though, in one case, misapplied, brick 
fagades. Further on, to the L, is the church of 
S. Bartolomtneo (SS. Vincenzo and Anastasio) 
with a charming belfry (seen only with difficulty 
from the opposite side of the street) dating from 
the 'end of the 14th century. The fresco of 
Christ on the outer wall was one of the oldest 
in Siena, and was ruined by unnecessary res- 
torations of a year ago. The church, now used 
as the chapel of the Contrada dell' Istrice, con- 
tains a few pictures and the grave of Pintoric- 
chio. In the sacristy is a banner with SS. Vin- 
cenzo and Anastasio next the Madonna, pos- 
sibly by Fungai ; in the church itself a charm- 
ing Virgin and Child with Angels, attributed 
by Mr. Berenson to Vecchietta ; a triptych of 
the school of Bartolo di Fredi; and, over the L 
altar, a repainted picture by Sano (covered). 

— 3o8 — 

An alley to the L leads, beneath an arch, 
to the church of Fontegiusta, built in 1484 by 
Francesco Fedeli and Giacomo di Giovanni, both 
of Como (custodian, house at R). The relief 
above the entrance — the Virgin and Angels — is 
certainly not by Neroccio, to whom it is usually 
attributed, but appears rather to be by Urbano 
da Cortona. The beautiful marble altar within, 
the masterpiece of Marrina (i 517), is as remark- 
able for the excessive delicacy of its detail and 
execution as it is for its fine architectural pro- 
portions. Above it is a fresco by Girolamo di 
Benvenuto, of the Virgin surrounded by many 
Angels — a late and somewhat heavy work of 
that master. The small bronze holy-water basin 
was cast in 1430 by Giovanni delle Bombarde, 
the father of Pacchia. On the R of the church, 
2nd altar, is a Coronation of the Virgin — a quiet 
and meditative picture, and a most characteristic 
work of Fungai. The fine bronze tabernacle is 
by Alarrina. On the opposite wall is a repainted 
fresco of the Sybil announcing the Nativity to 
Augustus, by Peruzzi. Exag'geration of form 
and gesture are the principal characteristics of 
this academical composition, which has received, 
from some writers, the most excessive praise. 
The stained-glass window above the entrance — 
a Madonna with SS. Catherine and Bernardino 
— is of the late 15th century. For the sake of 
the curious traveller, we mav mention the shield 

— 309 — 
and whalebones, traditionally said to have been 
presented to this church by Christopher Co- 
lumbus. Before reaching the Porta Camollia, 
we pass a small church with a Gothic portal, 
S. Pietro alia Magione ('), once occupied by the 
Knights Templar. The adjoining chapel is a 
well-proportioned work of the early i6th century. 
In the attic of the priest's house are remnants 
of frescoes by a direct pupil of the Lorenzetti. 
To the L of the church, embedded in the wall 
near No. 77, is a Quattrocento bust of St. Peter. 
The present Porta Camollia was built in 
1604 f). Beyond is the Piazza d' Armi, and the 
column which marks the spot where the Em- 
peror Frederick III met his bride Leonora of 
Portugal (^). The Antiporto, rebuilt during the 
late Seicento, was first erected in 1259 as a spe- 
cial defence at a weak point in the city's for- 
tifications. Above this gate stood a famous 
fresco of the Assumption said to have been 
begun by Simone Martini and finished by Lippo 
Memmi, which was long the special object of 
S. Bernardino's veneration (*). In the valley to 
the West of the gate lies the Gothic Fonte Pe- 

(') For an historical association, see page ^}^ supra. 

(-) The first public promenade stretched from this gate to the Anti- 
porto (1309). Misc. Sior. Sen. vol. IV. p. 46. 

(•') The column appears in Pintoricchio's fresco of the event, in the 
Libreria del Duomo. 

['^} See p. 274 supra. 


scaia. Half a mile beyond the Antiporto stands 
the brick Palazzo dei Diavoli (dei Turchi) with 
a remarkable round tower adorned with medal- 
lions containing fantastic half-figures. The ad- 
jacent chapel is an elegant work of Federighi, 
the delicate yet vigorous terra-cotta frieze being 
especially worthy of note. A terra-cotta relief 
of the Assumption, within, is doubtfully attrib- 
uted to Francesco di Giorgio. 

Retracing our steps, we leave the Via di 
Camollia by the Via Gazzani which opens upon 
the Passeggio della Lizza, the modern prome- 
nade of vSiena (^). Beyond it we enter the 
fortress of Duke Cosimo I, whence we enjoy a 
view — particularly fine at sundown — of Siena 
with her towers and Cathedral, and of the rolling 
country bounded by a horizon of undulating hill- 
tops. The little church near the Park, S. Stefano 
contains a fine and characteristic polyptych by 
Andrea Vanni — on either side of the Virgin and 
Child are St. vStephen and vSt. James, the Baptist 
and St. Bartholomew ; the predella is a later 
adjunct by Giovanni di Paolo. On the corner 
of the Via Malavolti stands the interesting Pa- 

li) The present authorities are rapidh- turning the Fortezza and the 
Lizza into a monument to their own bad taste. It is time that those citizens 
who have the citj's beauty at heart — and of these there are many — should 
make a strenuous effort against this spirit of vandalism. 

Even while I am writing, many of the noblest trees have been ruth- 
lessly and unnecessarily cut down, the old turf has been cut up into gravel 
walks, and imitation rockeries are filling the former grassy corners. 

— 311 — 

lazzo Mocenni, erected by a pupil of Peruzzi. 
The Via Cavallerizzo leads to the Piazza Piani- 
giani and the small church of S. Caterina (the 
oratory of the Contrada del Drago) which con- 
tains a bust of St. Catherine, executed by Mar- 
rina in 151 7. The Via Paradiso leads to the 
Camporegio and the great brick church of S. Do- 
menico. The severe yet majestic building dates 
in its present form from the late Quattrocento , 
being an enlargement of an earlier church which 
had belonged to the Dominicans since 1225. 
The present campanile has been considerably 
lowered since it reached its full height in 1490. 
The original simplicity of the interior, marred 
by the usual 17th century additions, once re- 
sembled that of S. Francesco. Over the 2nd 
altar R is a repainted picture by Sano di Pie- 
tro. Further on hangs a panel of the B. Cate- 
rina de' Lenzi, probably by Giovanni di Paolo. 
The Chapel of St. Catherine remains, to the ma- 
jority of visitors, the most interesting part of 
this church. Its walls are covered by frescoes 
relating to her life, and the marble tabernacle 
encloses her very head — shown publicly on the 
occasion of some pertinent feast. The beautiful 
tabernacle itself is probably by Giovanni di Ste- 
fano. On either side of it are famous frescoes 
by Sodoma (1526), relating to St. Catherine's 
vision of Christ and her miraculous Communion. 
The group of the swooning Saint supported by 


her companions Alessia and Francesca, in the 
first of these two painting's, is worthy of much of 
the excessive praise that has been bestowed upon 
it, and shows what Sodoma w^as capable of when 
pressed to really exert his natural powers. How 
rarely this was the case, however, the remain- 
ing- frescoes in the chapel go far to show\ Even 
this would-be masterpiece is not without its ob- 
vious defects. The rich gilding and elaborate 
decoration of the pilaster behind the principal 
group is a grave artistic fault, and detracts in 
no small measure from the effect of the whole. 
The same charge may be laid against the pilaster 
to the L. The figure of Christ in the upper 
part of the painting is weak and defective. The 
fresco of St. Catherine's Communion is much infe- 
rior to its companion piece. That on the L wall, 
representing the execution of Xiccolo di Tuldo, 
shows Sodoma at his worst. The painting op- 
posite, by his pupil Francesco Vanni, represent- 
ing a miracle of the Saint, requires no special 
mention. The Prophets and Angels on the arch 
are by Sodoma, and the figures of the Blessed 
Raimondo da Capua and the Blessed Tommaso 
Xacci — biographers of St. Catherine— are by 
Vanni. The graffito pavement, representing 
^sculapius (?) seated among wild beasts, was 
executed by a follower of Beccafumi (^). 

('; See Mr. Cl'st's Pavement Masters of Siena, pp. 147-149. 

Besides the head of St. Catherine, S. Do- 
menico possesses several less important relics 
(preserved in the sacristy) such as: her portable 
altar-stone; the dispensation from Pope Gregory 
to have Mass said on it wherever she went ; the 
sacramental cloths she herself made for it; her 
discipline ; and one of her fingers. Here is also 
a banner, of the Assumption, painted by So- 

On the last altar on the R of the nave stands 
a very beautiful picture of the Nativity, by Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio — perhaps the most Florentine 
in feeling of all truly Sienese paintings. The fine 
lunette of the Pieta is by Matteo di Giovanni. 
The predella, representing a Vision of St. Cathe- 
rine, the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, the Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents, St. Dominic preaching, 
St. Mary Magdalen, is undoubtedly by Bernar- 
dino Fungai. The ist chapel to the R of the 
choir contains a small late 14th century Madonna, 
let into a picture by Sodoma. In the 2nd chap- 
el are the tombs of German students who died 
while studying at the University of Siena. The 
high-altar is crowned by a graceful marble Ci- 
borium, flanked by two light-bearing angels — 
works of the Florentine Benedetto da Maiano. 
A fine view of the Duomo is to be had from a 
window back of the altar. The 2nd chapel to 
the L contains one of the masterpieces of ]\Iat- 
teo di Giovanni (1479) — the exquisite panel of 

— 314 — 
St. Barbara enthroned between the Magdalen 
and St. Catherine of Alexandria. The rich col- 
ouring and careful execution, the lovely heads 
of the saints, and the delicacy of sentiment, 
render this picture an everlasting source of pleas- 
ure to all who know it. The lunette above, rep- 
resenting the Adoration of the Magi, is also by 
^latteo. Opposite is a painting by Benvenuto 
di Giovanni (1483) of the ^Madonna enthroned 
with Saints and Angels, and, in the lunette, a 
Pieti. Brilliant, if somewhat hard, in colour, 
and dignified and quiet in types, this picture 
shows the master to great advantage. The dis- 
membered altar-piece in the next chapel, the 
Virgin and Child with Angels, St. Jerome and 
the Baptist, is an interesting work by Alatteo 
(unfortunately much darkened), with a remark- 
able landscape. 

Close to the entrance to the church is a 
chapel peculiarly sacred to St. Catherine- -the 
Cappella delle Volte. In her day it was not sep- 
arated from the body of the church, as at 
present, and was alwa3"s her favourite place of 
prayer. The original steps by which she entered 
are carefully preserved beneath a g-rating, and 
in the centre of the floor is still a piece of the 
original pavement. Against one of the pillars 
hangs an old inscription recording the various 
visions which here befel her. But most interest- 
ing, in this chapel of memories of the great Saint, 

— 0^0 — 

is her portrait, above the altar, painted by her 
friend and disciple Andrea Vanni. Apart from 
its interest as an authentic, if somewhat gener- 
alized, portrait, this work possesses no small 
artistic value, and is remarkable for its decor- 
ative feeling. Over the entrance to the chapel 
hangs a large Crucifix by Sano di Pietro. 

In a hallway of the adjoining school— once 
a cloister of the convent — are fragments of a 
beautiful fresco doubtfully attributed to Lippo 
Vanni, a pupil of Simone Martini — a Virgin 
enthroned with Angels offering roses, and SS. Pe- 
ter and Paul. The head of the Virgin is ex- 
quisite in conception and technique. Near by 
are the remnants of an Annunciation, and a head 
of St. Dominic. 

A steep and rough path leads down beloAV 
the apse and massive sub-structures of S. Dome- 
nico — the latter now occupied as cavalry bar- 
racks — to the quarter of the city known as 
Fontebranda, the home of vSt. Catherine, then as 
now permeated by the odour of tanning and 
dyeing. As we descend, we pass on one side 
the modern swimming bath and on the other 
the picturesque structure w^here the women gos- 
sip as they wash their clothes. To our L rises 
the celebrated Fonte Branda, whose delicious 
waters preserve their icy coolness throughout 
the hottest w^eather. Although mentioned as 
early as 1081, the fountain was probably first 

covered only in 1 198, by Bellamino, whose name, 
together with the date, are recorded on an an- 
cient tablet now inserted in the wall of the foun- 
tain. His work was replaced some fifty years 
after its erection by the massive Gothic structure 
still standing-, the event being recorded by 
another inscription, dated 1246. 

Beyond the fountain the Via Benincasa leads 
up into the city. Half way up the street once 
stood the house where St. Catherine was born 
and spent the greater part of her life. On the 
site of her father's workshop — he was a dyer — 
an oratory was built in 1473, and in later years 
chapels were added where had been the kitchen, 
the famil}^ room, and the garden. The first 
chapel, which opens on the Via Benincasa, is 
now the Oratorio della Contrada dell' Oca. Its 
architect was possibly Francesco di Duccio del 
Guasta. Over the entrance are the arms of the 
city and those of the contrada — a Goose. The 
relief of St. Catherine with Angels is by Urbano 
da Cortona. Over the adjoining entrance to the 
R is a bust of the Saint by Giacomo Cozzarelli, 
to whom is also ascribed the double loggia 
above. Over the altar of the chapel stands a 
wonderfully beautiful and dignified statue of the 
Saint, by Neroccio. The fresco of St. Catherine 
receiving the Stigmata is possibly by Girolamo 
del Pacchia(^). On the R wall are two other scenes 

(') The accompanying putti b}- Sodoma. 

Al;i!::ri ' I.<.t< 

Cathsrino of Siena 
Andiika Van'm 

from her life, by the same master : she rescues 
Dominican friars who are assailed by robbers ; 
she is at the funeral of St. Agnes of Montepul- 
ciano, whose foot moves when she stoops to kiss 
it. The fresco opposite, representing- her healing- 
of the Rector of the Hospital of the Misericordia 
when striken with the plague, is also by Pacchia. 
That next to it, of St. Catherine assailed by 
Florentine soldiers, is a later and less interest- 
ing work, by Salimbeni. Ascending the stairs 
we enter a second Oratory, the walls of which 
are covered with modern frescoes, by Franchi, 
again concerned with the JSaint's life. Here is 
shown the little cell she occupied, and the window 
from which she gave bread to the poor. On the 
floor, beneath an iron grating, is her pillow of 
bricks, and in a case are preserved her scent- 
bottle for the sick, her lantern for visiting the 
Hospital at night, the head of her staff, a piece 
of her hair shirt and her veil, and the sack in 
Avhich her head was brought from Rome. Above 
the altar is a panel of the Stigmatization, prob- 
ably by Guidoccio Cozzarelli. Leaving this 
chapel we reach a graceful little logg'ia general- 
ly attributed to Peruzzi, but apparently the work 
of one of his pupils. On the L w^e are admit- 
ted to a third chapel, of the Confraternita di 
S. Caterina, the decorations of which, by late 
Sienese painters, are illustrative of further scenes 
of St. Catherine's life. The picture above the 

- 3i8 - 

altar, representing her Stig'matization, in a fine 
architectural frame, is an attractive work of 
Fung'ai. The Saints at the sides are by the 
same master. The ceiling, and the beautiful 
tiles which pave the chapel (covered), are of the 
late 1 6th century. The simple stalls are also 
worthy of notice. Still higher up, on the other 
side of the court, is the Oratorio del SS. Croci- 
fisso, built in 1533, by G. B. Pelori (?). Above 
the altar, enclosed behind wooden doors, is a 
remarkably impressive Crucifix of the school of 
Giunta Pisano— once in the church of Sta. Cri- 
stina at Pisa — before which ISt. Catherine is said 
to have received the Stigmata. 

To the R of the Via Benincasa rises the 
sheer Via della Calluzza; one of the most pict- 
uresque streets in Siena, still spanned by many 
arches, some of them supported by stone columns 
with old Romanesque capitals. The steep Costa 
Sant' Antonio leads up to the Via delle Belle 
Arti. Near by on the right is the Blblloteca 
Comunale, founded in 1663. Here are ex- 
posed various manuscripts, and some good il- 
luminated breviaries, missals, etc., among which 
is one by a Flemish artist of the 15th century, 
another by Sano di Pietro, and others, again, by 
Giovanni di Paolo. The chief treasure, however, 
is a volume of the Greek Gospels, of the nth 
century, magnificently bound in covers of silver 
gilt with raised figures in enamel, probably of 

— 319 — 
a later date. In the same case is a handsome 
Franciscan breviary of the 15th century. The 
Library also possesses valuable sketch-books of 
Peruzzi, Giuliano di San Gallo and Francesco di 

Beyond the Library is situated the Calleria 
delle Belle Art!, the civic picture gallery of vSiena, 
composed almost entirely of paintings of the 
Sienese masters, and forming one of the most 
satisfactory collections of a single school in ex- 
istence (open, with the exception of Sundays, 
from 10 to 3 and g to 4 ; admission i franc). 
The pictures are arranged in great part chrono- 
logically. For reasons of space, mention is here 
made only of the more important works. The 
numbering followed is the new one, in red let- 
ters (^). The visitor will do well to commence 
with Stanza I, which is devoted to the work of 
Duccio and his immediate followers, and to the 
Italo-Byzantine painting which preceded the 
coming of that master. I . An altar-piece repre- 
senting Christ, surrounded by Scenes from His 
Passion, painted on a surface of raised gesso. 
A good example of the crude Italian work of the 
early 13th century (dated 12 15). 2. An effigy of 
St. Francis, from the workshop of Margaritone 
of Arezzo — one of the many similar figures turned 

\') I have to thank the director of the Gallery and his assistants for 
their Icindness in hastening the renumbering of the pictures, that I might 
adopt the new enumeration in this Guide. 

— 320 — 

out bv that craftsman and his school durino- the 
middle of the Diigento. 14. Panel with a fig-ure 
of St. John Baptist enthroned in royal garments, 
surrounded by scenes from his life — the most 
markedly Byzantine of all these early works, pe- 
culiarly oriental in colour and in types. 15. A 
somewhat similar panel, with St. Peter as the 
central subject. Of the accompanying scenes, 
that of the Annunciation is particularly note- 
worthy for its successful representation of move- 
ment. Opposite, hung here for convenience, 
is a large Crucifix, 56., by Taddeo Bartoli. 
16. Colossal Virgin and Child, probably by the 
artist known as Guido da Siena, at any rate 
typical of the work which he represents. This 
picture gives a far better idea than does the 
repainted ]\Iadonna in the Palazzo Pubblico of 
what the painting of Guido reall}^ was. 18. Ma- 
donna — clearly not by Gilio di Pietro, who lived 
in the middle of the 13th century, but by a post- 
Ducciesque master. 20. Tiny Virgin and Child 
with Angels and worshipping Monks, by Diiccio 
— one of the master's earlier works, showing, at 
once, the immense superiority of his art over that 
of his Tuscan predecessors. Nothing- could be 
more delicate than the colour and execution of 
this damaged little panel, nothing, again, more 
truly Byzantine in its feeling. The figure of the 
Virgin is particularly graceful, and the flow of 
her drapery exquisite. 21. A Crucifix of the 

— 321 - 

school of Duccio. 23. Small and damaged panel 
of the Magdalen, by Duccio. 22. The Baptist and 
St. Peter with Angels above, by Duccio. 28. Al- 
tar-piece with the Virgin and Child, SvS. Paul 
and Augustine, SS. Peter and Dominic; above, 
Christ blessing, and Ang-els with sceptres — a 
mature work of Duccio. 29. vSt. Peter, 30. St. An- 
thony Abbot, 31. St. Augustine, 32. St. Paul— all 
by a pupil of Duccio. 33. Altar-piece, a good 
school work. 35. Small triptych with Scenes 
from the Life of Christ, by Duccio. This deli- 
cately coloured panel is one of the most beau- 
tiful of the master's remaining works. 36. A fine- 
ly modelled Crucifix, by a direct pupil of Duc- 
cio, doubtfully attributed to Massarello di Gilio. 
40. Madonna with vSt. Paul, the Evangelist and 
vSt. Bernard, a signed work by Segna di Bona- 
ventura, one of the closest of Duccio's followers. 
42. St. Ansanus, 43. St. Galganus, also by Segna 
— showing a slight diverg*ence from Duccio's 
manner and that of Seg-na's earlier works. 
46. Large Crucifix — a somewhat heavy work by 
Niccolb, the son of vSegna (1345). 47. Polyptych 
of the Virgin and Child with Saints, Prophets 
and Angels, a grand but sadly damaged work 
of Duccio. Especially noticeable are the lovely 
St. Agnes, the Prophet Daniel, and the x\ngels 
in the pinnacles. 48. vSt. Francis, 49. St. Louis — 
by a follower of wSimone Martini. 50. Polyptych, 
by a pupil of Pietro Lorenzetti. 51. Large altar- 

piece, by a follower of Lippo IMemmi and the 
Lorenzetti, wrongly attributed to Lippo himself. 
52. St. Paul, 53. The Baptist^ — strongly charac- 
terized panels by a near pupil of Ambrogio Lo- 
renzetti, if not by that master himself. 

Stanza II contains some works belonging to 
the grandest period of vSienese art, although the 
most characteristic of Siena's painters, Simone 
Martini, is here conspicuous by his absence. 
6 1 . Assumption of the Virgin (considerably dam- 
aged), by Pietro Lorenzetti — reminiscent of Si- 
mone. To judge of the splendid decorative effect 
of this hieratic picture, we should regard it from 
a distance. One of the earliest representations 
of this subject, which remained, throughout the 
the history of Sienese painting, a favourite one 
with her artists. 59. A fine St. Gregory, of the 
school of Pietro Lorenzetti. 60. Small triptych 
of the Virgin enthroned, with interesting side- 
scenes, attributed to Bernardo Daddi, a direct 
pupil of Giotto (1336) — an important little pict- 
ure, healthy in colour and careful in execution. 
65. vSmall panel of the Virgin and Child, sur- 
rounded by Angels, SwS. Catherine and Dorothy, 
and the four adoring Doctors of the Church, by 
Ambrogio Lorenzetti. This work is one of the 
most precious treasures of the Gallery, shoAving, 
as it does, all that is greatest and best in Am- 
brogio's art. The perfect composition in reced- 
ing planes, the subtle modelling of the figures. 

the lovely colour — all go towards making this 
little painting a masterpiece of the highest qual- 
ity. 67. Triptych (exceptionally well preserved) 
of St. Michael with vSt. Anthony Abbot and the 
Baptist^ — a somewhat heavy, but not uninterest- 
ing, work of a pupil of Lippo Memmi, erroneously 
attributed to that master himself. 77. Polyptych 
of the Madonna, the Magdalen and St. Dorothy, 
the Evangelist and the Baptist, and, below, the 
Deposition — a noble work of Ambrogio Lorenzetti. 
The worshipping figure of the Magdalen and the 
hauntingly beautiful St. Dorothy are two of the 
finest of Ambrogio's creations. The damaged 
but effective panel of the Deposition, evidently 
a composition original with this master, was 
extensively copied by his followers and imitators, 
there being no less than three versions of it in 
this same room. 74. vSt. Peter, 72. St. Paul — by 
a close follower of Lippo ]\Iemmi. 70. and 71. 
Two naively realistic seascapes, by Pietro Loren- 
zetti (f). 73. Centre of a triptych, Madonna with 
Saints and Angels, attributed to Bernaj-do Daddi. 
80. Virgin and Child enthroned, surrounded by 
beautiful Angels, by Pietro Lorenzetti — a charac- 
teristic work still plainly showing the influence 
of Duccio. 76. Madonna with two Angels, by a 
pupil of Pietro, closely resembling the preced- 
ing picture. 79. The Baptist, 81. vSt. Cecilia, 
82. St. Bartholomew — also by a pupil of Pietro. 
92. Allegory of Sin, from the Fall of Adam to 

— 324 — 
the Redemption, a darkened and heavily var- 
nished panel by Pictro Lorenzetti — especiall}^ re- 
markable for its landscape. 88. The Annunciation, 
by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (painted in 1344). A very 
wonderful work of this master, intensely pas- 
sionate in feeling, and sumptuous in its golden 
colour. 89. St. Anthony Abbot, 91. St. Maximin, 
by Ambrogio Lorenzetti. 87. and 95. Two Prophets* 
by a follower of Lippo Memmi. 85. The Baptist, 
86. St. Catherine, 93. St. Paul, 94. The Evan- 
gelist — delicately painted works of an artist very 
near to vSimone Martini in technique and in style. 
83. and 84. Parts of a predella which probably 
belonged to a picture executed for the church 
of the Carmine, in 1329, by Pietro Lorenzetti. 
100. Four scenes from the Life of the Virg-in, 
which, together with the surrounding paintings 
— 101. the Assumption, 99. Predella, 97. and 102. 
Pilasters ornamented with figures of Saints — 
formed part of a large polyptych painted for 
the church of vS. Francesco in oMontalcino, by 
Bartolo di F^'edi, in 1388. Pleasing works, quiet 
in sentiment and gay in colour. 98. and 1 03. are 
Predelle by the same master. 104. Adoration of 
the Magi, again by Baj-tolo di Fredi — a mannered 
work, showing all the artist's defects and few 
of his merits. 1 08. SS. Anthony Abbot and 
Onofrio, especially attractive little panels, also 
by Bartolo di Fredi. 107. ^ladonna enthroned 
(signed, and dated 1355) — a characteristic work 

Lombardi photo. 

The Virgin appearing to Calixtus III 
Sano di Pietro 

of Taddeo Gaddi, in his better style, despite its 
roughness of execution. Plainly showing its 
derivation from Giotto's altar-piece in the Acad- 
emy at Florence. 108. Marriage of St. Cathe- 
rine, a beautiful panel by an unknown follower 
of Simone and Pietro Lorenzetti. Opposite, 
145. Triptych, by Giacomo di Mino del Pellicciaio 
— coarsely repainted. The faces, however, are in 
great part untouched and retain their softness 
of type. As to style this picture has little in 
common with that by the same master in the 
vServi. 109. Polyptych of St. Anna with the 
Virgin and Child, wSt. Catherine and the Baptist, 
wSt. Anthony and another Saint, by Liica di Tomme 
(signed, 1367). A pleasing picture, and one of 
the few authenticated w^orks of this artist. I 14. 
Tabernacle, possibly a fragment of a larger paint- 
ing — a genuine but poor work of Andrea Vanni. 
Ml. Crucifixion and Predella (on linen), by a 
pupil of Bartolo di Fredi. I 15. Altar-piece by 
Bartolommeo di Nutino (f). 116. Large panel of 
the Birth of the Virgin, with SS. James and 
Catherine, Bartholomew and Elizabeth, by Paolo 
di Giovanni Fei — a naturalistic treatment of a 
subject much in vogue among the Sienese paint- 
ers. 126. Three vSaints, also by Paolo di Giovanni 
Fei. I 19. Coronation of the Virgin, 125. Death 
of the Virgin, by Spinello Ai'etino — pleasing in 
colour and executed with that artist's usual 
roug-h security of hand. Here follows a series 


- 3^6 - 

of pictures by Taddeo Bartoli : 131. Large panel 
of the Annunciation (darkened by smoke and 
dirt), a free transcription of Simone's picture in 
the Uffizi — much below the average of Taddeo' s 
work in merit ; 1 28. A small and enamel-like 
triptych of the Madonna enthroned with SS. An- 
thony and Catherine, Nicholas and Jerome, show- 
ing Taddeo in his most pleasing phase; 127. An 
Adoration of the Magi; 132. A Nativity; 134. 
]\Iartyrdom of SS. Cosmo and Damian, remark- 
able for energy of action — a point in the suc- 
cessful carrying out of which the Sienese were 
not usually over proficient; 130. St. Agnes (?)— a 
charming little figure ; 1 35. St. Matthew ; 1 44. 
and 143. Annunciation — beautiful but sadly dam- 
aged fragments. 78. A small Beato, hung among- 
the pictures of the Lorenzetti, is also a work of 

Stanza III contains Avorks of the earlier half 
of the 15th century. 149. Triumph of Death, 
150. Triumph of Chastity, 151. Triumph of Love, 
152. Triumph of Fame. Four delightful and 
much questioned panels, attributed by Mr. Ber- 
enson to Pier Fi'ancesco Fiorentino — certainly not 
of the Sienese school to which they have usually 
been ascribed. 154. A small and delicate triptych, 
by a follower of Taddeo. 157. Triptych of a 
seated Madonna, with the Baptist and St. Nich- 
olas, wSt. Augustine, and the Annunciation — a 
lovely little work of the school of Lorenzo Mo- 

naco. Opposite are two panels of the Madonna 
with Saints — 220. and 219. — characteristic ex- 
amples of Martino di Bartolommeo, a pupil of 
Taddeo Bartoli. 164. Seated Madonna surround- 
ed by music-making Angels, by Domenico di 
Bartolo (signed, 1433) — an interesting picture, 
inspired by a study of Florentine painting, and 
illustrating the artist's power, or desire of it, to 
express values of modelling. 166. A fine little 
Temptation of St. Anthony, by Sassetta. 1 67. The 
Last vSupper, also by Sassetta, has all the pleas- 
ing colouring of this master, the careful ex- 
ecution, and individual expression. 168. The four 
patron Saints of wSiena, Ansanus, Victor, Savinus 
and Crescentius, and 169., the Four Fathers of 
the Church — quiet and dignified figures — again 
by Sassetta. 171. Marriage of St. Catherine of 
Alexandria, signed Micheliniis. This curious and 
interesting panel is the work of a painter, pos- 
sibly North Italian, under the direct influence 
of the school of Cologne. Then follows a group 
of pictures by the highly original and ever 
changeful Giovanni di Paolo, showing the varied 
influences under which this master worked. 
173. An imposing polyptych, with a hieratic 
figure of St. Nicholas, and attendant Saints (signed 
1453). 172. Predella of the Last Judgment — the 
Paradise containing many details of naive charm 
and grace. 191. Smaller polyptych of the Virgin 
with Saints— very careful in execution. 1 78. Small 

- 32« - 

triptych of the ]\Iadonna with Saints and Angels. 
174. Presentation, 175. Crucifixion, 176. Journey 
into Egypt — pleasing- early works. (93. and 197. 
P\ill-length figures of the Baptist and St. Dominic, 
clearly showing" the influence of the art of Tad- 
deo Bartoli. 195. St. Alark, showing the influence 
of Bartolo di Fredi. 199. St. Galganus and the 
Magdalen, and 201. St. Bernard and St. Romuald 
— divisions of a larg'e polyptych of which the 
interesting Predella, 198., relating to the lives 
of the above-mentioned vSaints, once formed a 
part. 200. The Crucifixion (1440). 177. A small 
but characteristic triptych by Sassetta — the St. 
Catherine being a particularly graceful little fi- 
gure. 185. A seated Madonna, by a close pupil 
of Sassetta. 184. A softly colour little panel, 
mis-placed, by a follower of the Lorenzetti. 
On the opposite wall is a much damag'ed, but 
extremely decorative, cassone, 217., representing 
the Triumph of David, by Neroccio di Landi. 
216. and 218. Predelle, by Pellegrino di JMariano, 
both illustrating- his close relationship to Sano 
di Pietro. Above are three panels by Giovanni 
di Paolo: 213. St. James, 214. Kneeling Bishop, 
215. St. Andrew. 203. A figure of St. Bernar- 
dino, by Pietro di Giovanni (signed). 204. The 
larg-e front of a press, formerly in the Hospital, 
decorated by Vecchietta (in 1445) witb Sienese 
Saints and Beati, the four patron Saints being 
on the extreme right and left ; above, the An- 

— 329 — 
nunciation ; on the reverse of the doors, scenes 
from the Passion — these last being- rough and 
hastily executed, and narrowly verging on cari- 
cature. 205. St. Bernardino, by the same master. 
206. A Virgin and Child seated in the open 
air, with a quaintly interesting landscape back- 
ground^an early and delightful work of Gio- 
vanni di Paolo, very suggestive of vSassetta. 207. 
Madonna with Angels, of the school of Domenico 
di Bartolo. 211. On the opposite wall, Circum- 
cision, by Giovanni di Paolo. A literal copy — 
with Giovanni's types — of xVmbrogio Lorenzetti's 
composition now in the iVcademy at Florence. 
210. Grandiose Virgin and Child enthroned with 
SS. Peter and Paul, a signed and late work of 
Vecchietta, unfortunately ruined. 212. AUeg'ory 
of the Redemption — a strange painting by Gio- 
vayini di Paolo. 208. Christ blessing, by the same 
master — warm in colour. 209. Adoration of the 
Christ-Child by the Virgin, vSS. Francis and Do- 
minic. A work of the eclectic Piei- Francesco 
Fiorentino (^), painted under the direct inspiration 
of Benozzo Gozzoli. 

Stanza IV and Stanza Y are devoted entirely 
to paintings of Sano di Pietro and his assistants. 
The visitor may here be left to his own enjoy- 
ment of this loveable artist, and particular men- 
tion need be made only of the following works, 

(') It is almost unnecessary to say that this painter is not to be con- 
founded with the great Piero dei Franceschi, although such an absurd 

mistake has frequently been made by some would-be "art students". 

— 330 — 
as being the finest of the collection. 226. Po- 
Ivptych — noticeable for the figure of St. Benedict. 
228. Madonna with Angels and Saints, in the 
original frame. 227. Small and decorative As- 
sumption of the Virgin — rich in colour. 23 1 . 
Polyptych, of which the central panel of the 
Virgin and Child is especially delicate and win- 
ning. 233. A lovely triptych of the Madonna 
surrounded by Angels, SS. Cosmo and Damian, 
and a beautiful predella of scenes from their 
lives, with SS. Catherine and Bernardino at 
either end — probably the finest of all vSano's 
larger panels. 235. St. Ansanus. 238. St. Bernar- 
dino. 241. The Virgin commending her city of 
vSiena to Callistus III — -interesting" for the sub- 
ject apart from its artistic charm. 260. (Next 
room) Polyptych of the Assumption, with dig- 
nified Saints. 259. Fine predella. 265. vSmall 
panel of St. Jerome in the Desert. 255. Another 
predella. 254. Madonna with four vSaints and two 

The badly lighted Stanza VI contains paint- 
ings by three of the best Sienese artists of the 
late 15th century — Francesco di Giorgio, Matteo 
di Giovanni, and Neroccio di Landi, the latter 
being particularly well represented. B_v this 
great and insufficiently appreciated master there 
are no less than seven panels, -every one of 
which should be carefully and reverently studied. 
281. An early and exquisite picture of the Ma- 

donna with SS. Bernardino and Jerome. 282. 
Triptych of the Virgin and Child, St. Michael 
and vSt. Bernardino (signed, 1476)— the central 
panel being one of the supremely lovely crea- 
tions of the Sienese Quattrocento. 285. Virgin with 
Child standing erect, and SS. Catherine and Ber- 
nardino. 287. Madonna with four Saints, having 
much in common with the work of Neroccio's 
contemporary and partner, Francesco di Giorgio, 
with whom the master is often confounded even 
by intelligent critics. 295. Madonna with the 
Baptist and another vSaint. 294. Madonna with 
vSt. John and wSt. Andrew. 278. Virgin and Child 
enthroned, with six Saints, a large work of the 
master's later years, signed, and dated 1492. 
By Francesco di Giorgio are : three small and 
curious predelle, 274., 275., 276., representing 
Potiphar's wife, Susanna, and Joseph sold by 
his Brethren; 277. The Annunciation — a fascinat- 
ing' little picture, very graceful in movement 
and in line ; 288. Virgin and Child with a beau- 
tiful Angel, in a landscape ; and 293. Madonna 
with two Saints — a later work. 286. A Virgin 
and Child enthroned, with four delightful Angels, 
is the earliest signed work (1470) which we 
possess from the brush of Matteo di Giovanni. 
280. Madonna with St. John, vSt. James, and two 
Angels — a particularly Sanesque picture by the 
same master (still in its old frame). 283. Another, 
and very beautiful, Madonna, in a rocky land- 

scape, also by Matteo. 284. Panel of the school 
of Francesco di Giorgio, wrong'ly attributed to 
Matteo. 279. Adoration of the Shepherds, an 
interesting work, with a peculiarly Umbrian 
landscape, by Pietro di Domenico. At the oppo- 
site end of the room are two pictures by Coz- 
zarelli — 296., St. Sebastian, and 297.. an alleg'orical 
representation of the Virgin (?) 298. Enthroned 
]\Iadonna Avith four Saints (signed, 1500), by 
Andrea di Niccolb, a much damaged but character- 
istic example of his style. 299. Small Nativity, 
with a remarkably spacious landscape, by Suor 
Barbera Ragnoni, possibh^ a copy of a work of 
the school of Pacchiarotto. 

In Stanza VII are hung damaged and frag- 
mentary paintings. 325., next the entrance, a 
dimmed and blackened Virgin and Child, was 
once a beautiful and highly characteristic work 
of Sassetta. Next to it, 324., hangs an Assump- 
tion by Giovanni di Paolo. 323. A ruined Aladonna 
by Sajio di Pietro. 313. A remarkable Italo-By- 
zantine picture of St. Francis, surrounded by 
scenes from his life (much damaged by restora- 
tion). 306. Charming Virgin of the Annunciation, 
by Francesco di Giorgio — a mere fragment. On 
the entrance wall, a polyptych by Paolo di Gio- 
vanni Fei. The engravings are unimportant. 

In the passage-way is the wreck of a large 
Assumption, once an ambitious work of Pacchia- 
rotto, and in the hall hangs a polyptych by Gio- 


Lombardi photo. 

The Virgin and Child 

000 ■" 

vanni di Paolo. Of chief interest to the majority 
of visitors in Stanza VIII is Sodojua's fresco 
of Christ bound to the Column — once in the 
church of vS. Francesco — an extravagantly over- 
lauded work, realistically conceived, but lacking- 
in real refinement. The surface modelling of the 
flesh is here admirable and careful, although, as 
is almost invariably the case with Sodoma, the 
figure conveys but a poor idea of structural 
strength. 333., Ransom of Prisoners, and 334., 
Escape of ^Eneas from Troy, are frescoes orig- 
inally painted for the palace of Pandolfo Pe- 
trucci, by Girolamo Genga, showing the direct 
influence of Signorelli. 342. A fine but darkened 
little panel of the Nativity, by Gii'olamo di Ben- 
vemdo. 346. An Angel, by Balducci. 354. Judith, 
a pleasing work of Sodoma. 359. Madonna with 
SS. Francis and Catherine, by Balducci. 360., 361 ., 
326., 327., four bierheads, are wrongly attributed 
to Sodoma himself. The six delicately carved 
wooden pilasters, by Antonio Barili, once formed 
a part of the decorations of the Palazzo del Ma- 

Stanza IX is devoted to the compositions of 
the vSienese eclectics of the early Cinqiiecento. 
363. A characteristic Madonna by Fuiigai. 365. 
Nativity with adoring Saints (on linen), by An- 
drea di Niccolb, clearly showing the influence of 
Francesco di Giorgio. 366. Five small wSaints, 
by Pacchiarotto. 367. Madonna enthroned, with 

St. Jerome and the Blessed Giovanni Colombini 
(1482), by Cozzai'elli. 368. The Crucifixion and 
Saints (1502), by Andrea di Niccolb. 369. Deposi- 
tion, a late and remarkable work of Girolamo 
di Benveiiido. 370. Four Saints, 372. Nativity of 
the Virgin, and 373. Dead Christ supported by An- 
gels, are by Girolamo di Bcnvenuto. Three panels 
of the Madonna with Saints, 374., 375., 376., are 
exceptionally pleasing works by Fungai, the 
last-named showing the marked influence of 
Francesco di Giorgio. Above, and on the op- 
posite wall, hang four little paintings by Bal- 
ducci ; Zll. Faith, 379. Charity, 381. Fortitude, 
393. Justice. 384. Triptych of the Trinity and 
four Saints (15 12), an early work of Beccafiimi. 
383. Small Assumption, by Girolamo di Benvemdo. 
382., above, Madonna with St. Jerome and St. 
Bartholomew, is by Pietro di Domeynco. 386., Ado- 
ration of the Magi, and 391., Madonna with 
St. Jerome and St. Francis, are by Baldiicci. 390. 
and 397. Two panels by Pietro di Domenico, rep- 
resenting the Nativity, and the ^ladonna with 
wSS. Jerome and Anthony of Padua. 395. Pleas- 
ing little Virg-in and Child, by Girolamo di Ben- 
vemdo (fragment). 398. and 364. Four Saints, crude 
works, possibly by Balducci. Four pilasters, 
similar to those in Stanza VIII, by Barili. 

Stanza X contains large, although not al- 
ways the most important, works of the Sienese 
Renaissance. To the L of the entrance are two 


small panels by Cozzarelli : 445. St. Catherine 
giving her heart to Christ, 446. Madonna with 
Saints. 441. Assumption of the Virgin, one of 
Fungai's poorer pictures. 440. Coronation of the 
Virgin (147 1). A remarkable and very charac- 
teristic work, by Francesco di Gioi^gio, somewhat 
hard in colour, but full of interesting' details. 
The principal group is the most beautiful portion 
of the picture. 437. Nativity with SS. Bernar- 
dino and Ambrose (1475), by the same master 
— a prelude to his Nativity in S. Domenico. 
436. Polyptych of the Virgin and Child with 
attendant Angels, St. Michael and St. Catherine, 
a Bishop and St. Lucy, and a beautiful predella 
of scenes from the Life of the Virgin (1475) — 
a splendid work of Bcnvemito di Giovanni, con- 
trasting strangely with the master's later pict- 
ure of the Ascension, 434., hanging- next to it. 
This severe and imposing altar-piece, painted 
in 1 49 1, is an example of the striking' change 
which came over Benvenuto during the -latter 
part of his career. 432. ]\Iadonna enthroned with 
SS. Cosmo and Damian, SS. Sebastian and Gal- 
ganus, probably designed by Matteo, but exe- 
cuted by Cozzaj-elli, 433. Round picture of the 
Madonna with two Saints, by Girolamo Genga. 
431. Enthroned Virgin and Child with Saints 
and Angels (15 12), by Fnngai, in one of that 
master's favourite landscapes. 428. Calvary — of 
the school of Francesco di Giorgio. 427. Christ 

- 336 - 
descending into Limbo, the Penitent Thief behind 
Him, an academic but not uninteresting paint- 
ing, by Beccafiimi. On the end wall are two al- 
tar-pieces by Pacchiarotto : 426. A charming- but 
weak Visitation, with vSt. ^lichael and St. Fran- 
cis ; 424. Madonna enthroned, with dignified fig- 
ures of vSt. Onofrio and St. Bartholomew. 423. 
Fall of Lucifer, a riotous and chaotic work of 
Beccafumi. 422. Ascension of Christ, by Pacchia- 
rotto. 421. Pleasing' predella by the same master, 
of three scenes from the Life of Christ and two 
from that of St. Catherine. 420. St. Catherine 
receiving the vStigmata, one of the best works 
of Beccafumi, obviously painted while under the 
sway of the Florentine school, and especially 
that of Fra Bartolommeo. This latter influence 
is particularlv noticeable in the landscape, with 
its wonderful atmospheric effects. 4! 7. 418. 419. 
Predella of scenes from the Life of St. Catherine, 
by the same artist. 414. Virgin and Child en- 
throned, with four Saints, and Angels carrying- 
snow-balls (signed, 1508), by Girolamo di Benve- 
?iHto- -the colour much darkened. The fine head 
of St. Catherine of Alexandria is evidently a 
portrait. The lunette of the Nativity is by Mat- 
teo di Giovanni. 413. Descent from the Cross, one 
of the first works painted by Sodonia after his 
arrival in Siena — well composed, hard and dis- 
agreeable in colour, with a miniature-like land- 
scape. For vSodoma, the picture is careful in 

Alinari photo. 

The Virgin and Child with Angels 
Matteo di Giovanni 

00 J 

execution and fairly correct as to drawing-. 
410. The Annunciation, and, in the background, 
the Visitation (151 8), a poor Pacchia. 409. En- 
throned Virgin and Child with six Saints, by 
Andrea Brescianino — well, although somewhat ac- 
ademically, composed; on the whole this artist's 
masterpiece. The softly coloured predella is by 
the same hand. 407. The Nativity, obviously 
not by Pintoricchio, to whom it is ascribed — 
given by ^Ir. Berenson to Balducci. 406., a 
predella — full of open air effects — although be- 
longing to another picture, is also by Balducci. 
405. An impressionistic Nativity, by Beccafu^ni, 
suggesting a comparison with Sodoma's picture 
of the same subject, in the Carmine, to which 
it is by no means inferior. 404. Drawing by 
Vecchietta for his tabernacle in the Duomo. 40 1 . 
Gethsemane, and 443. Descent into Limbo — dam- 
aged frescoes by Sodoma, once in the oratory 
of Sta. Croce. Were it not for its poor and 
overcrowded composition, the latter, more par- 
ticularly, w^ould rank as one of the best of So- 
doma's works. The figure of Christ deserves a 
special w^ord of praise — ^that of the graceful Eve 
is too well known to need comment. 399. and 
400., two small panels of the Madonna with 
vSaints, are particularly attractive works of Mat- 
teo di Giovanni. Hanging above the pictures are 
some of the cartoons for the pavement in the 
Duomo, by Beccafumi, many of them remarkable 

- 338 - 

for their bold and certain drawing, and clearly 
showing, in this respect, the master's immeasur- 
able superiority over his favoured rival Sodoma. 

In Stanza XI is a miscellaneous collection 
of pictures of different schools, the majority 
being of no artistic value. 451. and 464., the 
Magdalen and St. Catherine (on either side of 
the entrance), attributed to Fra Bartolommeo, 
are uninteresting works of Albertinelli. 454. A 
remarkable portrait, of Queen Elizabeth, by Ziic- 
caro, probably executed in England while that 
artist was Painter to the Queen. 462. and 488. 
Two paintings of the German school, by Albrecht 
Altdof'fer. 495. The Holy Family, in a beautiful 
Umbrian landscape — a popular work of Pintoric- 
chio. 503. Virgin and Child with the Baptist, by 
Genga. 504. A fine little portrait of Charles V, 
attributed to Amberger. 5 1 2. Nativity, with an 
Angel and a little St. John, a carefully executed 
Sodoma, showing decided Florentine influence. 
537. Lucretia — school of Lucas Kranach. 544. A 
picture of the Annunciation, with splendid space 
effects, and a glorious landscape with a wonderful 
play of light and shade — a much neglected mas- 
terpiece of Paris Bordonc. 

Just outside the entrance to Stanza X stands 
a Winged Victor3^ which once had a place on 
the Roman Porta Aurea (^). In the hall be3^ond 

[}\ See p. 156, note i supra. 

Alinari photo. 

The Holy Family with St. Leonard 


are remnants of Pisanesque sculptures, and reliefs 
of the Apostles, in grey stone, by Giovanni Tu- 

On the corner of the Via delle Belle Arti 
and the Via delle Terme stands the church of 
S. Pellegrino. In the atrium is an impressive fig- 
ure of the Blessed Andrea Gallerani, by Tad- 
deo Bartoli, and within the church are two 
Apostles— St. Peter, in papal attire, and St. Paul 
— works of the Trecento. Over No. 8 Via delle 
Terme is a fine emblem of the Guild of Masons. 
Further on, a covered shrine contains a very 
lovely and decorative Virgin and Child by Gio- 
vanni di Paolo — one of that master's most cap- 
tivating" pictures (key to be had at Vicolo del For- 
cone I ; fee). To the L of the modern Piazza 
deir Indipendenza rises the stone Torre del Wli- 
gnanelli where formerly were hung the public 
bells. We return to the Croce del Travaglio by 
the Via Cavour. 


PERHAPS even more beautiful than the city 
itself are the numberless walks and drives 
about Siena, a description of which would easily 
fill a lengthy separate volume. Space here for- 
bids, however, mention of any save the more im- 
portant points in the immediate vicinity. The 

— 340 — 

rest are reserved for a future supplement to this 
present Guide. 

About a mile and a half beyond the Porta 
Ovile is situated the convent of the Osservanza. 
The site of the present buildings was once oc- 
cupied by a hermitage, which was presented to 
S. Bernardino in 1404. Here a church was 
raised in 1423 — rebuilt in 1485, on the designs 
of Cozzarelli. It still contains several fine pict- 
ures, and other objects of interest. Over the ist 
altar L is a Madonna by Sano — two of the angels 
above, the wrings of those below, and the mantle 
of the Aladonna, being 17th century renovations. 
On the 2nd altar stands one of the masterpieces 
— in sentiment, in colour and in composition — 
of Andrea della Robbia, representing the Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, with music-Qiaking Angels 
and attendant vSaints. Over the 3rd altar is 
another picture by Sano, the predella of which 
has been misplaced beneath a painting" of Tad- 
deo Bartoli, in the adjoining chapel — a polyp tych 
of eight Saints (dated 14 13). To either side of 
the high-altar are statues of the Annunciation, 
of the school of Andrea della Robbia, that of 
the Virgin being particularly fine in attitude. 
Beneath the altar are preserved relics of S. Ber- 
nardino, in a reliquary of the 15th century. In 
the choir hangs a panel of St. Catherine with a 
kneeling female pilgrim, by Girolamo di Ben- 
venuto, and a signed (1439) picture of S. Ber- 

-- 341 — 
nardino, by Pietro di Giovanni. The sacristy 
contains: a terra-cotta Pieta, by Cozzarelli, in 
which feeling for grace of expression predom- 
inates over that for realistic presentation ; the 
tomb-stone of Pandolfo Petrucci ; and inlaid pres_ 
ses of the early Cinqiieceiito. The 4th altar on the 
R of the nave supports a splendid triptych by 
Sassetta, representing the Virgin and Child, wSt. 
Ambrose and St. Jerome, and above, half-figures 
of Christ, SS. Peter and Paul, and an exquisite 
little Annunciation. The statue of St. Anthony 
of Padua, in the ist chapel, is by Cozzarelli. In 
the crypt is preserved the cell once inhabited 
by S. Bernardino. The Certosa of Pontignano, a 
few miles beyond the Osservanza is a ruined 
but picturesque abbey of the 14th century. 

About a mile to the sonthwest of the 
Porta S. Marco lies the former monastery of 
vSant' Eugenio (^), now modernized and occupied 
as a private residence, and known simply as 
Monistero. In the chapel are two large frescoes — 
the Resurrection and the Crucifixion — late and 
remarkable works of Benvenuto di Giovanni. 
Over an altar to the R is a pleasing Virgin 
and Child with two Angels, by Francesco di 
Giorgio, and over that to the L, a very beautiful 
Madonna by Ambrogio Lorenzetti. The sacristy 
contains a Virgin and Child of the school of 

\}] See p. 21 supra. 


— 342 — 
Duccio— restored, as, indeed, are all the pictures 
here— and a St. Ansanus and a Bishop, by Tad- 
deo Bartoli (^). 

Three miles be3^ond the Porta Fontebranda 
is situated the Villa of Belcaro (visitors are usual- 
ly admitted, here as at the Monastero, by a care- 
taker, who expects a fee). From the ramparts 
we enjoy a superb and boundless view of Siena 
and the surrounding- country. The small room 
opening on one end of this airy promenade 
contains a Madonna with two Saints, by Matteo, 
and two small panels of the Trecento. On the 
ground floor is a ceiling fresco, the Judgment 
of Paris, by Peruzzi, and in the church and green- 
house, other frescoes, quite modernized in the 
latter instance, by the same master. 

Some three miles beyond Belcaro lies the 
Augustinian abbey of Lecceto, now belonging to 
the Seminario in Siena — occupied only by a con- 
tadino, save when students from the Seminary 
make it their summer residence. Always a spot 
of absolute tranquillity and great natural beauty, 
the inmates of the convent were famous for their 
piety and gentle deeds f). For their edification 
were depicted, in one of their cloisters, a series 

(<) Matteo's great Assumption of the Virgin, now in the National 
Gallery at London, once stood upon the high-altar of this church. 

r^) yir. Heywood's Ensamples of Fra Filippo gives a graphic ac- 
count of that friar's writings concerning the monaster}- and its legends. 

of scenes which set forth the life of the convent 
and the life of the world — highl}^ interesting 
works, of which the detail deserves very careful 
inspection — probably painted by Paolo di Mae- 
stro Neri (in 1343 ?), a pupil of Ambrogio Lo- 
renzetti. The second cloisters contain frescoes 
dating from the early Quattrocento, some of them 
completely restored, representing scenes from the 
life of St. Augustine, and from the lives of the 
monks themselves. Over the entrance to the 
church is a fresco of Christ, also by Paolo di 
Maestro Neri (?). Within the church are rem- 
nants of frescoes of the Trecento, and, in the 
floor, a tomb of a knight of the wSara^ini family. 

The ruined hermitage of S. Leonardo al Lago, 
charmingly situated on the plain, a few miles 
beyond, belonged to the convent of Lecceto. 
The church alone now remains intact. In the 
apse are remarkable frescoes, of scenes from the 
life of the Virgin, and, in the vaulting, of choirs 
of singing and playing Angels, by a follower 
of the Lorenzetti. The visitor may return to 
Siena by way of the Villa Sta. Colomba (^). 

Other points of especial interest, which may 
be visited by carriage, and to which must be 
devoted an entire day, are, the beautiful Gothic 
ruin of S. Calgano, and the Monastery of Monte 

'j See p. 164 supra. 

— 344 — 
Oliveto Maggiore, where are famous frescoes by 
Signorelli and Sodoma. Still another day's ex- 
cursion can be made to San Gimignano ; but as 

that little town contains many beautiful monu- 
ments, such a short visit is both unfair and 



To those readers who do not understand 
Italian, a few words concerning the principal 
English books dealing with Siena may, perhaps, 
prove useful. 

Of course, the first requisite is a good 
HISTORY history ; and here a choice may be 
made between two important works, 
both published within the last three months, by 
authors already well known to the public. We 
refer to A History of Siena by Langton Douglas, 
and The Story of Siena and San Giniignano by 
Edmund G. Gardner. 

To speak first of the slighter work. We 
recollect that Mr Gardner's Florence was ticketed 
by a leading review as "a glorified guide-book". 
This description admirably fits his Story of Siena 
and San Giniignano. Judged by such a criterion 
the book leaves little to be desired; and, for the 
tourist who merely wishes to obtain such a 
general idea of the history of the mediaeval city 
as will enable him to do his sight-seeing intel- 
ligently, no more charming volume could well 
be imagined, for the author seldom fails to 
illuminate the dull details of topography by the 

- 348 - 
associations of the sites described. Chapter X., 
Through the City of the Virgin, appears to us to 
supply a long felt want, while the points of 
interest in the neighbourhood of the toAvn are 
duly noted, and the reader is carried as far afield 
as Lecceto, ]\Ionte Oliveto and S. Galgano. 

Considered as a serious history, the book 
is less satisfactory. The account of the early 
years of the Commune, almost up to the Battle 
of Montaperti, is quite inadequate — a fact which 
can hardly cause surprise when we seek in vain, 
in the " Bibliographical Appendix ", for any 
mention of Professor Zdekauer's edition of the 
Constituto del Coinune di Siena dell' anno 1262 (^), a 
work of the utmost importance to the student 
of the political history of Siena during the Im- 
perial or Ghibelline period. 

From the closing years of the 13th century 
onward, there is, it is true, a marked improve- 
ment ; though, even here, the narrative never 
rises much above the level of a chronicle. The 
book, as a whole, gives us the impression of 
having been somewhat hastily written, and, were 
we unacquainted with Mr Gardner's previous 

(') In the English Historical Revieiv of January-, 1900, will be found 
a very able article by E. Armstrong dealing with these statutes. It is, in 
fact, a review of Professor Zdekauer's great work, and for those who do 
not understand Italian, and who are therefore unable to read the preliminary 
dissertation, it will unquestionably form an invaluable introduction to the 
Latin text. 

— 349 — 

record, we should constantly find ourselves Avon- 
dering whether this was the hurried work of a 
very able man who had neglected to properly 
assimilate his facts, or that of a distinctly second 
class writer who could do no better — the pot- 
boiler of a master, or the finished effort of a 
tyro. At the best the result is a fine impres- 
sionistic sketch. For the serious student it has 
comparatively little value. 

Professor Douglas' History of Siena, on the 
other hand, is the result of long and often orig- 
inal research, and covers the whole Sienese 
story, political, social and artistic. Preeminently 
scholarly, it is nevertheless neither dull nor 
ponderous, and will, we doubt not, receive as 
warm a welcome from the g'eneral reader as 
from the student. We are not afraid to proph- 
esy that it is destined to find an honoured place 
among the very limited number of English books 
which can seriously be regarded as valuable 
contributions to Italian history. 

We freely admit that it is rather hard on 
Mr Gardner that the almost simultaneous pub- 
lication of the two works should have rendered 
the drawing of a comparison between them 
inevitable, for neither in accuracy, scholarship, 
nor grasp of subject, is his book able to stand 
the test. They are both good ; both may be 
read with profit ; but the superiority of the one 
over the other is beyond question. 


With regard to the social life of 

MANNERS AND the old vSienese, their manners, 

CUSTOMS customs and beliefs, the reader 

may consult The " Ensamples " 
of Fra Filippo. A Study of Mediccval Siena, by 
William Heywood. This is, as far as we are 
aware, the only English work which deals at 
all fully with these important subjects. (See 
pages 144-145 supra). 

We cannot too strongly urge upon the 
ART reader that, when studying whatsoever 

work of art, he use his own eyes rather 
than those of others. Yet few of us are suflfici- 
ently trained to be able to see for ourselves. 
Naturally, therefore, in most cases, our taste in 
art is formed by the books consulted. We sug- 
gest, as useful and reliable, the following works 
which have to do with the art of Siena. 

As has already been said, the two most impor- 
tant works on vSienese painting are Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle's section on the same, in their monu- 
mental History of Painting in Italy (the Italian edi- 
tion is at present the best) (1), and Mr Berenson's 

(*) We believe that a new English edition of this work is to be pub- 
lished by Mr Murray during this coming year (1903), which is to contain 
much new material collected by the authors since the publication of the 
first edition, and some of which is not to be found in the Italian version. It is 
also to contaion notes by Professor Langton Douglas and Mr S. Arthur Strong. 

— 351 - 
Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. The first 
serious study of Sienese painters was made by 
Sig. Cavalcaselle, and his work is both thorough 
and, as a rule, discriminating. From a critical 
standpoint, Mr Berenson's short essay on the 
entire school is at once more general and more 
acute. Both these works are not only useful 
but absolutely indispensable to those who would 
go beneath the surface (^). 

Burckhardt's time-honoured Cicerone ifi^xvcv^xv 
and French) contains interesting notes on Ar- 
chitecture in Siena. Those of them which are 
due to C. V. Fabriczy are especially valuable. 
For excellent notices of Renaissance architects, 
and particularly of Peruzzi, see W. J. Anderson's 
Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy. A serious 
defect of this book, however, is that no mention 
is made either of Francesco di Giorgio or of 

C. C. Perkins' books on Italian Sculpture, long 
the standard works on the subject, although in a 
measure superseded by more modern writings, 
still contain much valuable criticism. M. Rey- 
mond's La Sculpture Florentine comprises various 
notices of Sienese sculpture, that concerning 
Jacopo della Querela being the most important. 

|i) We regret not being able to include in the present notice Mr F. 
Mason Perkins' long-promised but yet unpublished work on Sienese paint- 
ing, which will undoubtedly form a valuable addition to the critical litera- 
ture on the subject. 

An interesting monograph on Quercia, by Carl 
Cornelius (German), throws much light upon the 
Avork of that great artist. 

Of the books which treat of the Art of Siena 
in a general way, Professor Douglas' above 
mentioned History of Siena constitutes an ambi- 
tious attempt to cover the entire ground. Al- 
though we cannot agree with much of his 
criticism concerning artistic matters, we can re- 
commend the work as a careful study of the 
school. His notes on Architecture are of es- 
pecial value. Air Gardner's Story of Siena and 
San Gimignano likewise deals with Sienese art 
in its various branches, but in a more general 
and less adequate manner. Mrs Richter's Siena 
(German) is an interesting and well illustrated 
volume, but is uneven in the attention bestowed 
on the various artists. Frequent and critical 
mention is made of different vSienese artists in 
]\I. Eugene IMiintz' three volumes, Histoire de 
r Art pendant la Renaissance. 

We understand that, in the new edition of 
Mr. Selwyn Brinton's Renaissance of Italian Art, 
Siena will be much more fully dealt with than 
heretofore. Judging by his previous work, what 
he will have to tell us will probably be well 
worth reading. 

Of works on special subjects, we may 
SPECIAL mention Historical Studies of Chiirch 

— 353 — 
SUBJECTS Building in the Middle Ages, by E. C. 
Norton. At least a third of the book 
is devoted to the Sienese Cathedral. We believe 
that it is still a standard authority even in Italy. 
It was, we remember, favourably reviewed in 
the " Arch. stor. it. ". 

In The Pavement Masters of Siena, by R. H, 
Hobart Cust, we have a thoroughly reliable ac- 
count of the documentary history of the Pave- 
ment of the Duomo. The book is well written 
and adequately illustrated. 

Of the " Tavolette dipinte della Biccherna 
e della Gabella " Mr Hey wood has made a 
special study in his Pictorial Chronicle of Siena ; 
while, in Our Lady of August and the Palio of Siena, 
the same w^riter has collected almost all that is 
known about the great annual Sienese festa (See 
pages 145-147 supra). 

Among books relating to St. 
ST. CATHERINE Catherine, I\Irs J. E. Butler's 

Catherine of Siena. A Biography, 
is still probably regarded by many persons as the 
standard authority; but there is much to be said 
for Mr Gardner's contention that Augusta Theo- 
dosia Drane " deserves to be called the best of 
Catherine's modern biographers ". Nevertheless, 
this appreciation would have been sadly mislead- 
ing had he neglected to qualify his statement 

— 354 — 
by warning us against " her historical inac- 
curacies and her treatment of some of the vSaint's 
political letters " (^). The point of view of the 
writer will be sufficiently indicated when we 
state that her History of St. Catherine of Siena and 
her Companions is dated from St. Dominic's Con- 
vent, Stone, and has received the imprimatur of 
Cardinal Vaughan. 

A very different estimate of the life and 
character of Catherine will be found in A Decade 
of Italian Women, by Thomas Adolphus Trollope, 
who has also contributed the article on St. Cath- 
erine to the Encyclopoedia Britannica. 

For those who dislike extreme views and 
prefer a smaller book, we can very heartily re- 
commend The Story of Catherine of Siena hx Flor- 
ence Witts. The fact that it is published by 
the Sunday School Union may perhaps deter 
some from buying it. In this, however, the}^ 
would be ill advised. Though not absolutely 
free from blunders, it is pleasant reading; it tells 
the story of St. Catherine clearly and sympathet- 
ically, and only costs a shilling. 

Still, we fancy that, for most visitors to 
Siena, Mr Gardner's two chapters (Chap. II, 
Saint Catherine of Siena; Chap. VIL In the Foot- 
steps of Saint Cathej'ine) will supply all that is 

E. G. Gardner, op. cit. page 45, note i. 


It is not pleasant to turn from good books 
to bad, and we would very willingly leave the 
task of pointing out their deficiencies to others. 
Thus Mr Gilbert Hastings' slight and inadequate 
Siena, its Architecture and Art may be safely left 
to find its own level without any help from us (^). 

When, however, an unreliable work is not 
only being vigorously pushed and widely adver- 
tised, but has already reached a second edition, 
it seems absolutely necessary that someone 
should offer a word of warning. 

In their Italian Cities (almost half of the first 
volume of which is devoted to Siena) Mr and 
Mrs Blashfield have endeavoured to tread the 
same paths which Mr W. D. Howells so suc- 
cessfully followed in his charming Tuscan Cities. 
To lovers of accuracy and good workmanship 
the result is sufficiently deplorable f ). The 
literary style is bad ; there is a perpetual strain- 
ing after eff"ect ; an unchastened proclivity to 
verbal pyrotechnics. For instance : what shall 
be said of such slipshod metaphor as this (the 
writers are trying" to describe Siena): — " To close 

(') A review of the book will be found in the Bullettino Senese di 
Storia Patria, Vol. IX, (1902) pages 397-400. 

C^) It is, perhaps, only fair to mention that the following criticisms 
have reference almost exclusively to that portion of the book which treats 
of Siena. The rest may be of higher quality, but to one, at any rate, of 
the writers of this notice, the prospect of reading further was fraught with 
too many terrors- to be needlessly faced. 

- 356 - 
the eyes is still to see the narrow ways climbing- 
the slopes and piercing* brown arches; the close- 
set houses sweeping like billows now downward, 
now upward, tossed here and there into hig-her 
jet of palace or church, breaking into a spray 
of towers, till all are crested by the foam-like 
sculpture of the Duomo " ! It is perfectly true 
that Alfieri has spoken of "Siena... ore torreggia 
e siede " ; but, though she " towers ", she " sits ", 
and sits firm, with no such aguish tremblings 
and torture-twisted writhings as are here de- 
scribed. " Climbing ", " piercing ", " sweeping ", 
" tossed into a jet ", " breaking into spray ", 
" crested with foam " — Ruskin might have writ- 
ten something after that sort and made it effect- 
ive, but we feel sure that he Avould have finally 
frozen it all. As it stands, it is one of the most 
' awful examples ' in the way of fine writing 
with Avhich we are acquainted; and the book is 
filled with just such passages. Presumably, 
this is the stuff which the Atlantic Monthly calls 
" literary urbanity ". The term, we admit, has 
a pleasanter sound than that which we should 
have adopted, and, when defined, may serve as 

Sometimes this itch for fine phrasing results 
even more disastrously, as where it is stated 
that " vSiena like a true daughter of Rome is 
throned superbly upon many hills ". The hills 
upon which Siena is throned are conventionally 

00/ ^^ 

three. Possibly it might be more strictly ac- 
curate to speak of three ridges of one hill. 

However, there are mistakes enough in the 
book for which " literary urbanity " cannot be 
held responsible. The authors have read a good 
deal, but they seem to have trusted entirely to 
their memories in utilizing the material g"athered. 
For them, the story of Siena appears to be a 
long vague vista of "miracles", "ecstatic nuns", 
" socialistic painters", with a background of gore. 
When they endeavour to be definite they too 
often fall into error. Characteristic examples of 
their slovenly methods are to be found in the 
phrase, " Ambrogio di Lorenzo's battle of Tor- 
rita ", and in the invention, or rather resuscita- 
tion, of the Contrada dell' Orso to take part in 
a modern Palio ! 

The book, as we have hinted, has been 
extensively "puffed". For instance, it has been 
dubbed " the sanest, most catholic, and most 
conclusive art criticism of recent times ". To 
call such a statement a gross exaggeration is 
hardly strong enough. We, of course, fully 
admit that ^Ir and ]Mrs Blashfield are not re- 
sponsible for such advertisements. What they 
are responsible for — and it utterly mars such 
small merits as their book possesses — is their 
insufferably patronizing style of criticism. This 
is noticeable throughout, and particularly so 
when they concern themselves with the old 


- 358 - 
Sienese painters. That no such pose is justified. 
a very casual inspection of their work will suf- 
fice to demonstrate. 

In spite of all this it is possible that the 
volume in question may have served a useful 
end. It has had a wide circulation in the United 
States, and has very probably aroused an interest 
in Italian Architecture and Italian Art among 
persons who previously cared nothing at all for 
such matters. This is well ; but we solemnlv 
warn the visitor to Siena not to trust it too 
implicitly. In a word, the prudent reader will 
verify all the statements made by ]\Ir and ]\Irs 
Blashfield before mentally docketting them as 

We subjoin a list of Books and Authorities, 
containing not only such English works as treat 
especially of Siena but also works of a more 
general character concerned with the Second 
Part of this Guide. 

Anderson, AV. J. Architecture of the Renaissance 

in Italy. London, B. T. Batsford. 
Armstrong, E. The Sienese Statutes of 1262. In 

the English Historical Reviezv. Xo. 57, vol. XV. 

January, 1900. London, Longmans. 
Benrath, Iv. Bernai'dino Ochino of Siena. London, 


— 359 — 

Berenson, B. The Central Italiari Paiyiters of the 
Renaissance. New York and London, G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, 1897. 

Bevir, J. L. Visitor's Guide to Siena ajid Sa7i Gi- 
viignano. London, Edward Stamford, 1885, 

Blashfield, E. H., and E. W. Italian Cities. New 
York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900, 2 vols. 

Brinton, Selwyn. The Republic of Siena, being 
Part I, section II, of the Renaissance of Italian 
Art. London, Simpkin, ]\Iarshall and Co., Ld. 

Burckhardt. Cicerone. Achte Auflage, bearbeitet 
von Dr. Bode. Leipzig & Berlin. 

Butler, J. E. Catherine of Siena. A Biography. 

Cornelius, C. facopo delta Querela. Halle, 1896. 

Creighton, M. A History of the Papacy from the 
Great Schism to the Sack of Rome. New e- 
dition. London, Longmans, 1899, 6 vols. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. A New History of Paint- 
ing in Italy. London, 1864, 3 vols. 

Cummings, C. A. History of Italian architecture 
from Consta7itine to the Renaissance. New York, 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1901. 2 vols. 

Cust, R. H. Hobart. The Pavem-ent Masters of 
Siena. London, Geo. Bell and Sons, 1901. 

Day, Lewis F., The IVofider of Siena. Two ar- 
ticles in the Magazine of Art. Sept. and 
Oct., 1894. 

Douglas, Langton. The Majolica of Siena the 
Nineteenth Century, Sept., 1900. 

Douglas, Langton. A History of Siena. London, 
John Murray, 1902. 

— 36o — 

Drane, A. T. The History of St. Catherine of Siena 
and her Companions. London, Longmans, 
1899. 2 vols. 

Fenton, Geoffrey. Certaine Tragicall Discourses. 
In the " Tudor Translation Series ". With 
an Introduction by R. Langton Douglas. 
London, D. Xutt, 1897. 

Gardner, E. G. The Story of Siena and San Gi- 
mignano. London, J. ^I. Dent and Co, 1902. 

Guida Artistica della Citta e Contorni di Siena. 
Siena, Lazzeri, 1883. 

Hastings, G. Siena, its Architecture and Art. Lon- 
don. The De La Alore Press, 1902. 

Hey wood, W. The " Ens ample s " of Fra Filippo. 
A Study of MedicBval Siena. Siena, E. Tor- 
rini, 1901. 

Hey wood, W. Our Lady of August and the Palio 
of Siena. Siena, E. Torrini, 1899. 

Heywood. AV. A Pictorial Chronicle of Siena. 
Siena, E. Torrini, 1902. 

Ho wells, W. D. Tuscan Cities. Leipzig, Heine- 
mann & Balestier, 1900. 

Layard-Kugler. Italian Schools of Painting. Lon- 
don, John ]\Iurray, 1900, 2 vols. 

Lindsay. Christian Art. London, 1847, - vols. 

Miintz, E. Histoire de V Art pendant la Renaissance. 
Paris, Hachette, 3 vols. 

Norton, C. E. Historical Studies of Church Build- 
ing in the Middle Ages. Xew York, Harper, 

- 36i - 

Pastor, Ludwig. History of the Popes, from the 
End of the Middle Ages... English translation 
by Father Antrobus. 

Perkins, C. C. Historical Handbook of Italian Sculp- 
ture . New York, 1883. 

Promis. Vita di Francesco di Giorgio Martini, &c. 
Torino, 1841. 

Reymond, ^I. La Sculpture Floi'entine. Flor- 
ence, Alinari Freres. 4 vols. 

Richter, L. AI. Siena. Leipzig & Berlin, See- 
mann, 1901. 

Rio. De r Art Chretien. Paris. 

Symonds, J. A. The Renaissance in Italy. Lon- 
don. Smith, Elder & Co., 7 vols. 

Trollope, T. A. A Decade of Italian Women. Lon- 
don, Chapman and Hall, 1859. 2 vols. 

Vasari. Le Vite. Firenze, Sansoni, 187 8-1 882. 
8 vols. 

Villari, P. The Two First Centuries of Florenti7ie 
History (English translation). London, Fisher 
Unwin, 1901. 

Witts, Florence, The Story of Catherine of Siena. 
London, " Splendid Lives Series ". 

Note. A large number of pamphlets and 
articles, bearing on art-historical matters, have 
been published at different periods by Sienese 
and other Italian writers, such as Lisini, Lusini, 
Rossi, Rocchi, Pantanelli &c. 



Grand Hotel Royal de Sienne, Via Cavour, with 

its back to the Lizza. (English landlady). 
Grand Hotel Continental, Via Cavour, opposite the 

Post Office. 
Aquila Nera, Via Cavour, No. 3. 
La Toscana, Via del Re, No. 4 (unpretending 

but good). 
Pensione Santa Caterina, Via delle Belle Arti, 

Xo. 31 (excellent cuisine). 
Pensione Chiusareili, Viale Curtatone. 
Pensione Saccaro (formerly Tognazzi), Via Sal- 

lustio Bandini, 
Pensione Rigoni, Piazza Provenzano Salvani. 
Pensione Romualdi (formerly Pasqulni), Via delle 

Belle Arti, Xo. 19. 

- 363 - 

Caffe Greco, nearly opposite the Circolo degli 

Restaurants. // Sasso, Via Cavour, No. 14. La 
Scala, Piazza S. Giovanni and Via Diacceto, 
No. 10. i5'^?^^/i2^^; Croce del Travaglio. Cen- 
trale, Costarella. 

Confectioners. Mosca (formerly Corradini) Via 
Cavour, No. 3 (afternoon tea). Riacci e Barb- 
laji, Via Cavour, opposite the Via dei Ros- 
si. Vivi, Via Cavour, No. 16, next door to 
the Post Office. 

Beer at Bader-'s in the Lizza, and at the Cafie 

Whiskey. Scotch and American Whiskeys and 
imported wines at Riacci e Ba^'blan, Via Ca- 
vour, opposite the Via de' Rossi. 

Tobacco. Wills' " Capstan Navy Cut " at the 
tobacconist's in the Piazza dell' Indipen- 


Cabs and Carriages. Natale Turillazzi, Via Ca- 
vour, No. 25. Anto7iio Gracci, Via delle 
Terme, No. 15. Lorenzo Frayici, Via Rica- 
soli, No. 30. 

Bicycles. Brizzi, Via delle Belle Arti, Nos. 1 1 
& 13- 

- 364 - 

Physicians and Surgeons. Beccarini, Via del Ca- 
sato, Xo. 22. Boj-doni, Via di Citta,(^) Xo. 31.- 
Spediacci, Via delle Belle Arti, Xo. 21. 

Dentist. Cianchi, Via delle Terme, Xo. 17 (wStrong- 
ly recommended). 

Chemists. CoH, Croce del Travaglio. Parenti, 
Via Cavour, Xo. 7, opposite the Libreria 
Torrini. Sapori, Via Ricasoli Xo. 9 (Pan- 
forte, a specialty of vSiena, sold by all). 

Banlcer and Money Changer. V. Crocini, Via Ca- 
vour, Xo. 12. Banco di Roma, Piazza To- 

Notary Public. F. Del Puglia, Via di Citta (0, 
Xo. 7 nearly opposite the Caffe Greco (on 
the first floor). 

Baths. Hot and cold Baths, Mazzei, Via Gio- 
vanni Dupre, Xo. 45. vSwimming Bath in 

Hairdresser. Consorti, Via Cavour, Xo. 3. 

(•) Recently recbristened Via Umberto I. 

This is onl}- one example among manj' of the rapid disappearance 
of time-honoured names which has followed the unification of Itah-. The 
result, deplorable in any case, would be less exasperating to the student if 
the old title were recorded under the new, as has been done in the Piazza, 
where the inscription runs "Piazza Vittorio Emanuele gia del Campo ". 

- 36o - 


Bookseller. Torrini, (Old and new books) Via 

Cavour, No. 8. 
Photographs. Lombardi, opposite the Costarella 

(Speaks English). Agency for Alinari'^ 

photographs, Via Cavour, No. 7. 
Antiquities. Torrini, Via Cavour, No. 8. Basetti, 

Via Cavour, No. 31. 
Wood-Carving. Cambi, Via di Citta (^). Corsini, 

Via del Capitano, No. 5. 
Iron WorlC. Zalaffi, Via di Citta (^). Franci, Via 

Bool(binding. Lessons in artistic bookbinding, 

Torrini, Via delle Terme, No. 19. 
Picture Frames and Gilding. Corsi, Via delle 

Terme, No. 2. 
Marlcet, for cattle. First Monday each month. 

General market held daily in Piazza del 


English church services. See page 6 siipra. 

(') See note on preceding page. 


Abbadia San Salvatore, loi. 

Abrami, The, 46 n. 

Accademia delle Belle Arti, 5. 

Accademia de'' Fisiocritici, 6 142. 

Accarigi. The, 46 n. 

Accattapane, Arrigo, 134. 

Advocata SenensiuDi 127 n. 139, 
236 n. 

^•Ilneas Sylvius Piccolomini, See 
Pius J I. 

^Eneas Piccolomini, See I iccolomini 

^■Etieid of Virgil, translated into 
Italian, 136. 

vEsQp's Fables, 136. 

Agazzari, Fra Filippo, 136, 144. 

Agnolo d' Andrea, 87. 

Agnolo di Tura, 135. 

Agostino di Giovanni, 167. 

Albizi, The, 46 n. 

Albizzeschi, Bernardino. See Ber- 
nardino, San. 

Aldobrandeschi, The, 31, 33. 

— Ildobrandino, 115. 

— Omberto, 115. 

Alessi, The, 44, 45 n. 46 n. 
Alexander III, 23, 215, 235. 
Alfonso of Calabria, 104. 
Aliotti, 167. 

Allegretto AUegretti, 139. 
Ambassadors, Sienese, Picture of, 

115 n. 
Amiata, Monte, loi, 217. 
Anconitani, The, 46' n. 
Andrea Bregiio 243. 
Andrea del Brescianino. See Bre- 

Andrea Dei, 135. 

Andrea di Xiccolo, 189, 277, 332, 

?>i3^ 334- 
Andrea del Sarto, 302. 
Angiolieri Cecco, 130, 297 n. 
Anguillara, Count of, 115, 116. 
Ansano, S., 20, 235, 265 n., 274. 
Antolini, The, 46 n. 
Apollo, 44 n. 
Aquila, 99. 

Arbia, The river, 20, 21, 53. 
Archivio di Stato, 5, 142, 290-295. 
Architecture, 153 seq. 
Arco di S. Agostino, 278. 
Arezzo, 20, 21, 35, 41, 89, 100, 167, 

Arms of the Commune, 44 n., 203 n. 
— People, 30 31. 
Armstrong Mr. E, 348 n. 
Arringhieri, Niccolo, 295. 
Arti, The, 29, 107. 

Arte delta Lana, 41, 47, 84. 

Arte de'' macellari. See But- 
chers, Guild of. 

Arte de' Mercanti, 46, 220 n. 

Arte degli Orafi, 135. 

Arte de' Maestri di Pietra, 166. 

Arte de' Pittori, 135, 176 n. 
Arzocchi, The, 46 n. 48. 
Asciano, Battle of, 32. 
Assenipri, The, of Fra Filippo, 136, 

Assisi, 157 n. 181, 182. 
Asso, The river, 51. 
Augustus, 19, 156. 
Avignon, 85 n. 

Badia a Spugna, 37, 38. 
Baglioni, The, 114. 


Baldassarre Peruzzi. 192, 225, 237, 
243, 268, 271 n., 273, 287, 288, 
308, 342. 

Balducci, Matteo, 190, 225. 288, 305, 

307. 333' 334- 337- 
Bal'ia, Collegia della, 106, 115, 121. 
Ballo tondo, 211 n. 
Balzana, The, 44 n. 
Balzano, Libra delta il, 91. 
Banchi, Luciano, 143. 
Bandinelli, The, 46 n. 
Bankers, Sienese, 41, 42, 47, 49, 

297 n. 
Barbarossa. See Frederick Barba- 

Barbotti, The, 46 n. 
Bargagli, Scipione, 140, 141, 278 n. 
Barili, Antonio, 196, 246, 285. 
Barili, Giovanni, 197, 239. 
Barker, William, 119 n. 
Bama, 183, 270. 
Baroncelli, The, 46 n. 
Bartoli, Taddeo, See Taddea di Bar- 

Bartolo di Fredi, 184, 218, 269, 307, 

Bartolommeo di Xutino, 279, 323. 
Barzelletta della Cittd di Siena. 

117 n. 
Battifolle, 207 n. 
Bazzi, Gianantonio, See Sodoiiia. 
Beccafumi, Domenico, 174, 192, 217, 

223, 226, 238, 260, 266, 272, 276, 

279, 288, 301 n., 302, 307, 334, 

Becchina, 130. 
Belcaro, 342. 
Bellarmati, Antonio, 139. 
Bellarmati, Girolamo, 164. 
Belmonti, The, 30, 32. 
Benedict, St., The rule of, 100. 
Benevento, 23. 
— The Battle of, 34. 
Benincasa, Catcrina, See Cathe- 
rine. .St. 

Bentivogli, Comelio, 124. 
Bentivoglio, Giovanni, of Bologna. 

108 n. 
Benvenuto di Giovanni, 186 seq., 

189 n. 264, 269, 271, 293, 303, 

3^4' 335' 34I- 
Benvoglienti, Uberto, 140. 
Berenson, ^Ir Bernhard, 131, 132. 

187, 193 n., 256, 326, 350. 
Bernardino, S., 97-99, 102, 103, 137, 

213, 239, 263 n. et passim. 
Bernardo Daddi, 322, 323. 
Bernardo Rossellino, 162, 217, 290. 
Bernini, 237. 

Bianco da Siena, 102, 133. 
Bibliateca Caynunale, 3, 318. * 
Biccherna, The, 55, 56 n. 134, 291 

n. See Tavalette dipinte. 
Bichi Alessandro, in. 
Bidelli, Scipione, 112. 
Bishops, Temporal power of the, 21 

Black Death. See Pestilence, The. 
Blashfield, Mr & Mrs., 355-338. 
Boccaccio, Will of, 295. 
Bologna, 35, 61, 168, 169, 170. 
Bonda, S., The Convent of, loi. 
Bonichi, Bindo, 130, 131-132. 
Bordone, Paris, 338. 
Borgia, The, 106. 
Borghesi, Niccolo, 107. 
Borghesi, Scipione, 142. 
Bostoli, The, 46 n. 
Bottirii, The, 3, 161. 
Bozzone, The River, 33. 
Brescianino, 193, 223, 224, 223, 302. 

Bretons, The, 89. 
Brevi, 133. 
Brigandage 112 seq. 
Brinton, Mr Selwyn, 332. 
Bronze-casters in Siena, 170, 238 n. 
Brunelleschi, 278. 
Brutus, 221 n. 
Bulgarini, The, 46 n. 


Buoncdnvento, 48, 54, 130. 
Buonsignori. The, 46 n. 

— Compagnia de\ See Compa- 
gnia de' Buonsignoii. 

— Niccolo de', his rebellion, 4q seq. 
Buontalenti, Bernardo, 228. 
Burckhardt. See Cicerone. 
Butchers, Guild of, 221. 

Butler, Mrs J. E. 96, 353. 

Caleffi, The, 10, 135, 294 n. 
Camaino di Crescentino, 161, 
Camarlingo di Bicchema, 56, 291 n. 
Camollia, Battle of, 236, n. 279. 
Caraollia, Porta, See Gates. 
Campagfnatico, 51, 115. 
Campaldino, Battle of, 41, 34. 
Campiglia d' Orcia, 31, 60. 
Campo, II. See Piazza del Campo. 
Campsores domini papce, 42, 297 n. 
Caneschi, The, 71, 72. 
Capitano del Popolo. See ( aptain 

of the People. 
Capriola, 97. 

Captain of the Party Guelf, 48, 58. 
Captain of the People, 30, 59, 105. 
Carpellini, C. F., 142. 
Carroccio, The Sienese, 241 n. 
Casa delta Consitma, 306. 
Casamari, 157 n. 
Casate, The, 46 n. 
Casato, The, 50, 278. 
Castel di Camollia, 44 n. 
Castellaccia, The, 50. 
Castellare, The, 297, 298 n. 
Castello di Val di Montone, 44 n. 
Castel Senio, 44 n. 
Castel Vecchio, 22, 44 n., 229, 230, 

Cateau Cambresis, The Treat}' of, 

Caterina di Salicotto, 107. 
Cathedral, The, 61. See Churches 

and Convents. 
Catherine, St., 94-96, 136, 263 n. et 

passim. Her house 316 seq. Rel- 
ics of the Saint, 311 seq. 
Cauli, The, 46 n. 

Cavalieri ox milites, 28 n., 29 n. 56. 
Cavalieri or Knights, 58. See 

Cecco Angiolieri. See Angiolieri 

Cecco di Giorgio. See Francesco 

di Giorgio. 
Ceccolini, 222 n. 
Cellino di Xese, 167. 
Celso Cittadini, 39 n., 140. 
Ceramics, 195-196 
Cerretani, The, 46 n. 
Chains of the City, 65 n. 305 n. 
Charlemagne, 203 n. 
Charles of Anjou, 35, 37, 40, 43, 200. 
Charles of Durazzo, 89. 
Charles V, iii, 117, n8, 119, 121. 
Charles of Luxemburg, 62 seq., 93. 
Chiusi, 21, 113. 
Chronicles, Sienese, 135. 
Churches and Convents. 

Agostino, S., 188, 196, 276. 

Andrea, S., 74, 306. 

Ansano, S. 156 n. 274. 

Baptistery'. See Giovanni Bat- 
tista, S. 

Bernardino, S., Oratorio di, 167, 

Bruco (Chiesa della Contradai 

Campansi 306. 

Cappella della Piazza, 204. 

Carmine, 272. 

Caterina S., della Notte, 268. 

Caterina S., in Fontebranda, 164, 
173, 196, 316-318. 

Caterina, S. (Contrada del Dra- 
go) 311. 

Cathedral. See Duomo. 

Chiara, S., 157, 287. 

Chiodi, SS., 304. 

Cristoforo, S., 296. 

Croce, S., 278. 


Churches and Convents — contiiiued 
Domenico, S., 187, 192, 311-315. 
Donate, S., 304. 
Duomo, The, 61, 159, 161, 173, 
195, 197, 229-252, 
Campanile, 231. 
Facade, 231. 
Interior, 233 seq. 
Cappella del Voto, 236. 
High Altar, 237. 
Sacrist}', 239. 
Pulpit, 239. 

Cappella di S. Ansano, 241. 
Cappella di S. Giovanni, 241. 
Libreria, 244-247. 
The Pavement, 247-251. 
Eugenia, S., 287. 
Fontegiusta, 174 n., 308. 
Francesco, S., 183, 196, 298 seq. 
Gesuate, Convent of the, 264. 
Giacomo, S. (Contrada della Tor- 
re; 281. 
Gherardo, S., 301. 
Giovanni Battista, S., 161, 170, 

171, 230, 231, 260. 
Giovanni, S., della .Staffa, 289. 
Giuseppe, S., (Contrada dell'On- 

da) 278. 
Girolamo, S., 281. 
Giusto, S., 281. 
Lucia, S., 173, 196, 274. 
Madonna sotto le volte dello Spe- 

dale, 269. 
Margherita, S., (Contrada della 

Pantera) 171 n., 275. 
Maria S., degli Angeli 285. 
Maria S., di Betlem, 156, 285. 
Maria S., delle Nevi, 162, 305. 
Marta, S., (Orfanotrofio) 273. 
Martino, S., 50, 156 n., 165, 171 

n., 279. 
Misericordia, 280. 
Monagnese, 173, 259. 
Mustiola, S., 277. 
Niccolo, S., 285. 

Churches and Convents — continued 

Paolo, S., (Contrada della Chioc- 
ciola) 274 n. 

Pellegrino, S., 339. 

Pietro, S., alia Magione, 33, 309. 

Pietro, S., a Ovile, 303. 

Pietro, S., alle Scale 270. 

Provenzano, S. Maria di, 165, 

Quirico, S., 156 n., 275. 

Rocco, S., 303. 

Refugio, 286. 

Santuccio, 286. 

Sebastiano, S., in vallc Piatta, 

Sebastian, St., Confraternit)- of, 

Servi, dei, 183 n., 282. 

Spirito, S., 288. 

Stefano, S., 310. 

Trinita, SS., 284. 

Vincenzo ed Anastasio, SS. (Con- 
trada deir Istrice) 307. 
Church services, English, 5. 
Cicerone, Der, 173 n., 351. 
Cimabue, 178. 
Cino di Bartolo, 170, 
Cino di Pistoia, 168. 
Cistercians, 157. 
Cives maiores, mediocres et mino- 

res, 28. 
Civis novus, 28. 
Clement IV., 157 n. 
Clement VII., no. 
Codennacci, The, 46 n. 
Colle di Val d' Elsa, 34, i^, 43, 104, 

Colle, The Battle of, 36 seq. 
Colombini, Giovanni, 94, 100-102, 

^ih 137- 
Columbus, Christopher, 309. 
Columns in Siena, 

presso il Palazzo Pubblico, 203. 

sulla piazza di Postierla, 228. 

sulla piazza di S. Giusto, 281. 

Colnmns in Siena — continued 

presso la fontana del Pontc, 287. 
sulla piazza Tolomei, 296. 
presso r Oratorio di S. Rocco, 

Comtnentaries of Pius II., 68. 
Commesso in viaimo, 194, 197. 
Commission appointed by Charles IV 
to reform the government, 66, 67. 
Compagnia de^ Buonsignori, 41, 

49 n- 

Compagnia del Bruco, 84 seq. 

Compagnia del Cappello, 70, 208. 

Compagnie per la Citta delle Con- 
trade, 25. 

Companies of Adventure, 69, 70, 89, 
91, 92. 

Consiglio Generate delta Campana, 

24. 55- 

Consilium Generate Capitanei et 
Populi, 30. 

Consoli de' Cavatieri, 56, 58. 

Consoli de' Mercanti, 56. 

Constitutuni Comunis Senarum, 
135, 348. 

Consuetudines feudoruni, 28 n. 

Consules ynititum. See Consoli de' 

Consuls, 22 seq., 73, 74. 

Co)itado, Sienese, 21, 52 n. 

Conte, Simone di, 76, 

Contrade, The, 4, 25, 145, 146. 

Convents. See Churches and Con- 

Coppo di Marcovaldo, 282. 

Cord used as a sjmbol of civic con- 
cord, 210 n. 

Corradino, 36. 

Cortona, 92, 163. 

Cosimo de' ]Medici, 121, 122, 123, 

Costarella de' Barbieri, 221. 

Council of the Bell. See Consiglio 
Generate delta Campana. 

Count Alberto di Mangone, 33. 

Counts, Siena ruled by, 21 seq., 

271 n. 
Cozzarelli, Giacomo, 163, 238, 254, 

259, 260, 266, 274, 280, 288, 316. 
Cozzarelli, Guidoccio, 189, 215, 264, 

269, 293, 294, 317, 332, 334, 335, 

335. 341- 
Criminal-justice, 87, 282 n. 
Croce di Travagtio, 8x n., 198, 219 

et passim. 
Crowe, & Cavalcaselle, 151, 350. 
Cust, Mr R. H. Hobart, 247 n., 

271 1- 353- 

Dante, quoted or referred to, 33, 

34. il, 39. 40. 47 "•. 54 "•. ii5. 

125, 158, 168, 200, 272 n., 306 n. 
Dedications of Siena to the Virgin, 

127 n., 236 n. 
Dei, Andrea, 135. 
Delia Robbia, 285, 289, 340. 
Diana, 44 n. 
Diana, The, 272. 
Died, The Magistracy of the, 90, 

Diego, Don, Hurtado de Mendoza, 

87 n., 118-120. 
Diocese of Siena, 5. 
Dodici, The, 67 seq., 104. 
Dodicini. See Dodici. 
Dofana, 20. 
Domenico di Bartolo, 185, 266, 267, 

Domenico di Niccolo^ 196, 214. 
Donate'lo, 169, 172, 223, 241, 242, 

261, 262. 
Donato, Neri di, 135. 
Douglas, Professor Langton, 108 n., 

138, 145, 195, 231 n., 347, 350 n., 

Drane, Augusta Theodosia, 353. 
Duccio di Buoninsegna, 176, 179 seq., 

208, 225, 237, 255 seq., 269, 271. 

283, 319, 320, 321. 


Einstein, ilr Lewis, 6o n., iig n. 
Elinora, The game of, 45 n., 147. 
Elsa, The River, 37. 
England, Sienese merchants in, 60, 
60 n.: Sienese Architects in, 164. 
Enguerran de Coucy, 89. 
Etruscans, 19, 155. 
Estimo. See Lira or Eslimo. 

Faruello, 87. 

Fabriczy, Dr. C. von, 351. 

Federighi, Antonio, 162, 171, 172, 
173, 227, 235, 237, 242, 253, 254, 
289, 290, 297, 301, 305, 310. 

Felici, Cristoforo, 300. 

Ferrara, Peace of, 103. 

Feudal Seigniors, 27-28, 29 n., 31. 

Fioretti The, 25, 299 n. 

Flanders, 60. 

Florence, Climate of, compared with 
that of Siena, 3 ; Her struggle 
with Siena, 31 seq. ; defeated at 
^Montaperto, 34 ; Commercial su- 
premacy of, 41-42 ; Alliance with 
Siena, 42 ; Her irritation with 
the Nove, 64 ; She mediates be- 
tween the Popolo and the Gentil- 
uomiiii, 83 ; She gains possession 
of Arezzo, 90 ; Her bad faith, 92, 
93 ; War with Siena, 93 ; De- 
clares against Gregorj' XII 103 ; 
Fresh war with Siena, 103 ; Her 
relations with Pandolfo Petrucci, 
106 ; Fall of the Republic of, 118 ; 
Cosirao de' Medici, Grand Duke 
of, 121. 

Fojano, 124, 125. 

Folcacchiero Folcacchicri, 129. 

Fontebecci, 73. 

Fontegiusta, Madonna di, 119. 

Fortini, Pietro, 140, 141. 

Fossanuova, 157 n. 

Fountains of Siena. 

Fonte di Follonica, 289. 
Fontebranda, 264, 315. 

Fountains of Siena — continued 
Fonte Gaia, 170, 201-202, 233. 
Fonte Nuova, 161, 303. 
Fonte Ovile 303. 
Fonte Pescaia 309-310. 

Fra Angelico, 185, 216, 226. 

France and Siena, 120 seq. 

Francesco di Giorgio, 173, 186 seq., 
190, 238, 280, 292, 297, 298 n., 
305, 306, 310, 331, 332, 335, 341. 

Francis, St., 25. 

Fra Paolino, 288. 

Frederick Barbarossa, 22, 23, 93, 


Frederick III, 309. 

Fungai, Bernardino, 189, 190, 275, 

281, 284, 294, 303, 307, 308, 313, 

318, 333, 334, 335- 

Gabella. See Tavolette dipintc. 

Gaddi, Taddeo, 325. 

Galgano, S., Abbey of, 157, 158, 

234' 343- 
Gallerani, The, 46 n. 
Galleria dclle Belle Arii, 319-338. 
Gardner Mr. Edmund G., 347-349, 

352, 353. 354- 
Gcirzia de Toledo, Don, 122. 
Gascons, The, 89. 
Gastaldi, 21. 
Gates of Siena, 4, 39, 71. 

Barriera S. Lorenzo, 4, 306. 

Porta all' Arco, 30. 

Porta Aurea, 136 n. 

Porta CamoUia, 33, 37, 122, 133, 

Porta Fontebranda, 156 n. 
Porta Laterina, 271. 
Porta S. Marco, 273. 
Porta Ovile, 84, 303. 
Porta Pispini, 20, 287. 
Porta S. Prospero, 74. 
Porta Romana, 120, 133, 137, 

Porta Tufi, 162, 278. 

375 — 

Gates of 'S'wnn— continued 

Porta San Viene, 20. See Porta 

Gavinana, Battle of, 1 26. 

Gazzanetti, The, 46 n. 

Genga, 190, 224, 333, 338. 

General Council. See Consiglio Ge- 

Gentile da Fabriano, 186. 

Gentiluomini, Order of Ma^^nati or, 
24, 28, 29 n., 104. See Monte 
rf<?' Gentiluomini. 

Gentiluomini, Consultative College 
of, 67, 69. They expel the Dodici 
from office, 73; are excluded from 
office by the Riformatori, 75, 
78 ; Their cruelty, 79 : Are re- 
admitted to the minor offices, 83 ; 
Pius II uses his influence on their 
behalf, 104. 

Gerardini, The, 46 n. 

German mercenaries in the employ 
of the Sienese, 37. 

Gesuati, The. See Poveri Gesiiati. 

Ghibellines. See GueJfs and Ghib- 
e nines. 

Ghiberti, 169, 261 . 

Ghirlandaio, 1 76, 223. 

Giacomo di Bartolommeo. See Pac- 

Giacomo di Castello, 195, 239. 

Giacomo di Giovanni, 214. 

Giacomo di Mino del Pellicciaio, 

Gian Galeazzo Visconti, 93. 

Gigli Girolamo, I41. 

Giordano, Count, 34. 

Giotto, 167, 176, 178, 180, 182. 

Giovanni d' Agostino, 167, 302. 

Giovanni delle Borabarde, 308. 

Giovanni da Imola, 237. 

Giovanni di Meo, 88. 

Giovanni Misser, di Montepulciano, 

Giovanni di Paolo, 189, 224, 257, 

258, 270, 271, 283, 292, 304, 306, 

310, 311, 327, 328, 329, 332, 339. 
Giovanni Pisani, 166, 231 n,, 265. 
Giovanni di Stefano, 1 73, 237, 242, 

Giovanni da Udine, 276. 
Giovanni da Verona, Fra, 238. 
Girolamo di Benvenuto, i88, 307, 

308, 333, 334. ii(^^ 340. 
Gioslre del Toppo, 54 n. 
Giuliano da Como, 237. 
Giuliano di Maiano, 162, 287, 305. 
Glass, Stained, in Siena, 194-195. 
Goldsmiths, 194. 
Golli, The, 46 n. 
Gonfalonieri Maestri, 77, 85. 
Goro di Gregorio, 167. 
Gothic Architecture, 153, 157 seq. 
Gottoli, The, 46 n. 
Grande Tavola. See Compagnia 

de' Buonsignori. 
Grasselli, The, 71, 72. 
Gregori, The, 46 n. 
Gregorovius, 78. 
Gregory XII, ,03. 
Grosseto, 51, 60, 70, 117. 
Guastelloni, The, 46 n. 
Guelfs and Ghibellines, 31 seq. 
Guercino, 279. 
Guglielmo degli Ubertini, Bishop- of 

Arezzo, 41, 51, 52. 
Guido da Pisa, 136 n. 
Guido Reni, 279. 

Guido da Siena, 178, 179, 208, 320. 
Guido Novello, The Count, 34, ^5, 

35 n., 37, 38. 
Guldoriccio da Fogliano, 207. 
Guilds. See Arti. 

Hastings, Mr Gilbert, 185 n., 355. 

Havre-de-Grace, 164. 

Henri II, 164. 

Henry III, 2!. 

Henry VII, 54, 93, 167, 194. 

Hoby, Sir, Thomas, 119 n. 

- 376 

Houses. See Palaces. 

Ilario del Carretto, 169. 

Incontrati, The, 46 n. 

Incontri. The, 44, 45 n., 46 n., 48, 

Inla3ing of wood and marble, 194. 

Jacopo della Querela, 169, 170, 171, 
172, 201 , 217, 253, 261, 280, 286. 

Jacopo di Mino del Pellicciajo 231, 
255, 260, 284. 

John II, Bishop of Siena, 2 1 . 

John XXII, 100. 

Julius III, 120. 

Knighthood conferred bj- the Com- 
mune, 28, 49. 

Lace-work, 273 n. 

Ladislas of Naples, 103. 

Lambertini, Michele, 263. 

Lando di Pietro, 162, 194, 230, 252. 

Lauds. See Rime Spiritnali. 

Lecceto, ^lonasterj- of, 144, 142. 

Leo X, I 10. 

Leonardo da Vinci, 163, 190. 

Liber census el reddiluum, 29. 

Lippo Memmi. See Memmi Lippo. 

Lippo di Vanni. See V'atiui, Lip- 
po di. 

Lira o EsUdio, 27. 

Lisini, Cav. A. 143, 152. 

Lizza, Passeggio della, 119, 155 n., 

Loggia di ^lercanzia. See Loggia 
de' Xobili. 

Loggia de' Xobili, 171 n., 219-221. 

Loggia del Papa, 154 n., 289. 

Loggia degli Uniti. See Loggia 
de' Xobili. 

Lombard-Romanesque, 156 seq. 

Lorenzetti Ambrogio, 61, 182 seq., 
209, 217, 258, 292, 300, 301, 322, 
.123. 324- 341- 

Lorenzetti Pietro, 181 seq., 257, 258, 
269, 277, 283, 300, 304, 322, 323. 

Lorenzo Cini. 279. 
Lorenzo di Maitano. See Maitano, 

Lorenzo di. 
Lorenzo di Mariano. See Marri>ia. 
Lorenzo de' Medici, 108 n. 
Lorenzo di Pietro. See Vecchietta. 
Lorenzo, Monaco, 186. 
Luca di Tomme, 325. 
Lucca, 35, 40, 52, 73, 123, 169, 171 n. 
Lucignano, 126. 
Lucius III, 235. 

Macchiavelli, 106. 
Maconi, The, 46 n. 
Madonna del Bordone, 282. 
Madonna detta del Corvo, at the 

corner of Via di Castelvecchio, 

Madonna di Fontegiusta, 119. 
^Madonna degli Occhi Grossi. See 

Madonna del Voto. 
^ladonna del Voto, 236. 
Maestri di Pietra. See Arte de' 

Maestri di Pietra. 
Magna tabula. The. See Compa- 

gnia de'' Bnonsignori. 
Magnati. See Gentiluomini. 
Mainardi, 223. 
^lainetti. The, 46 n. 
^laiolica. See Ceramics. 
Maitano, Lorenzo di, 161, 168, 230. 
Malatesta da Rimini, 73, 76, 80, 82. 
Malavolti, The, 46 n. 

— lacomo de', 85 n. 

— Orlando, 139. 
Malborghetto, 31, 289 n. 
;Manciano, 112. 
Manfred, y^,, 34. 

^langia. See Toire del Maugia. 
Gianni, Jacopo, 74. 
^lappamondo, Sala del, 70 n., 205- 

Marciano, 124. 

Maremma, 21, 32, 50, 51, 116. 

Marescotti, The, 46 n., 222 n. 

Marignano, 122 seq. 

Marrina, 174, 242, 244, 279, 282, 

290, 300, 308. 
Martinella, The, 87 n. 
Martinelli, The, 46 n. 
]Martino di Bartolommeo, 215, 327. 
Mascagni, Paolo, 142. 
Massa Marittima, 97. 
Massaritia, 27. 
Masse, The, 4. 
Mattasala di Spinello de' Lamber- 

tini, 133. 
Matteino di Ser Ventura da INIcnza- 

no, 80. 
Matteo di Balducci. See Bahfucri, 

Matteo di Giorgio, 190. 
Matteo di Giovanni, 188, 255, 276, 

283, 287, 303, 305, 313, 331, 332, 

336, 2>ll- 
Mattioli, Pier Antonio, 142. 
Maurus, Bishop of Siena, 20. 
Mazenghi, The, 46 n. 
Medallists, 195. 
Medici, The, 67. 
Meloria, Battle of, 52. 
;Mcm:ni Lippo, 183, 216, 274, 283, 

Memorialis offensarum, 29 n., 91. 
Mendoza. See Diego Don, Hurt ado 

de Mendoza. 
Mengozzi, Cav. N., 143, 207 n. 
Merchants, Sienese, 41-42 ; They 

monopolize the government, 45 

seq., s^seq.; Their enterprise, 60. 
Merse, The River, 21. 
Mess a della Pace, La, 82. 
Mico, Sienese poet. 132. 
Mignanelli, The, 46 n. 
Milan, 93, 97, 104. 
Milanesi, Gaetano, 143. 
Mililes, 28 n., 29 n., 56. 

Monislero, II, 21, 40, 341. 
Monluc, Blaise de, 127. 
Montalcino, 32, 33, 34, 121, 122, 126, 

^Vlontanini, The, 46 n. 
Montanini, Andrea and Guccio, 134. 
Montapcrto, Battle of, 34, 38, 60, 

222 n., 236 n., 241, 296 n. 
Montaperlo, Libro di, 9. 
Montecchiesi, The, 46 n. 
Montemassi, 207. 
Monte Ollveto, 100, 344. 
Montepulciano, 32, ->,t^, 35, 92, 184. 
Monteriggioni, -^^i. 
Monterotondo, 117. 
Monteselvoli, 222 n. 
Monti o Oidini of Siena, 46. 

Motile de'' Dodici, 67, 68. See 

Monte de' Genliluoniini, 46, 47. 
See Gentiluomini. 

Monte de' Move, 66, 67. See 

Monte del Popolo, 90, 104. 

Monte de' Ri/oi inatoi i, 78. See 
Riforniatoi i. 
Monticiano, 21. 
Montieri, 32. 
Muntz, M. Eugene, 352. 
Museum, Natural History", 6. 

Naples, 36, 162, 167. 
Nardini-Despotti, on the facade of 

the Duomo, 231 n. 
Negoliatores abjecli, 68. 
Nelli, M. Giustiniano, 140, 141. 
Neroccio di Landl, 172, 173 n., i86 

seq., 216, 222, 236, 259, 284, 293, 

Neroni, Bartolommeo, 238. 
Niccolo Pisani, 166, 239. 
Nicolas V, 99. 
Nobilitas divitiariim, 28. 
Nobles, See Genliluoniini. 
Norfolk, The Duke of, 119 u. 


Norton, Professor E. C, 353. 

Nove, The, 54 seq.; Their Stat- 
ute, 55-59 ; Fall of the, 65-67 ; 
Their banishment, 104 ; Their 
return 105 ; Their power survives 
the expulsion of the Petrucci, in. 

Novellieri Senesi, 17, 137, 140, 141. 

Noveschi. 67. See Nove. 

OcHixo, Bernardino, 142. 

Ogerio, 32. 

Oliphant, Mrs.; her methods of re- 
search, 68 n. 

Omberto, Count, 115. 

Ombrone, The River, 21. 

Onorata Massaini, in. 

Opera del Duovio, The, 170, 174, 

Orbetello, 112, 117. 

Orcagna, 183. 

Orders of the City, 48, 56. 

Ordinances of the People, 31. 

Orgia, 22. 

Orgiale, 22. 

Ormanni, Antoniolo, 244. 

Orsini, Ceccolo degli, 70. 

Orsini, Matteo Rosso degli, 49. 

Orso, 167. 

Orvieto, 2ili^ ^59' 161, 168, 183 n. 
194; Cathedral of, compared with 
that of Siena, 231-232. 

Osservanza, Convent of the, 97, 109, 
163, 340. 

Otho, The Emperor, 31. 

Otranto, 104. 

Pacchi.\, Girolamo del, 190, 226, 
280, 282, 288, 297, 302, 316, 317, 

Pacchiarotto, 190, 192, 239, 272, 280, 

332, 333' 336. 
Padua, 184. 
Pagan ucci, The, 46 n. 
Pagliaresi, The, 46 n. 51. 
Painting, Sienese, 175 seq. 

Palaces of Siena. 

Palazzo Arcivescovile, 265. 

— Bindi-Sergardi, 260. 

— Buonsignori (Tegliaccil, 160, 

— Chigi, 228. 

— Constantini, 306. 

— dei Diavoli, 154 n., 162, 310. 

— Finetti, 276. 

— Forteguerri, 227. 

— S. Galgano, 287. 

— del Governo, 290. 

— Grottanelli, 160, 228 

— del ^lagnifico, 155, 163, 196, 
i97> 259. 

— de' Marsili, 227. 

— Petrucci. See del Maguifico. 

— Piccolomini. See rf^/ Coz'^7';/o. 

— Pollini, 164, 273. 

— Pubblico, 61, 70, 159, 160, 171, 
196, 199, 202 seq. 

— Reale, 228. 

— Salimbeni, 43, 81, 160, 165 n. 
304, 305. 

— Sallustio Bandini, 297. 

— Sansedoni, 160, 199. 

— Saracini, 160, 1 8g, 222-226. 

— della Signoria. See Palazzo 

— .Spannocchi, 1 54 n., 304. 

— Tantucci, 156, 165, 305. 

— Tolomei, 160, 296. 

— dei Turchi. See Palazzo de' 

— Ugurgieri, 44, 45 n., 278, 297. 
Palio, The, 145-147. 199. 
Pannocchieschi, The, 31. 
Pantaneto, 289. 

Paoli, Cesare, 20 n., 143. 

Paolo di Giovanni Fei, 225, 3-5' 

Paparoni, The, -46 n. 
Parri di .Spinello Aretino, 215. 
Parte Ghibelliva, 30, 39. 
Pastorini, 195, 235. 


Pavement of the Duomo, 197, 2^7- 

Pazzi conspiracy, 104. 

Pecci, Gio. Antonio, 140. 

Pelagatti, Niccolo de', 113. 

Peliegrino di Mariano, 189 n., ^28. 

Pelori, Gio. Battista, 279, 289, 318. 

People. See Popolo. 

Pericciuoli, Giuliano, 164 n. 

Perkins, Mr F. Mason, 152, 218 n., 
240 n., 351 n. 

Perkins, Mr C. C, 351. 

Perugia, 70, 184, 185. 

Perugino, 276. 

Peruzzi, Baldassarre. See Baldas- 
sarre Peiuzzi. 

Pestilence, The, 61, 62, 97, 116- 

Petronio, S., The church of at Bo- 
logna, i6g, 170. 

Petrucci, The, 105- 1 1 i. 

— Alfonso, lie 

— Borghese, i 10. 

— Fabio, t lO-i I I . 

— Pandolfo, 103, 105-109, 190. 

— Raffaello, 1 10. 
Philip de Montfort, 35. 
Piazza d' Armi, 309. 

Piazza Baldassarre Peruzzi, 272. 

— del Campo (Vtttorio Emanuele*, 
44 n., 50, 53, 98, 198-204, 278. 

— del Duomo, 99, 228. 

— di S. Giusto, 28 I . 

— del Mercato, 278, 282. 

— Postierla^ 227. 

^ Tolomei, 8[, 296. 
Piccolomini, The, 46 n., 48, I04. 
Piccolomini ^neas, 120-121. 
Piccolomini ^neas Sylvius. See 

Pius II. 
Piccolomini Alessandro, 140. 
Picture Galleries. See Galleria del- 

le Belle Arli, and Palazzo Sa- 

Pienza, 186. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 286, 326, 

Pierino del Vaga, 235. 
Pietro degli Oriuoli, 257, 263. 
Pietro di Domenico, 189, 307, 332, 


Pietro di Giovanni, 328, 341. 

Pietro di Minella, 170, 196, 237. 

Pieve al Toppo, 53. 

Pigs, St. Anthony's, 200 n. 

Pintoricchio, 190, 192, 242, 244, 260, 

Piombino, 114. 

Pisa, 25 n., 32, Y:,, 41, 52, 54, 63, 
123, 162, 167, 183, i^j, et passim. 

— Council of, 103. 

Pisani. See Niccolo Pisani, Gio- 
vanni Pisani. 

Pisano Andrea, 166 n. 

Pispini, Porta. See Gates. 

Pistoia, 35, 167. 

Pitigliano, 116. 

Pius II, 68, 96-97 n., 103, 104, 137, 
162, 244 seq- 

Pius III, 190. 

Poggibonsi, 32, 36. 

Poggio S. Cecilia, 52, 53. 

Poggio delle Donne, 125. 

Poggio Imperiale. Battle of, 104, 

Poetry, Political, Early example of, 

39 n- 

Poets, Sienese, 129-133, 137. 

Polidori, F. L., 142. 

Ponte a Valle, 36. 

Pontignano, 341. 

Ponzi, The, 46 n. 

Popolani, 24, 30. See Popolo. 

Popolo ; defined 46, 47 n.; First vic- 
tory of, 24 ; exercised jurisdiction 
over the towers, 26 ; compelled 
the Nobles to bear their share of 
taxation, 26, 27 ; sought to be 
made knights, 28 ; formed part 
of the Veniiquattro, 30 ; Seal of. 

— .^8o 

30 ; arms of, 31 ; excluded nobles 

from office, 45. 
Popolo di Mezzo, 46, 57, 63. 
Fopolo del minor numero, del nii- 

iiiero mediocre, e del maggior 

numero, -jc). 
Popolo tninnto, 50. 
Popolo, Monte del. See Monte del 

Population of Siena, 5, 62 n. 
Populus, 28. See Popolo. 
Porrina, 290. 

Potesta, The, 24 seq., 59, 68. 
Potter3% See Ceramics. 
Poveri Gesuati, 10 1. 
Prato, 35, 52. 

Prediche V'olgari, 99, 137. 
Provenzani, The, 40, 46 n. 
Provenzano Salvani, 37, 38, 39, 43, 

Provveditori. See Quatiio Prov- 

Pugna, The game of, 45 n., 147. 

QuAiTKO Provveditori, 56, 291 n. 
Querela, Seejacopo delta Quercia. 
Querciagrossa, t,t,. 
Quindici, The, 47 seq. 
Quinto Settano, 141. 

Radicofam, 39 n., 109. 

Raffaella ovvero delta belta creanza 

delle donne, 140. 
RaflFaello di Carlo, 285. 
Ragnoni, The, 46 n. 
Ramo di Paganello, 167. 
Raphael, 192. 
Redi, Tommaso, 233. 
Renaldini, The, 46. 
Ressi, The, 46 n. 
Reymond, M., 351. 
Ricasoli, The, 114. 
Riccio, II. Sec Neroni Bartolom- 

Richter, Mrs., 231 n., 352. 

Ridda. See Ballo tondo. 
Rifo) malori. The, 74-90. 
Rigoletto. See Ballo tondo. 
Rigomagno, 51, 52. 
Rime spirittiati, loi, 133. 
Roccastrada, 50. 

Romans in Siena, 19, 20, 155, 156. 
Rope as symbol of civic concord, 

210 n. 
Rossellino. See Bernardo Rossel- 

Rotharis, 20. 
Rustichetti, The, 46 n. 
Rutilio Manetti, 270, 277. 

Sauna Jllia, 19. 

Saints, Sienese, 16, 94-102. 

Salimbeni, The, 43, 46 n., 71, 73, 75, 

79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 88, 115. 
Salimbeni, Benuccio, 132. 
Salimbeni, Notto, 43, 44. 
Salimbeni, Salimbene, 296 n. 
Salvani, The, 40, 46 n., 48, 49, 51. 
San Filippo, Bagni di, log. 
San Gimignano, 35, 114, 183 n., 184, 

San Leonardo al Lago, 343. 
Sano di Matteo, 162, 220. 
Sano di Pietro, 185, 189 n., 218, 224, 

225, 225, 239, 269, 270, 282, 284, 

285, 286, 289, 292, 293, 302, 303, 

307, 311, 315, 329, 340. 
San Prospero, Hill of, 119. 
San Prospero, Porta di, 74. 
San Quirico in Osenna. See San 

Qnirico d^Orcia. 
San Quirico d' Orcia, 21, 109. 
Sansedoni, The, 46 n. 
Santa Colomba, 164, 343. 
Santa Fiora, Counts of, 50, 114, 115. 
Sant' Andrea delle Grazie, 37. 
Sant' Angelo in Colle, 51. 
Sant' Eugenio. See Monistero, It. 
San Viene, Porta. See Gates. 
Sapia, 38. 

Saracini, The, 46 n., 120 ; their 

arms, 223. 
Sassetta, 184, 224, 226, 284, 292, 

327. 328. 
. Scanagallo, Battle of, 124. 
Scarlino. 123. 
Scialenghi, The, 31. 
Scotti, The, 46 n. 
Sculpture, Sienese, 166 seq. 
Sebastiano del Piombo, 223. 
Segna di Bonaventura, 180 n., 301, 

Selvolesi, The, 46 n. 
Sence, Senarum, 44 n. 
Senali, The, 46 n. 
Senator, 84. 
Senio, Castel, 44 n. 
Sergardi, Ludovico. See (Juinlo 

Sermini, Gentile, 137. 
Sicilian Vespers, 52. 
Siena. See Churches and Convents; 

Fountains ; Palaces ; Gates ; 

Population ; Water-supply ; &c, 

Sigismund, The Emperor, 99, 
Signorelli, 190, 224. 
Silvanus, 156. 
Simone Martini, 180, 181, 206, 207, 

273, 274, 277, 309. 
Sindicamento, The 57, 68. 
Sixtus IV, 97 n. 
Soccini, The, 142. 
Societas viilitum, 29 n. 
Societas populi, 29 n., 30. 
Societates armorum, 26. 
Societates contratorum, 26. 
Sodoma, 151, 190, 191, 209, 214, 

218, 219,225, 269, 271, 272,276, 

281, 287, 288, 300, 302, 303, 31 I, 

5t2, 313, 333, 336, 344- 
Sorore, II Beato, 265 n. 
Sozzini, 127, 139, 140, 141. 
Spaniards in Siena, 118 seq. 
Spedale della Scala, 185, 186, 265 


Spedale della Scala — continued 

Pellegrinaio, 266. 

Deposito delle Donne, 267. 

Infermeria di S. Pio, 267. 

Infermeria di S. Galgano, 267. 

Church, 268. 

Compagnia di S. Caterina della 
Notte, 268. 

Confraternita della Madonna, 

Chapel, 269. 
Spinello Aretino, 215, 325. 
Staggia, 33. 

Statute of the Nove, 55, 135. 
Stefano di Giovanni. See Sassetta. 
Stigmata, The miracle of the, 96- 

97 n. 
Storia di Due Amanti, 137. 
Streets of old Siena, 289 n. 
Strozzi, Leone, 123. 
Strozzi, Piero, 123 seq. 
Symonds, Mr J. A., 47 n., 94, 100, 

122 n., 295. 

Tabula de Sena. See Compagnia 

de' Buonsignori. 
Taddeo di Bartolo, 184, 213, 214, 
215, 262, 267, 268, 283, 294, 299, 
301, 304,320, 326, 342. 
Tagliacozzo, 36, 37. 
Tatiaglie da tanagliare huomini, 

87 n. 
Tarlati, Guido, 167. 
Tavolette dipinte, 97 n., ' 115 n., 

210 n., 291-294. 
Taxation, 26 seq. 
Terzi, The, 4, 44-45 n., 52 n. 
Thirty-six, The. See Trentaset. 
Tino di Camaino, 161, 167. 
Tirare a una fune, 210 n. 
Tizio, Sigismondo, 139. 
Tolomei, The, 46 n., 48, 49, 85. 

— Andrea, 134. 

— Bernardo, The Blessed, 100. 

— Cavolino, 38. 

— Giovanni. See Bernardo. 


Tolomei Guccio de', 64. 

Tominasi, Giugurta, 140. 

Torre del ^langia, 61, 203-204. 

Torrigiani, 243. 

Torrlta, 70, 91, 208. 

Towers, Sienese, 26, 40, 119. 

Tozzo, II, 273. 

Tree of Libert)', 201 n. 

Trentasei, The, 40, 45. 

Trollope, T. A., 95, 97 n., 354. 

Trombetti. The, 46 n. 

Turini, The, 170, 171, 195, 203, 213, 

216, 237, 239, 261. 
Turks, The, 104, 122. 
Twentj'-four, The. See Ventiqiiat- 


Uberhni, The, 46 n. 
Ugolino, Duccio's pupil, 180 n. 
Ugolino di Vieri, 194. 
Ugurgieri, The, 44, 45 n., 46 n., 

Ugurgieri, Ciampolo degli, 136. 
Ulivieri, The, 46 n. 
University, Sienese, 5, 61, 168, 295. 
Urban V, loi. 
Urban VIII, 97 n. 
Urbano da Cortona, 221, 227, 233, 

235, 308, 316. 

Val d' Amhra, 51. 

Valdambrini, Francesco, 170. 

Val d' Elsa, 32. 

Val di Chiana, 21, 32, 70, 91, 122, 

Val di Merse, 21. 
Val d' Orcia, 21. 
Valle Buona, 38. 

Valvisciola, 157 n. 

Vanni, Andrea, 74 n., 184, 224, 

-304, 310, 325. 
Vanni, Francesco, 272. 
Vanni, Lippo di, 208, 218, 315. 
Vecchietta, 186, 215, 219, 220, 224, 

225, 237, 262, 263, 267, 268, 307, 

328, 329. 337- 
Venafro, Antonio da, 106. 
Ventiquattro, Consiglio de' , 29, 40, 


Ventura, Angelo di, 162, 167, 278. 

Ventura di Gualtieri, 31. 

Ventura, Niccolo di. Chronicle at- 
tributed to, 138. 

Verocchio, 176. 

Victor Emanuel II, 128. 

Villa Farnesina, 192. 

Viscpnti di Campiglia, 31. 

Vitricius, 156. 

Volterra, 32, 35. 52, 123, 184, 188. 


Water-supply of Siena, 4-5. 
Webb, Mr Bernard H., 152. 
Windows of the palaces facing the 

Campo, Law concerning, 159 n. 
Witts, Miss F., 95, 354. 
Wolf, the emblem of the Commune, 

31, 203, 228, 296. 
Wolf enters the cfty, 117. 
Women, Learning of Sienese, I 19 n. 
A\^ood-car\ing in Siena, 1 96. 
Wool-trade. See Arte della lana. 

Zdekauer, Prof. L., 108 n., 135, 
143, 348, el passim. 

Part I. 

Page 7, line 7. For authorites read authorities. 

Page 7, line 8. For confermation read confirmation. 

Page 10. lines 11, 12. For Nero di Donati read Neri di Donate. 

Page 23, last line. I took the date, 1125, from Professor Paoli's 
Siena, in the Encyclopcedia Britannica. It would, however, appear to be 
a misprint for 1145.— See Cav. A. Lisini's Preface to the Costihito del 
Comnne di Siena volgarizzato nel MCCCIX-MCCCX. (Siena, Tip. Laz- 
zeri, 1903) Vol. I. page VII. 

Page 32. line 17. It has been suggested that the clause beginning: 
" while from Montalcino she was able to dominate the Maremma ", is open 
to misconstruction. The " invasion " there spoken of, and against which 
Montalcino was '• able to guard ", would, of course, not be an attack upon 
Siena itself. That would either come through the Val d'Elsa or by the way of 
Chianti. If^ however, the Florentines attempted to advance upon Talamone, 
Portercole and the Sienese Maremma, they would, I apprehend, be likely 
to march by the way of Volterra (Compare Rondoni, Sena Veins, p. 40) ; 
and Montalcino might well "guard against" such an invasion by joining 
hands with Grosseto in the Valley of the Ombrone ; thus effectually barring 
all further progress to the southward. 

Page 41, line I. Before the iL'ords Siena had been excommunicated, 
insert. With one brief internal. 

Page 70, line 6. For Compania lead Compagnia. 

Page 71, line 12, et passitn. For Nero di Donati read Neri di Do- 

Page 108, line 14. For Magnificient lead Magnificent. 

Page 108, note (iK Add With regard to the title of // Magnifico, 
which was l^prne alike by Lorenzo de' Medici and by Pandolfo Petrucci, it 
may be noticed that Mr Gardner, in his Story of Siena and San Gimignano 
(page 267, note), remarks that '■'Magnificence was a much less pretentious 
title at the end of the Quattrocento than it sounds now ". Speaking gen- 
erally, this is, of course, incontrovertible ; but it is, I conceive, equally 
certain that, when a man was habitually spoken of as // Magnifico, the 
appellation was a much higher one than when it was used, like our modern 
" Mr. ", in connection with a name. Between such a mode of address as 
le Magnificenze Vostre (which we find adopted in letters to the Sienese 
magistrates), or such courtesy titles as // Magnifico Astorre, II Magnifico 
Vitilozzo &c. &c. (so often encountered in the Perugian chronicles), and 

- o84 - 

II Magnifico simply, there is a very wide difference. May we not find an 
analogy in our English word Esquire f John Smith Esquire may be simply 
a retired grocer ; whereas, if we speak of John Smith as "an esquire ", 
we imply that he possesses a definite place in the table of precedence above 
that of a mere " gentleman ". With regard to Pandolfo Pctrucci (II Ma- 
gnifico with whom we, in this place, are especially concerned) it is interest- 
ing to note that, in 1496, he w^as spoken of as Illustrissimo, a title which, 
n those daj'S, was, as a rule, only applied to sovereign princes. — See Pecci 
Meviorie Ct'c, op. cit., I, 131 note. 

Page no, lines 17, 18. " It seemed as if the month of hell were 
opened— />/^.y^ aperta la bocca delV Inferno ". In the chronicle from which 
the account is drawn, these words do not refer to the furj' of the mob, but 
to that of the elements— /<wo stranissimo tempo, wherewith the fiends wel- 
comed RaflFaello's evil soul. 

Page 132. line 2i. After the words " Scelta di Curiosita Letterarie 
inedite e rare ", add the following :— while a. critical study of the life and 
works of the poet will be found in the Giornale storico delta letteratura 
italiana (Torino, Loescher, 1891) Vol. 18. Fasc. i., pp. 1-75. 

Part II. 

Page 162, line 28. For Bernado read Bernardo. 

Page 170. line 3. For Expulsion read Vision. 

Page 192, lines 22-24. I* '^ improbable that Pintoricchio himsef 
painted in S. Onofrio. 

Page 193, note. For Dr. Gustav, lead Dr. Gustavo, Frizzoni. 

Page 230, line 4. For 14th, read 13th, century. 

Page 731, line 9; p. 260, line 19; p. 284, line 11. For Mino di 
Pellicciaio read Jacopo di Mino del Pellicciaio. 

Page 255, note, line 8. For " below this " read " below these ". 

Page 262, lines 3-6. One of the missing' pjitti from the Baptismal 
Font of S. Giovanni, evidently by Donatello, has recently been acquired 
by the Berlin Museum. Another ptitto, bearing a strong resemblance, in 
point of style, to that now in Berlin, is in the Museo Xazionale (Bargello) 
at Florence, and was probably once intended for the same Font. 

Page 289, lines 13-15. For " over high-altar " read " over altar of 
adjoining chapel ". 

Page 297, lines 20-21. For Casa Sallustio Bandini 7ead Casa di Sal- 
lustio Bandini. 

Pago 341, line 21. For Monistcro jead II IMonistero. 

Page 359, lines 28-29. For " The ;Majolica of Siena the Nineteenth 
Century, &c.' " 7ead " The Majolica of Siena. In the Nineteenth Cen- 
turv. &c. ". 


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